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The Great Wall of China 
The famous Lienhwachih Pass in the Great Wall. 



Photo by Dr. Gell 
Near the Eastern Y 



The Great Wall of China 



By 

William Edgar Geil, f. r. g. s. 

Author of "A Yankee on the Yangtze" 
etc., etc. 



WITH ONE HUNDRED FULL-PAQB 
ILLUSTRATIONa AND MAPB 



iBeto9orl 

STURGIS & WALTON 

COMPANY 

1909 



CXZo).iz 




(B^..^ X.13. K^t- 



/ 



Copyright. I9M 
By STURGIS & WALTON COMPANY 

Set up and electrotypecL Pnbliihed November, 1900 



NOTE 

The author has avoided telling the same story twice. 
The illustrations are inserted not only to substantiate 
the text but to make material additions to it. For in- 
stance, instead of a long, dry, detailed, laborious 
description of the various styles of wall, there are repro- 
ductions from photographs which will furnish the 
information, without encumbering the letter press. 
The illustrations should be carefully studied during 
the reading of the book. 

The Publishers. 



NAIbibli 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 
.T FULnaKAKT S-0 



CHAPTER II 
Tks TBmiLLiKO PiosPBCT. From the Golden Gate to the Ydlow \y^ 
Sea— Chin, Van Tromp» Blake, Togo-^Oreat BaUles of Books 
and Brains— Progeny of the Black Art 7-19 

CHAPTER III 
Thi Teaokdt op CHrN-WAKOTAa Ever Open Harbor— The Isle of 

Chin now joined to the Mainland— Hie Cap of the West 13-16 

CHAPTER IV 
Ths OiTLT Four. A brief Biography of the First Emperor of _ 
China— His Wonderful Works— (Die Great Wall^«JS©arch ' for 
Root of Life— Invention of thelCJiinese' Pen— Thirty-Seven 
years^ Rdgn— Death. 17-31 

CHAPTER V 
Fiox THi SiA TO THE Easibrk T. CUn's Design — ^Narrative of 
the First Three Hundred Miles of tlie Journey along the Great 
Wall-vrhe Lily Pool— White Dandelion— Peace Project 39-^ 

CHAPTER YI 
Th« AirciBirT AmcRmcruiAi. Wave. ^ The IdMof the Great Wall, , 
European, Babylonian, or Original Pi^Tlie Seven Wonders of 
the West--Survey of Chief Characteristics of the Epoch of the 
Great Watt 51-68 

CHAPTER VII 
Flox nn TninRK Toicas lo Chixa'i Soaaow. The Ming 
Mausolea— The Western Tombs— Wu Tai Shan— Magic Mortar 
—Tablets on the Wall— The Picturesque Pass— Wan Li and 
Lung CSi^ng. • • 69-93 

CHAPTER VIII 
Ths DermB of thb Gkkat Wall. Weapons of the Gods, etc.... 94-104 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 



CHAPTER IX 

The L0B8B cm River Loop, ik Ounsn Chika, Lakd of Lbgbkd aitd 
or Dry Foo. The Journey from the Yellow River to the 
Yellow River— Legends— Fauna— Flora— Black Dog's Diary— 
The Line of the Least Natural Resistance 105-194 

CHAPTER X 
The Rm op Chiit: Sevek Gee at Chakcelixme. Ballad by Dr. 

W. A. P. Martin ...ISft-Ul 

CHAPTER XI 
Lettbes pbom Nikohia. Addressed to a Toung Lady— No-door 

life— Medicine Man— The Lone Lady of Ninghia 149-166 

CHAPTER XII 
Gbkohib Khav, the Red Ratoee who passed theotjoh the Geeat 

Wall at Ninghla. Shed 33^000,000 gallons of human blood.. 157-175 

CHAPTER XIII 
The Desbbt Loopi Kakbu. Mountain Mule Caravan — Famous Moon 
Legend— Dead Land — Great Irrigation Scheme — Important Tab- 
let-List of Great Walls 176-193 

CHAPTER XIV 
Chiit Shih HwAxan: Fust Ukiveesal Empebiml op Chiit a, Hib- 

toeico-Eoonomic Study op China's Gbsatbst Ruuee 194-908 

CHAPTER XV 
The MoiTKD op Chiit 909-339 

CHAPTER XVI 
[ The Why op the Wall...- 933-953 

CHAPTER XVII 
The '^ by 3" City: Lxakochowpv. D^our of the Great Wall- A 

Cavern of Gold 954-969 

CHAPTER XVIII 
Ymro Lo» who Moved the Ueks op Empibe. The Grand Encyclo- 
pedia 963-979 

CHAPTER XIX 
The Southeek Loop op the Geeat Wall. The White Elephant— 

The Golden Table 973-983 

CHAPTER XX 
Criva Bbpoib the Gbeat Wall. Yao^ Shun, Yli— Laotsu, Ccm- 
fudus, Mencius— Intellectual Activity- The **Confucian Re- 
ligion." 984-993 



CONTENTS ix 



CHAPTER XXI 
The Thus CRnrs. Ancestral Home of the China— Black Dog.. 894-905 

CHAPTER XXII 
Mbdikval Chika! Sikgb Chht's Gibat Wall to thi PisflBxr 

DTKA0TT 906-316 

CHAPTER XXIII 
Ths TiBiTAir Loop op the Gbbat Wall, Faa Home Cabatait 
iKTo Tibet. Discovery of 800 miles of Great Wall not on the 
Map— Sining and the Hero of Sining^-^Christian Missions 917-931 

CHAPTER XXIV 
The Chik Tablet: "(hn op the host bsxabxabu Relics op 

Ajrafturrr." 939-841 

CHAPTER XXV 
Iv THE Pakhajtdu OP Chhta! Kaxchow. Joamey Liangdiow to 

Kanchow— CasMng a Draft in Northwest Kansu 949-951 

CHAPTER XXVI 
The PAVHAinnjB op Chhta. The Citt op Sv. Sn» last Large City 

along the Great WaU— Legends 959-960 

CHAPTER XXVII 
The Eitd op the Gbbat Wall. Western End of the Great Wall. .961-988 



LIST OF ILUUSTRATIONS 

FlKincPlce 
1. Hie Famous Lienhwaddh Pass In the Great Wall. Frontispiece 
9. Strongly fortified Pass of the Great Wall at the Rodqr Gorge 

of Taoicwankow 5 

3. Tliree Views of the Harbor of Chin Wang Tao 19 

4. The Village of Gh*achHen Kow as seen from a lofty tower on the 

Great Wall 91 

5. The Great Wall climbing the Mountains of Chihli 28 

6. The Great Wall of China upon a map of the United States, 

occupying rouffidy the same latitude as in the Central 
Kingdom 33 

7. The First Gate in the Great Wall, which Is also the South Gate 

of Shanhalkwan 35 

8. ''The Last Gate^ in the Great Wall, which is also the West Gate 

of Kiayukwan, 1260 miles from the ''First Gate" 35 

9. Outside the Mule-Horse Pass. The Wall is seen ascending to 

the utmost summit of the mountain ! 37 

10. The Junction of the Great WaU with the City Wall of Shanhal- 

kwan. Hie Pavilion was erected to the God of Literature . . 39 

11. Curious Circular Tower outside the Malan Pass in the Province 

of Chihli. It is so situated that the nearby Gate in the 

Great Wall is effectually guarded 39 

19. Buddhist Temple of Almsgiving, near the City of Flowering 

Obedience 40 

13. Over 4,000 feet above the sea, and overlooking the Pass of the 

Lily Pool 49 

14. View of the Great Wall north of Pddng, where the tourists go 

to see the most wonderful wonder in the world. Notice 
width, excellent workmanship, and different style of brick 
work arising from the terreplain 44 

15. Notice the construction of the WalL This fashion is seen In lofty 

mountain regions near the Eastern Y 4^ 

16. Near the Eastern Y hi the Great WaU 48 

17. Temple dedicated to the God of War at the Mule-Horse Pass 

in the Great WaD *3 

18. Top of Section of Mountain Wall sealed with mortar and stone. 

Mule-Horse Pass B5 

19. Guardian Gods at the Mule-Horse Pass 56 

SO. Side view of the **Tourists Great Wall" north of Pddng 58 

zi 



xil LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAOIirO PAOB 

91. Orerlooking Uenhwachih. Within one hundred miles of Peking. . 60 
39. The Great WaU west of the Eastern Y. Altitude over 3^00 feet 

above the Pacific Ocean 63 

33. A superb view of the Wall, ascending a mountain over 4,000 feet 

high. The view was taken from a lofty cliff near to, but 
west of the Eastern Y 65 

94. The Veneering of cut stone has fallen away exposing the rubble 

construction inside. This is peculiar to mountain regions. 
Northeast of the Thirteen Tombs 67 

95. The celebrated "Language Arch," or Hexagonal Gateway at the 

Nankow Pass. The North Face is here shown (the South 
Face is the same design). The Arch, the crown and haunches 
of which form the sides of a hexagon, is 30 feet across at the 
base, SO feet through, and has 5 Buddhas on each side of the 
flat haunches. In the perpendicular wall on either side are 
large tablets of granite with inscriptions In divers languages 69 

36. Dr. W. A. P. Martin in the Western Hills near Peking 71 

37. Coal HUl, inside the Imperial Palace Grounds, Peking, where the 

Last of the Mings hanged himself 71 

98. Three thousand feet above the sea. The Great Wall ascending 

a mountain north of the Thirteen Tombs 74 

99. Tower No. 41 Ch^s Tzu at Tushancheng 76 

50. How the Wall climbs the ridge of Sswdkow north of the Wutai 

Shan 78 

51. A Picturesque View 80 

S3. At the Taotuan K'ou 85 

SS. Near Lienhwachih not far from Eastern Y 85 

34. Mark the line of the Tower Wall at the left. Near Lienhwachih 87 

35. Granary School in Liaochao 90 

36. A view in the Imperial Ming Reservation, situated north of 

Peking in the Metropolitan Province of Chihli 90 

37. North of Peking is scenery which in the future will attract the 

tourists and travelers of the world. The ensemble of the 

Great Wall here rivals anything in ancient Greece 93 

88. The historic "Cliff Tower" Sanholow. Notice the three distinct 
fashions of construction. Four thousand feet above the sea 
and about 300 miles from the Gulf of Chihli 94 

39. Gate in the Great Wall at Kalgan 97 

40. The Arsenal Tower to Paishih Kou. White Stone Pass, sixty li 

from Futuyeh, containing two interesting tablets 99 

41. Futuyeh Pass, showing exceptionally fine workmanship. Note 

decorations over the doorways 99 

43. The "rig^t-angle" fortifications at the Yiyuankow of the Great 

WaU 101 

43. A detached tower at Haiyeh in Chihli. Granite foundation rest- 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS x«i 

WJkdKO PAOI 

ing on the living rock, and brick work rising' to the t(^ of 
tlie battlements. Superb workmanship. Great Wall in the 

distance 103 

44l Two views of ruins of the Great WaU at Shiching. Twenty li 
from Gingpien, in the Ordos Country. The lower picture 
shows a house built into the WaD 106 

45. In the Ordos Country. Portions of the Great Wall have been 

completely covered and preserved by the sand 106 

46. Loess Cone of a Great Wall Tower. Hie brick veneering has 

wholly disappeared 110 

47. The Ruins of the Last Tower in the Great WaD 110 

48. Desert Hamster 119 

49. ''Kangaroo Rat." Jerboa 119 

50. A Chinese "Pygmy^ or Dwarf and a Giant near the Great Wall 

East of Yenkingchow 115 

51. Moone, the Great Detective 117 

59. Black Dog and the girl-faced Quin 117 

53. The Bird of the Great Wall: The Indian Blue Magpie 190 

54. John Gwadey» Esq. The small picture in the upper left hand 

comer shows how he appeared when our expedition reached 
Kiayukwan 194 

55. The eight famous Churtons Kumbum, on the border of Tibet; 

also the Temple of the Golden Roof 196 

56. The Beautiful Bridge at Chinchow, the ancestral house of the 

Chins 196 

57. In Oldest China: Natives of the Ordos Country near Hwchi 131 

58. A near view of the sealed Pass of Huangholu 133 

59. The Great Wall north of Tsunhwafu 135 

60. A section of the Northern Loop of the Great WaU 138 

61. In the region of the Picturesque Pass. Superb view of the Great 

Wall erected by the Emperor Wan Li at Chachienkow. The 

Wall foUows the natural contour of the mountain 140 

69. Photograph taken from a lofty devation, showing the Terraced 
Wall in the foreground, and the main line of the Great Wall 
on the sky line. Overlooking the Picturesque Pass, Chachien- 
kow. Altitude 4,000 feet 149 

63. The South Pagoda of Nhig^ia City of the Quiet Smnmer. Native 

skill and artistic design united to produce this strictly oriental 
structure. Its sixe and decorations command the admiration 
of the beholder. like all pagodas it has an odd number of 
stories 1*7 

64. Spurs run oiT from the main line of the Great WaU to protect a 

hin overlooking the east and west structure. The above is one 

of many between the YeUow Sea and the YcUow River 140 

65 One of the two large Pagodas of Llangcbow, Kansu. This beau- 



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

tiful bit of scenery is immediately in front of the BuddtSst^ **^ 
Convent of Nuns 156 

66. At the famous Loma Pass in the Great WalL Fortified Camp 

in the Pass itself. Near Tsunhwachow 158 

67. Arsenal Tower at the Chiankuling Pass 163 

68. Section of a Tower 163 

69. One of the beautiful Towers at Copper Green Pass 167 

70. A famous opening in the Great Wall, the Loma Gate. The 

fracture in the otherwise well preserved masonry is a relic 

of an earthqualce 167 

71. The Great Wall as seen at the Narkow Pass, showing the Pa-ta^ 

ling Gate 170 

79. Peculiar doubling of the Great Wall east of the Loma Pass. 
Notice the entrance to the tower is through the inner port 
cut down 174 

73. A very remarkable view of the Great Wall at Natsu Yu 179 

74. A Fortified Farmhouse near Tu Nien Tse in the Province of 

Kantsu 183 

75. A Picturesque Pailo at Yungchang Hsieu in Kansu Province. . . . 183 

76. The Great Wall at the Shweikwan Pass. Notice the extraordinary 

curve in the masonry and admire the grit and skill of the men 
who planned and built 189 

77. A superb view of the lofty Huangholu Pass and environment. . . 190 

78. I asked at Liangchow and words replied: ^In the year of the 

Mohammedan Rebellion the faces of the dead could not be 
recognised, so they collected the whitened bones and erected 
the White Bones Pagodas to remember them P'— Bteo* Do ft 
Diary IW 

79. The towers here have three sets of ports to each. There are battle- 

ments on both sides as if to defend from friend or foe. East 

of the YeUow River 197 

80. A superb view of the Great Wall ascending from the lofty 

Huangho Lu Pass 904 

81. Two views of the same tower at Shichingtsi, Province of Kansu. 

The pictures show how the Wall was joined on to the Towers 906 
89. A Picturesque View 913 

83. The Club House and Stock Exchange in Sianfu, where the ex- 

change price of Silver is fixed every day 990 

84. Two Memorial Arches near Sianfu, erected by Governor Lu, one 

in honor of his mother, and the other in memory of his wife. 
Ten miles from the Mound of China. 997 

85. In the Loess Country, showing a new bridge constructed after 

an ancient design of tied-loess 931 

86. Feng-huan-tai in Hsienyang, one of the oldest buildings in the 

dty. It was erected in honor of a Lady of the State of 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv 



Qiiiit B.C. 897, who could blow the musical instmment called 
Siaa She was not to be given in marriage to any man who 
could not play the same instrument Finally a poor man 
came who played the ^ao. He was set to play three days 
and three nig^its» when the King of the Wind came and took 
them both away, no one Icnows where to this day. The 
father of the lady erected this Feng-heung-tai to her honor. . 9S4 

87. Historical Bridge near Hsienyang, 10 11 from the Ancient Capital 

of Chin. The pillars are made of round stones similar to 
those used on threshing floors 938 

88. A binary granite base resting on igneous rocks partially supports 

a Wall making an almost perpendicular ascent 945 

80. The Good Luck Pailo which stands two 11 east of Kiayukwan, which 

dty is seen in the distance 859 

9a The Last Gate of the doomed dty of Ku Chang Tsi, situated 

85 11 west of Shan Tan, Kansn 959 

91. A Picturesque Flour Mill at Shueimokwan, Kansu. Many of 

these horiiontal whed constructions are seen in Northwest 

China 964 

99. View of Chin An from Temple Hill 977 

93. Andent ^Tower of Babd" Fort on the Great WaU near YuUnfu, 

five days west of the Yellow River. The usual tower appears 
considerably out of repair, at the left of the pidure. Sand 
has drifted over the Wall 984 

94. Irrigating wheds in the Yellow River. Hoisting the water slightly 

hig^ than the Adds, it is led to the desired points by siiallow 
trendies 307 

95. An Evangelist of the China Inland Mission who labors near the 

Great WaU SOT 

98. Two views of the ruins of the Tibetan or Sining Loop of tlie 
Great WalL This strdcfa does not appear on tlie present 
maps 318 

97. Hie author^s fast mule caravan crossing a desert stretch near the 

Western End of the Great Wall 393 

98. A Tibetan encampment of black tents as seen by the expedition 

when on Taobo Shan, Northeastern Tibd 395 

99. Henry French Ridley, hero of Singing in Tibetan Costume 339 

100. nds photograph of tlie modest but beautiful China Inland Mission 

home at Chinchow was taken from the roof of the Church. . 334 

101. Robbings of two sides of the famous I Shan Tablet in the Forest 

of Monuments, SOanfu, Shensi, China 339 

109. Dr. Gdl and one of his guides on the Ta Obo Shan in the Koko 

Nor Country of Tibet 348 

108. Northeast of the Thirteen Tombs. Showing double parapets for 

reversible defense 346 



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

WACVKQ TAOm 

104. Two Prominent Gentlemen of Northwest China 350 

105. A Tibetan Prince 850 

106. Kiafukwan and the Great Wall, as seen from the Southwest 

desert 355 

' 107. Bast Gate of the Suburb Kiayukwan, Western End of the Great 

Wall 357 

108. Inside the East Gate of Klayukwan 359 

109. Goitre is the **Disease of the Great WalL" Supposed to be caused 

by impure water. Many persons are seen with it, among 
those living along the Wall 369 

110. This tablet stands alone on the desert outside the west gate of 

Kiayukwan, iinal fortification of China. ''The Martial Bar- 
rier of all under Heaven" 364 

111. Ihe Big White North River. The western end of the Great WaU 

is seen on the left abutting the verge of a perpendicular cliff 
some 900 feet high 366 

119. The western end of the Great WaU overlooking the big White 

North River 371 

lis. Newton Hayes, M.A 375 

114. Shweikou in November 378 

115. The Magic Meteor, which deflected the Wall from its natural 

course 378 

116. "The Last Brick." Dr. GeU at the end of the Great Wall 389 



THE GREAT WALL OF 
CHINA 



CHAPTER ] 

Merdy Prdimmairy 

THERE IS A GREAT WALL OF CHINA. 

So much the geographies tell everybody; but they do 
not make it clear whether it is built of china, or why 
it is, or how long it is, or how long it has been. There 
is developing a Panama Canal, and the journals are in 
ecstasy because a few billion cubic yards of earth are 
being moved. There was no steam machinery to build 
the Wall, yet General Grant estimated that it took 
as much work as would have built all our railroads, all 
our canals, and nearly all our cities. We have an ig- 
norance about China almost as colossal as that land. 

Our education consists, in part, of learning various 
languages, Thribbaty and Slapyak and other antique 
dialects which only introduce to literatures whose very 
dregs have long since been examined to the last ounce. 
Why not try Chinese for a change? then we might find 
out what we have long borrowed from the Central 
Kingdom, and what else it has to pass on to us. They 
are widening their curriculum, why should not we widen 
ours? 

Chin took a liberal view of education, and was anti- 
classic. He destroyed the old books, and so encouraged 
one of his generals to invent a new style of writing, 
which brought books within the reach of all, both to 
compose and to read. This was the Chin who built the 

3 



4 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Wall. He defended his country, he unified it, he 
reformed its education. He stands preeminent in the 
same class vnfh Veter the Great, Alfred the Great, 
Bismark. Only these men of heroic mould too 
often stunt originality in others, so that no successor 
arises to carry on their work. Chin was great enough 
to know himself great. He was equal to at least two 
men, so began his allocutions "We." Nowadays every 
petty journalist counts himself one, and his press an- 
other, so that they talk as We. 

The Wall is the product of Chin. He built roads 
over his new domains, he put the scholars low and the 
farmers high. The land that produced one Chin may 
produce another. One built a Wall to keep the for- 
eigner out; another may stride over that Wall to put 
the foreigner in his proper place. Iran had a long turn 
at leading the world, Egypt another; Europe has had 
several centuries as peace-maker and now begins to feel 
tired. Will America or China jostle to the front next? 
The nation is astir and gaining momentum. Will it find 
a chaufi^eur able to grasp the wheel? 

THE GREAT WALL SEPARATES TWO 
EPOCHS, TWO LANDS, TWO RACES. 

It separates the age of myth from the age of fact. 
While it is not true that everything in China before the 
Great Wall is prehistoric yet its builder deliberately did 
his best to destroy the records of earlier ages, and so 
far succeeded that the piecing together of the relics is 
often a true Chinese puzzle. 

But the blow dealt at literature brought a reaction. 




/ 



When you help, help eflectively ; when yon rescae» 
tnake lescae real. 

and scholars enshrined in multitudinous documents the 
doings of subsequent rulers, so that the clear Ught of 
history shines on every succeeding age. The Chinese 
know the course of events so accurately that they can 
afford to smile at the western conceptions of their 
annals. Hear the Relation of Pinto: "In one single 
prison two leagues square, are kept three hundred thou- 
sand prisoners, appointed still for the repair of the 
Great Wall. . . . The king of Tartary sat down before 
Peking with one million two hundred thousand foot, 
six hundred thousand horse, seventeen thousand ships, 
and eighty thousand rhinoceroses that carried the bag- 
gage for his army." The veracious Pinto got his 
information from the French, certainly not from the 
Chinese. Mendoza, too, has a fine idea of the size of 
Peking, asserting that a man mounted on a good horse 
riding from mom until night will have much ado to 
cross the city within the walls. Such fables might 
amuse the credulous Spaniards and Portuguese, but 
the Wall marks off the period of myth for the Chinese, 
and since its time abundant facts have been accessible 
to all. 

The Wall separates two lands. To the cold north lie 
lands that may tempt the miner in search of gold, or the 
breeder who desires wide prairies for his mares to roam 
over. To the south are sunnier lands whose fertility 
encourages the agriculturalist to delve in the rich soil 
and extract abundant crops. 

The Wall separates two races. To the south is the 
black-haired race, as its members term themselves, but 



6 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

to us their outstanding mark is that they are yellow. 
To the north may now be found the outward-flowing 
white race. The destinies of the world are committed 
to these two. The business of the globe will be trans- 
acted in the tongue of one or the other. But the 
religion of the world, the gift of neither, may yet be 
the heritage of both. Born in Asia, adopted in Europe, 
developed in America, Christianity is found by one 
who travels along the Great Wall a potent force in 
these regions. Here the aboriginal code is effete, the 
Indian Buddhism is degenerate, but faith in Christ can 
nerve the frail to endurance and victory. 

The Wall is the sign of separation; the Cross, of 
union. The one is the greatest monument of human 
industry, the other of divine love. The one, though 
obsolete, has a noble history; the other has its noblest 
triumphs yet to come, though already it conmiemorates 
the greatest sacrifice of all ages. 

Wm. Edgab Geil. 

Dqylestown, Pennsylvania, United States of America, 

Seventh Day of the 9th Moon of 

the Best Year of the Christian Cycle. . . 

1909. . . . 



CHAPTER II 

The ThrUUng Prospect 

A journey all along the Great Wall 1 We had longed 
to make it, and now almost feverishly eager, we had 
arrived at the City of the Grolden Gate to find the great 
black ocean greyhoimd with her strong sinews relaxed, 
taking a good rest in one of the kennels off the San 
Francisco pier. The monstrous ship was coaling up 
for the long run and there was only the suggestion of a 
quiver in the mighty muscles. But we knew that the 
powerful heart, now merely quivering, was purposely 
inactive for the nonce; soon it would begin to beat and 
pump life, energy and activity into every part of her 
mighty organism, and drive her huge bulk through 
the crested billows, nilly-willy — ^in sunshine and storm 
toward the one object of our intense desire — ^the Great 
Wall of China — and that we would be on board! 

And then when a few days after, the stately steamer 
drew grandly out from the wharf and that ceaseless 
heart throb of the engines began, our thoughts ran 
ahead and outpaced even her wondrous speed ; their drift 
was just parallel to the thoughts of a man mightier than 
most men, an emperor of indomitable will and resist- 
less push, who lived hundreds of years before this trans- 
Pacific muscle of navigation was invented — ^before 
Christ was bom. We were actually going to see the 
monumental evidence of his masterly activity! Not 



8 THE GREAT WALL OF 

only to see it but to walk on it, explore it, over hill, down 
dale, along the tortuous alignment, from start to finish. 
Our unshaken determination was to do the work thor- 
oughly, not as the superficial traveler who ate lunch on 
the structure and then took ship and wrote an account 
of the Great Wall on board for the delectation and en- 
lightenment of an ignorant public, but so complete that 
the future historian of the Wall would find little to 
write about unless he pirated our notes. By dint of per- 
severance and some hardship perhaps, we expected to 
make certain discoveries that would benefit not only our 
own people but indirectly the unconquerable yellow 
race, now fully awake and advancing by leaps and 
bounds toward rank materialism or toward Christianity, 
as our readers shall choose. 

Many objects in China, of decent antiquity, carrying 
traditions of uncanny happenings, are said by the 
Chinese people to chen ching, or be haunted. The state- 
ment has never been made so far as we know but it must 
be so a fortiori, that the very ancient Wall of China is 
also haunted in various places. The thought occurred 
to us that we might set in motion among the Chinese a 
new tradition — everything must have a start, even a 
tradition — about a wild western man of prodigious 
height and bulksome weight who traversed the brick pile 
of Chin. Then we pictured to our mind the myth, ripe 
with age, as the chiliads advanced — ^a huge specter one 
hundred feet high striding half a mile at a step along 
the northern frontier, to the consternation of the 
populace I 

Obversely, as a matter of fact, the Wall haunted us. 



Adapt the remedy to the diaeaae. 

Whether the ship cut the brine in midocean or rested in 
the peaceful bosom of fair Hawaii^ whether she plunged 
madly to be free from anchor in a less placid harbor or 
shook herself from moorings for a last long run through 
a stormy main to Yokohama, it made no difference; 
there was the 1,200 miles of Wall, mstinct with life, al- 
ways present in our brain. We could not rid ourself of 
it. Thoughts of self, the presidential election, the Balkan 
volcano muttering and smoking, or even the peaceful 
meadow brooks of Doylestown, Pennsylvania, were 
sternly debarred. We ate with the Wall, slept with the 
Wall, thought Wall. Its bricky length would twist it- 
self into indescribable shapes — ^into pecular contortions. 
We fancied an immense arch from sea to desert- and 
under it the great events that have shaped and re-shaped 
this planet earth, changes that have transmuted the 
world like the changes in a panorama or that have deline- 
ated the earth with ineradicable marks. The Roman 
Empire at the acme of its pomp and power under the 
indomitable Julius just tottering to ebb and ruin, the 
beginnings of Britain and all the now powerful states 
of Europe, the great battles that are written in history 
and hundreds more unwritten conflicts on the field when 
blood flowed like water in agonizing contests for su- 
premacy; battles of books and brains, smash-ups of 
empires, discoveries of continents, of true science to be 
substituted for sorcery, astrology, alchemy, with the 
whole progeny of Black Art. And under the arch, too, 
stood out prominently in bold relief the cross of Christ. 
Then suddenly, as if by magic, appeared the Wall in 



10 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

belted form, inclosing in a crowded area the graves of 
the mighty in all lands, crumbled to dust long ago, while 
the bricks of Chin Shih Huang still cohere; silent wit- 
nesses to a splendid logical fact that these dead, inanimate 
things cannot outlive the minds and souls of the men 
who contrived them. Bricks and bones must crumble 
away like everything else sublunary, but the mental 
machine that brought such things as the Great Wall to 
pass can never moulder and rot. 

Thus the Wall danced before us in ever-varying 
shapes, now rolling itself together like a scroll, now 
stretching itself out to its full length, again resolving 
itself into all sorts of geometrical figures, — ^triangles, 
parallelograms, circles, — ^until we could almost fancy 
the Wall to be some agile imp pla3ring hide and seek in 
our imagination, instead of the great structure that 
some lunar inhabitant might see like a black welt across 
the face of the earth. 

Things that exist in idea must exist in re. As those 
shadowy ghosts leaped before us we realized that phan- 
toms would develop into facts, and that an actual Wall 
would soon materialize. Then the ship reached Yoko- 
hama. We disembarked mechanically, but no sooner 
had we set foot on terra firma than the whole enterprise 
became real. Two tablets appeared to our mind, one 
at Shanhaikwan at the eastern end of the wall, the 
other at Kiayiikwan, twelve hundred miles farther 
on toward sunset. On the one was inscribed, "Heaven 
(Grod) made the Sea and the Mountains," on the other, 
"The Martial Barrier of All under Heaven." 

As the traveler steps ashore on trans-Mississippi 



Men, not walls; make a city. 

ground at New Orleans he sees at the station of the 
Southern Pacific Railway a large arch bearing this 
legend, "Sunset Route.'* After days of travel through 
desert and wood on the splendid overland mail tram he 
alights at Oakland, California, he beholds a similar 
arch with the same letters in semicircular form. These 
two arches terminate the parallel bars of steel which 
engirdle, in part, the lands on which the peaceful in- 
habitants of our beloved America dwell. Here on the 
littoral of the Far East, which was to be our terminus a 
quOy was a tablet instead of an arch, terminating a 
mighty embankment instead of steel rails, conceived 
before the Christian era by one who acknowledged High 
Heaven as the creator of the unnavigated seas, and the 
builder of the massive rock piles that frown on little 
frail man, on the frontiers of China! 

After we had reembarked, and as we passed through 
the seas where the Japanese Admiral Togo annihilated 
the Russian Baltic fleet, our thoughts dwelt for the 
time on the doughty sailors of the Sunrise, who pre- 
ferred death to defeat, and who actually did to the Rus- 
sians what Van Tromp threatened once to do to the 
British — ^sweep the fleet from the sea with a besom of 
destruction. 

These were all men of like passions with Chin Shih 
Huang — Blake, Van Tromp, Togo, Chin! — the Eng- 
lishman, Dutchman, Japanese, Chinese! What quar- 
tet of men could shape history as they did? And 
although Blake's dead ashes were afterwards cast scorn- 
fully into the water by certain contemptible objects of 



12 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



history, and Chin has come down through perverted 
tradition merely as a book burner and a student under- 
taker, the fact stripped of the gewgaws of prejudice 
and hate still remains: Blake and Chin molded nations 
as a potter molds clay. 

"E'en in our ashes live their wonted fires," 
But with the ideas of Chin how much of superstition 
and ignorance were mixed! He was groping in the 
dark. The flashlight of a full revelation had never been 
flung prodigally upon him, and it may have been his 
thought to put into material shape the spiritual idea of 
a dragon monster whose gigantic length would serve as 
a mascot and guardian to a reconstructed empire! Or 
did he plan to build a barrier hundreds of feet high, as 
the men of Babel did, to shut ofi^ the southern life- 
giving influences from the fierce Tartars of the north? 
*^We shall have the opportunity of prying into every 
available nook and crevice of this Wall for evidence 
along this line," thought we. Thus, equipped with eager 
desire and ample facility, we leaped joyfully ashore as 
the ship touched the Far Eastern coast near Shanhai- 
Kwanl 




Headleas Terror— color of flrfr--8iz fbet, four wiiic»~conftued maas without 
ejret, or face, like a yellow baff. Not baTing eyes it can only lee itielf. 




The Great Wall of China 
Three views of the harbor of Chin Wang tao 



Photo by Dr. Geil 



CHAPTER III 

The Tragedy of Chintoangtac^ 

No sooner were our feet on the rocks of Chinwangtao 
than our eyes were on the rugged cliff whence a prin- 
cess of Ch'in plunged into the Yellow Sea, She had 
lost her lover, and subtle sadness, knowing no consola- 
tion, flung the beautiful young princess from the bare 
rock precipice to the dragon of the deep. 

Since then nature has joined the island to the main- 
land and now the Crescent breakwaters extend ever 
open arms to the mariners of aU nations, even when the 
neighbor harbors of Taku, Tientsin and Newchwang 
are closed by the hand of frost. 

On this historic promontory, so intimately and so 
tragically associated with the Great Wall, which lay 
along the lofty mountain in fuD view, we felt grateful 
to "The Cap of the West'** for his choice rendering of 
the ancient legend which has evidently descended from 
the days of the Great Emperor, who changed the geog- 
raphy of the east of Asia, introduced the editorial "we," 
burned quantities of useless literature, buried alive 
numbers of useless scholars, discovered and colonized 
Japan, and erected a massive monument to his ener- 
getic administration. 

* Locally the name is spelled Chin Wang Tao. 

'Certain Chinese literati speak of Dr. Martin as "The Cap of the West,** 
algnifjiiig his pretetinence in sdiolarship. 

13 



14 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

As a builder of bulwarks Chin stands alone in all his- 
tory. He certainly did not resemble a former ruler of 
whom it was said, "Le roi Yen de Siu, avait des tendons, 
mais il n*avait pas d'os." Chin had what Virgil calls 
"a double backbone"! Our interest in him has reached 
an altitude that offers and warrants a bird's-eye view of 
"The Only First." 

THE TYRANT OF CH^IN 

• 
nVixt the mountains here and yon Eastern Sea 

Is the pivot of China's fate. 
Whatever your haste ; stop, tether your steed. 

And listen to what I relate. 

'Neath this frowning Wall lies a buried past. 

As bright as the splendors of Greece ; 
Six warring states their arms lay down. 

And submit to the yoke of peace. 

In this isle is the last of his victims laid ; 

And this isle bears the tyrant's name ; 
And as long as the ages continue to roll. 

His glory 's confronted with shame. 

A century later than Philip's son, 

Who united the Asian West, 
Had the Tyrant of Ch*in, in the Farther East, 

All his rival powers suppressed. 

From the Adrian shore to the Persian Gulf, 

Not wider the Grecian sway; 
A structure that broke in the builder's hand-^ 

But China endures to this day. 



Too many bricklayers make a lopsided honae. 

^For the staves of a cask use an iron hoop, 

For rebellious states a chain ; 
While this Wall stands firm, a compact mass. 

Must my empire aye remain. 

**Not merely to shield us from foemen without. 

But to punish domestic foes ; 
This Wall shall secure to millions of men, 

Long ages of calm repose.** 

Thus silently mused the Tyrant of Ch*in, 

Nor was his proud boasting all vain, 
For the foes that he slew in building his Wall, 

Were more than in battle he'd slain. 

A princely descendant of each fallen state, 

Was summoned to lead a corvfe ; 
And the sun stood still their toil to prolong. 

So the ancient minstrels say. 

Ab diggers of earth and hewers of stone. 
Here were stationed ten thousand men, 

Whose fathers in battle the Tyrant withstood. 
And their leader, a Prince of Yen. 

To hardship and grief the young leader succumbed, 
His bones were entombed in the Wall ; 

No casket allowed him his ashes to shrine. 
No funeral pomp in his hall. 

The princess in vain for his body had sought. 

And when the sad story she knew, 
She refused to return to her desolate home ; 

Was ever devotion more true? 



16 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



**Not long we'll be parted," the princess exclaimedt 
"My resting place near thee shall be !" 

This said — from the top of yon beetling cliff 
She threw herself into the sea, 

'Twas the first Huangti that made China a state, 

This wall has his monument been ; 
But those who the tomb of his victim behold. 

All curse the grim Tyrant of Ch'in. 




Body of a hor«ie, winvs of bird, tiffer stripes. liTes in north wildemeM. FiiU 
of wronss for mao. 



CHAPTER IV 

The Only First 

High pointed nose, slit eyes, pigeon breast wolf 
voice, tiger heart, stingy, cringing, graceless, is the 
Chinese historian's description of the mighty man who 
conceived the idea of the Great Wall of China. In fact, 
however, he was one of the greatest "hustlers" the world 
has ever known, despite the very micomplimentary 
remarks of the harsh historian Ssu-ma Ch*ien* trans* 
lated above literally from the imperial history of China. 

It has been sagely remarked that this long structure 
called by the Chinese scholars the Wanlich'ang Ch'eng, 
or Wall of Ten Thousand Miles,^ could be clearly de- 
fined by the mysterious Man-in-the-Moon, if such an 
individual exist and if he is endowed with the same 
faculties which we possess. This alone should make it 
a most distinguished object. Viewing the character and 
performances of Chin' at an interval of twenty-one 

^ SsuHna Chlen, called the Father of History, was born 145 b.c. 

*Tbe Chinese mile or *^r is roughly the third of an English mile. If 
taken literally tliis would woric out at 3,000 miles or thereabouts, whereas 
the Great Wall is somewhat less. **10,000" is often used in a general 
sense for a large number. 

'Chin y. Tsin. . . . The romanisation of Chinese sounds is of course 
largely conventional, and no single system can claim absolute accuracy. 
According to the Wade orthography, representing the Pekingese or North- 
em Mandarin, the character is written '^Chln"; in Southern Mandarin it 
should appear as 'Tsin.*' The inverted comma merely indicates an 
aspirate, and is inserted to disting^ush the word from others which, 
being unaspiratM, are written ''Chin." But as most persons pronounce 

9 17 



18 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



hundred years, we observe impressions, depressions and 
expressions more marked on the country and people of 
China by this emperor than could possibly be made by 
the Great Wall on the lunar citizen at a distance one 
hundred times as great in miles as the nmnber of years 







Chin Shik Hoaoff Ti— Present day _ 
OrefttWaU. Sent to tbe author by 



_ ._itation of the man who baflt the 
S. L Woodbridge. 



we look back over in the contemplation of Chin Shih 
Huang. It was a fine attempt of his to obliterate 
all previous records and start the world fresh. Chin 
had no gatling guns, men-of-war, powder or steam, 

the English word ^'Chin*' with an unconscious aspirate, no apology is 
needed for styling the First Emperor "Chin" instead of "Chin." 

Throughout this work the Wade system has been uniformly adopted 
except for place names, which are transliterated according to the system 
in use in the Imperial Chinese Postoffice and also followed in the China 
Inland Missions' excellent "Atlas of the Chinese Empire." Hence such 
seeming inconsistencies as Chin Shih Huang and Chinwang tao or Tsln- 
wangtao, where the first pliable in eadi stands for the same character. 



Money morefl the gods. 

but for soaring ambition, never was there a head or 
heart on this planet, before or since, that was pos- 
sessed of a greater amount than this same emperor, 
who lived two hundred years before Christ, when 
Hamilcar and Hannibal went into Spain and the 
Punic Wars broke out upon Europe. He has been 
ealled the Napoleon of China, but Bonaparte is not 
in the same class with this wicked, wonderful man. 
One of his first decrees, as recorded in history, ordained 
the abolition of the use of imperial posthumous titles, 
declaring it his pleasure that 'lie should be known 
simply as Shih Huang Ti, the First Emperor; and thus 
all successive generations should be distinguished nu- 
merically as the second generation, the third generation, 
and thus onward to the ten thousandth." 

After having done a great many things, among which 
may be mentioned the subjugation of a score or so of 
smaller states, the unification of the empire and the 
reported burial alive of his fond grandparents because 
they had treated him badly, he began to cast about for 
the means to accomplish the ends of his itching, restless, 
mounting ambition. When the performances men- 
tioned above, in addition to a great many others, were 
finished. Chin had been on the throne about five and 
twenty years.* He was now sole proprietor of a terri- 
tory which the Chinese historian says extended from 
near the equator to Korea on the south and north, and 
from the Eastern Sea to Shensi and Szechwan. De- 

^Ab king of ChHn, but not as ruler of a United China. He only 
assumed tlie imperial title in 931 ikc, after wluch lie reigned twelve years. 



20 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

ducting a tract to allow for the statements of ancient 
history, it may still be said, with more or less degree of 
accuracy, that Chin owned land as wide in extent as 
England, France, and Germany with others thrown in 
and put together. 

The obstructive mulishness of recent Chinese official- 
dom presents a strong contrast to the progressive policy 
of our hero, from which it may be seen that China in 
the past two thousand years has gone back in the patii 
of progress, or in other words, has backed the future 
and fronted the past. Chin, who possessed immense 
originality, perhaps went too far in his forward move- 
ment, but at any rate there is, and has been for the past 
two millenniums, an inborn antipathy, a natural resili- 
ence on the part of the Chinese from the liberalism of 
the masterful man from whom* China is named by 
Europeans, but not by themselves. 

He changed the face of the whole country. His taste 
for public achievements impelled him to do prodigious 
works which can be most favorably compared with the 
grand works of Egypt. "Many objects which were in 
bronze, and others in gold, were of such weight, that 
some of his successors deemed it a considerable task to 
remove them from one city to another." These statues 
and other monuments were destined to adorn the superb 
palace that had been built at his capital. 

But the Chinese of his day objected to such magnifi- 
cence, when the books of antiquity recommended sim- 
pUcity in all departments. They quoted multitudinous 

^'*That is from the state of Chin," an eminent scholar subjoins. We^ 
nevertheless, retain the statement as it is made in the text. 




2 

o 



O 



s g 



u 

o 



The imperial sword, thoagh sharp, cannot slay an 
innocent man. 

examples of princes who had behaved themselves differ- 
ently from the reckless, feckless Chin. "The monarch 
in a fit of irritation, in order to destroy the remembrance 
of these ancient sovereigns who were quoted continually 
by the learned as a reproach to his pomp, resolved to 
bum all the books." And, as the reins of government 
were entirely in his hands, he decided to reward himself 
and abolished the title of king, and used emperor in- 
stead; and, as his disregard and contempt of the past 
increased, he proclaimed himself Shih Huang Ti,^ or 
Chin, The Only First. 

When the antiquity-loving scholars protested against 
his wanton unconcern for the precious past, The Only 
First deliberately treated them with scant courtesy: he 
unceremoniously buried about five hundred of them 
alive and carried out his riotous resolve to eliminate the 
cautious classics. The "useful" books which treated of 
fortune-telling, astrology, agriculture and medicine 
were spared. If anybody was found whispering or 
insinuating that his Sdition de luxe was uncanonical, 
the unlucky individual was promptly decapitated. Not 
only were the blind followers of ancient usage beheaded, 
but their faithful families were exterminated like 
pestiferous rats, and the officials of the districts were 
held responsible for not stamping out all vestiges of the 
pesky, mouldy, rusty, dusty past. So many scholars 
were buried that melons grew in winter on the spot 

* The way lie hit on this appellation is instnictiTe. Considering that he 
had umted in himself the virtues of the San Huang or three primordial 
sovereigns (b.c. ^12859-^596) and the Wu Ti, five emperors that followed. 
He Johied their titles into the one of Huang Ti. 



22 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

above the bodies. "History," thought The Only First, 
"shall begin with Me," His country was divided into 
thirty-six prefectures and the people were called "black 
heads" because they wore dark caps.* 

But people in those good old days were supersti- 
tious and it is no small wonder that the emperor himself 
began to observe portents. Chin saw, or imagined he 
saw, a foreigner sixty feet high with feet two yards 
long! So it occurred to the sovereign to gather all his 
weapons of war that had been used to conquer his 
enemies and cast them into twelve mighty images which 
would rival this giant of his active imagination in big- 
ness. Probably they did, if we can believe the history 
which states that each image weighed sixty tons! They 
were put in his pet palace and afterwards destroyed in 
the wars that followed the death of their maker. 

Chin needed no expositions to set business agog. At 
his order twelve hundred wealthy families moved into 
Hienyang, his capital. The demand for luxuries and 
necessaries having been created, it followed, as the night 
the day, that supply would be forthcoming. To these 
superstitious and commercial notions, Chin added the 
lust of luxury. His life was not shrouded in dim mag- 
nificence. He built a wonderful palace which has been 
variously described. The following facts are taken 
fresh from the imperial history. This palace was mag- 
nificent, and certain gorgeous annexes were attached at 
intervals, the whole now extending two hundred miles. 
In these he corralled all the handsome women that could 

' Some authorities suggest that the Chinese have long been accustomed 
to style themselves 'the black-headed race" from the color of th0ir hair. 



If yoa want to see e^ery one like jonnelf, yott most 
jook In yonr almas. 



23 



be found in his domains, and the annexes were so numer- 
ous that it required thirty-six years for him to be "at 
home" in them all at the rate of one annex per diem. 



% 




Flylnc Carts of Chin*8 Day. One sboalder, three eyct* make carts and fly Umg 
distaxioes in the air. Very danceroiis people. 

Stated mathematically, the number would be 18,140 — 
far in advance of Solomon, third king of Israel, whose 
heart was turned by his numerous wives. In conse- 
quence of his luxury, the emperor grew more supersti- 



24 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

tious and suspicious. Being told there was an island of 
the sea in which certain genii made their abode, he fitted 
out an expedition to discover, if possible, this enchanted 
ground. Several hundred men and women were dis- 
patched on the voyage of discovery and were never 
heard from again. The annals of Japan tell how they 
arrived safely and settled down in their new home. 

But his superstitions and suspicions were probably 
the occasion for beginning the work of the Great Wall, 
for having been informed of a prophecy which foretold 
his destruction by the Hims, Chin mobilized an army of 
800,000 men to work (and fight, if necessary) on this 
great structure. It was at this time that the Chinese 
pen, or brush, which afterwards proved so powerful, was 
invented by a soldier. In this period of antiquity the 
principles of capillary attraction were not understood. 
But a knowledge of practical physics was necessary. 
The astute Chinese discovered that if the hair of the 
goat which formed the brush of the pen was soaked in 
lime water the ink would "run" and the pen would be 
rendered serviceable. Presage of the fountain pen I 
Once put an ovum of idea into the hatchery of the hu- 
man brain and something will come of it in the end, 
even if it be only a fountain pen and even if it takes 
two thousand years! 

Then Chin conceived another idea. And to carry it 
out employed 700,000 workmen. This idea was to erect 
a large hall that would seat 10,000 people, a very ex- 
tensive building for that age — forerunner of the modem 
auditorimni But suspicion, that bane of the usurper, 
stirred him up again. He was warned against spending 



— ift3le^^i^^ — n 25 

When two tigers fight, one most come to grief. 

two successive nights in one place, so he lay low as to 
where he slept o' nights. Capital punishment was meted 
out to the inf onner who divulged this mighty secret. 
Under such abnormal conditions of life the monarch 
became vindictive — ^no one was spared; for remonstrat- 
ing against his action in state affairs, his eldest son was 
banished and died in exile. History states that an 
aerolite fell about this time, on which this legend was 
inscribed, "On the death of Chin the country will be 
divided." The emperor suspected a trick, tried hard to 
find out the author of the legend, and failing this he 
decapitated every individual in the district in which the 
fateful stone had fallen, and reduced the aerolite itself 
to ashes. Chin The Only First then canonized the T'ai 
Shan or Sacred Mountain of China as it is now known; 
to-day his image is found in one of the temples of this 
famous Mecca, and a plain shaft of granite fifteen feet 
high, three feet wide and two feet thick, called the 
"Letterless Mountain," is said to have been erected by 
this same prince who buried the scholars and burned the 
books. 

But far more important than the superstitious dedi- 
cation of a mountain was the introduction of the seal, — 
shadow of the Great Seal of England and all other 
seals since! The original was a curious representation 
of birds and fish. Combined and translated into the 
Chinese of to-day these symbols are shou ming yii T'ien 
chi shou yung ch'ang. They mean in English "I have 
received the decree from heaven and have already en- 
joyed the age of everlasting prosperity." 



26 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 




The Seal of Chin ahih Hoan^ Ti, which was the first seal of China. The ancient 
characters mean: **I ha^e received the Decree trcm Hearen and have already 
enjoyed the ace of everlasting prosperity. 

The number and variety of his wars, reforms, diver- 
sions and luxuries, however, wore the emperor out. One 
can imagine that he became considerably blasS before 
the thirty-seven years of his reign were finished. In the 
words of Sir Walter Scott, "the stage darkened before 
the curtain fell.*' During one of his excursions abroad 
throughout his dominion, whilst in the present province 
of Shantung the emperor sickened and died. His min- 



The workman who would do good work most first 
sharpen his tools. 



27 



isters anicl attendants were alanned, for so powerful was 
his personality and so potent his influence that the state 
was literally upheld by the man. News of his death 
coming before matters could be arranged at the capital 
some hundred miles away would prove fatal to the mon- 
archy. What was to be done? There were no means at 
hand for embalming the body even if the knowledge of 
this art was known; they were many days' journey from 
the metropolis and the dreadful secret of the emperor's 
death must be kept. But they set out bravely for home. 
Ere long the presence of the dead Chin became manifest 
through the olfactories. Doubts were expressed by the 
people who witnessed the imperial procession when the 
prince appeared only in absentia. To remove these sus- 
picions the wily ministers bought a large quantity of 
fish over ripe for consumption in these more finicky 
days — ^and while the smell was doubled, all doubts and 
fears on the part of the anxious public were dissipated 
and allayed. Thus the insanitary, fishy cortege moved 
along to the capital, diffusing the mixed unfragrant 
odor of insanctity but dispelling the dangerous doubts 
of the people. But even fish cannot keep a secret and 
the truth came out at last, but not until arrangements 
were perfected for Chin the Second. The oldest son, 
who was assisting in the erection of the Great Wall, had 
committed suicide on receipt of a Ijong letter purported 
to have been written by his father and ordering him to 
dispose of Imnself (obedient son!) and so it fell out 
that the next dutiful offspring ascended the throne as 
Chin the Second, or Chin Erh Shih. This promising 



28 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

youth began his imperial life by decapitating all his 
brothers and sisters — ^there were only twelve brothers 
and ten sisters; but these twenty-two persons whose only 
guilt was the fact of being, were ruthlessly butchered 
along with all their numerous connections, by this blood- 
thirsty villain. His name would not be mentioned in 
this book at all were it not for several acts of his short 
reign which had reference to The Only First. In the 
first place he completed the palace of the late emperor: 
then he built a splendid mausoleum for his deceased 
father, more from fear and superstition, we trow, than 
from any feeling of respect or veneration. Old Chinese 
tombs are supposed to consist of hoUowed-out hills. 
The history states that Chin the Second prepared a tomb 
in a mountain and furnished it with all kinds of precious 
and valuable thmgs; that he made a lake of quicksilver 
with two quicksilver rivers flowing into it which would 
always appear pure and clear,^ and that in this excava- 
tion he immured thousands of the wives and concubines 
of the dead emperor. He shut the door in the face of 
these wretched women and they starved to death in the 
tomb. On the principle that dead men tell no tales, he 
secretly devised an instrument — some infernal machine 
— that struck down and killed every workman engaged 
in constructing this veritable chamel house. Those 
were the brave days of oldl The dynasty of Chin The 
Only First, set up in so much blood, and maintained 
with such cruelty, did not long survive the death of its 

* The word translated ''quicksilver^' is rattier obscure, and other scholars 
suggest that the true meaning was 'Vater limpid as silver." Be that as It 
may, the modem legends have adopted the more uncannj version. 




'JE 






.S bo 

"a — ^ 



H 



No grief 90 great as for a dead heart 

founder. Chin the Second was unable to hold the half- 
civilized chieftains together, and after seven years the 
empire fell into the hands of a soldier of fortune who 
founded the famous dynasty of Han. And here let me 
close this part of China's history, merely remarking that 
the Chinese nowadays call themselves the "sons of Han" 
and not the "sons of Chin." 

Ever since the death of The Only First the Chinese 
scholars have despised his memory. This was because 
of his burning and killing characteristics; but in fact 
this emperor although cruel and remorseless has left his 
mark on these people. We cannot describe the Celes- 
tials in any language, except their own, without using 
the name of Chin. His name since he lived has always 
been and probably always will be, on the lips of all 
western nations. Even Japan has invented a designa- 
tion for China which savors of the "Great First." 
Japanese postage stamps now used especially for letters 
to and from China, bear the magic words Ch na} The 
plain, wordless tablet on Mount Tai may indicate to 
the Shantung peasant the contempt of Chin Shih 
Huang for letters; but in burning the antiquated rec- 
ords of the past he also burned his name ineradicably dis- 
tinct on the records of history, and we cannot write 
China without first writing Chin. 

The prefectures of China still remain, not the same 
geographically, but in principle. This shows by long 
experience that even his enemies thought Chin not so 

^Or Chlhna. 



30 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

far wrong in the division of the country for convenient 
administration. 

For many, many years China has been pining for 
another Chin. The want has not been openly expressed 
and probably not even recognized; but the fact remains, 
China has been and is still sick for more Shih Huang Ti. 
First the libraries and brains of the literati are stuffed 
full of useless, literary rubbish — old, mouldy, unusable 
lumber and fit only to make a bonfire of. The stuff is 
so dry that it would bum like tinder. Chin would be 
just the man to light this heap. We would not approve 
of his burying the scholars alive, head and all, but 
simply up to their necks, when they could be unearthed 
on the solemn promise to learn something real modem 
and to teach that in the mad race for the beautiful and 
elegant, China has not swept the field. On the whole 
we believe that, eliminating his cruelty and bloodthirsti- 
ness, another Chin might be the man and brain 
to start China fresh once more. The contemptuous 
condescension of the Chinese towards Lord Macartney 
in 1792, the direct insult to Lord Amherst and the fail- 
ure of his embassy would have been forestalled if Chin 
had occupied the throne at the time. He would have 
tackled the opium question and settled the whole matter 
before the benevolent but giddy Commissioner Lin 
destroyed $10,000,000 worth of somebody else's opium 
for which the Chinese afterwards had to pay. Sir 
Harry Parkes, whose statue now adorns the Bund in 
Shanghai and whose personality has left a mark on 
British Far Eastern diplomacy, would have discovered 
in this sovereign a broad-minded if bloodthirsty man 



He who has no diamond should not undertake to 
cnt glass. 

who would Have been eager and willing to seize the 
opportunity for making his country strong and wise by 
negotiating treaties that would have stopped the mouth 
of cannon ; and that would have prevented the disastrous 
wars that flung China to the ground and humbled her 
in the dust. 

Chin back in the centuries was groping after light, 
but like most reformers he was ahead of his time and 
no daring Chinese has followed his lead. His canals 
are undredged and have been undredged for decades. 
Flood and famine came down on the millions of the 
people like a horrible night in consequence of this cul- 
pable neglect. His roads are almost obliterated and the 
Chinese peasant toils wearily through the muck of the 
unworked paths on his way to the markets. China now 
is about as far away from Chin Shih Huang as it is 
possible to be. Astronomically speaking the country is 
in aphelion. Meanwhile the West has moved into the 
East and set up housekeeping. New forces that this 
ancient emperor saw afar off^ but which were dead 
blanks to the past generations, are now operative in the 
empire and within the next few years we shall witness 
changes in China which the famous emperor The Only 
First, with the *Tiigh pointed nose, slit eyes, pigeon 
breast, wolf voice, tiger heart," would have rejoiced to 
see in his own day. 



CHAPTER V 

From the Sea to the Eastern T 

Chin's original design evidently was to inclose his 
massive empire in a rampart which should assume the 
shape of a horseshoe with the heel calks at the ocean 
shore. He did not plan to parallel the coast with a wall, 
doubtless considering the seaside an ample protection 
to a country vast and densely populated. And the 
water actually did the protecting work of a wall until 
steam and covetousness brought powerful fleets out of 
the sunrise to threaten the wealthy coastal cities. 

The Great Wall of the present, following for a thou- 
sand miles the ancient line, stretches its serpentine and 
civilizing length from the tempestuous main of the 
Yellow Sea to the thirsty sands of the distant desert, 
and on still farther to the very verge of the mountains 
of Tibet where the sun starts the Yellow River on its 
uncertain and devious journey toward the eastern 
ocean. 

It begins, where we began our journey, on the 40th 
parallel of north latitude, which is the line of the high- 
est possible civilization (Doylestown, Pennsylvania, is 
near that line) , and does not reach its western limit until 
more than one twentieth of the circumference of the 
earth has been occupied. An enterprise so vast cer- 
tainly deserves the attention of an experienced traveler 
and of an intelligent public. Our aim is not only to 

39 



v3'3 




19 ^ A T- @ 33 

Men are not offended by a little extim courtesy. 

describe the Wall and its environment by sections, as we 
saw them, but also to answer, en route, such questions as 
we apprehend any intelligent traveler would ask as he 
proceeded to explore this wonder of the Far East. 
Hence we have already led the reader to do exactly what 
the traveler did before starting — ^gain an outline knowl- 
edge of the powerful personality that conceived the 
idea and began the project which remains after many 
vicissitudes a colossal monument to the mammoth mind 
of The Only First. 

We shall continue to invite the reader to share the 
explorer's observations of not only the different land- 
scapes, the different peoples, and the various aspects 
of the wall, boundary, rampart, and towers, but also of 
the ancient and modem official and legendary histories. 

After a journey of one thousand U or three hundred 
miles along the Wall, or on the Wall, a temple of 
hideous idols on the Horizontal Ridge four thousand 
feet above the sea gave an opportunity to sit and muse 
on the section explored, and to meditate how many 
moons must elapse before the journey should end at the 
western limit of the Great Barrier. A mere student of 
the map might wonder why the Russians did not utilize 
this ready-made permanent way to lay their steel rails 
upon, and so rejuvenate the Wall as the main railroad 
to the Pacific; but a little experience of the eastern sec- 
tion shows that the levels were adapted for defense 
across, not for travel along. 

No, the Wall is not for modem use; it is an ancient 
fossil — ^the largest fossil on the planet. But fossils are 



34 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

useful and truthfuL It is the dividing line between 
two civilizations, and between two eras. In space it 
cut off the herdsmen of the north from the tillers of 
the south, the predatory Abels of the desert from the 
peaceful Cains of the rivers. This reminds us that we 
only know the story from the Cain side, where the 
Chinese pose as innocent and needing defense; it would 
be interesting to hear what the Abels thought of it — 
how the Mongols regarded the "White Wall" as they 
called it, a barrier to cut them off from the water for 
their flocks, and if they complained, a barrier whence 
would issue an army to cut them down, and slander 
them afterward. The wolf first quarrels with the lamb, 
then eats him, then tells the world that the lamb was 
attacking him. The Wall divided the wolves from the 
lambs, but which was on which side is a question. 

In time, the Wall divided the China of mist from the 
China of history. Before it, we see dimly and discern 
only two or three groups of feudal states; after it we 
recognize plainly one civilized centralized empire. And 
yet a hoary old vender of tobacco pipes, ignorant that 
we could understand his remarks, muttered to his mate: 
"Why do these people come up here, where trees are 
many and people are few, when they might go to 
Peking and see something?" 

What now have we seen along the first stretch? 
Begin on the coast. The town of Shanghaikwan at- 
taches itself to the Great Wall two miles from the sea. 
It boasts a thousand families on whom the Methodist 
Episcopal and Roman Catholic missionaries are making 
an impression. We find here various samples of Chris- 




The First Gate in the Great Wall, 
Shanhaikwan. 



which is also the South Gate of 




The Great Wall of China Photos by Dr. Geil 

"The Last Gate" in the Great Wall, which is also the West Gate of 
Kiayiikwan, 1250 miles from the "First Gate" 



Keep joor broken arm inside yonr sleeve. 

tian civilization. The railway ends a division at Shan- 
haikwan and a hotel of some foreign inclinations offers 
refreshment to the traveling public, while troops of 
certain European powers summer on the shore of the 
Yellow Sea, giving a belligerent appearance to an 
otherwise peaceful place. There is nothing of great 
interest except the Great Wall. The railroad which is 
paying a yearly dividend of sixty per cent runs through 
the Wall at this point. The imperial government gave 
permission to build to the Wall but not through the 
Wall. It would be considered a cruel sacrilege to pierce 
the Great Wall with an iron track- 
But the story of how the road got through the Wall 
at Shanhaikwan is interesting. It came to us in this 
wise. Early one summer's day, after passing through 
a hole in the Wall, an agriculturist hove in sight. We 
politely saluted him with: "Lend us some light." It is 
to be understood that we were not intending to light a 
pipe, it is simply using ordinary salutation if asking 
advice. The tawny rustic stopped, gave a polite grunt 
after the manner of his clan, and illuminated his fine 
yellow face with a liberal and benevolent smile. "How 
came the hole in the Great Barrier where the iron cart 
passes through?" we inquired. He gave ready reply: 
"The iron road did not make the opening; it was there 
long ago." In this connection he then related the fol- 
lowing love story, which is the version of the people: 

Many, many years ago there was a prince who was 
employed by the emperor in the construction of the 
Great WalL For some reason or other this prince bad 



36 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

incurred the bitter enmity of the sovereign. One day 
the prince mysteriously disappeared as many others did 
in those unhalcyon days. The story goes on to relate 
that this prince had married a beautiful woman who 
loved him tenderly and devotedly. Hearing no news 
of him she undertook the long journey to the Wall in 
hope of discovering some clue to her lost loved one. 
After passing through many perils and hardships, she 
arrived at her destination only to learn that her husband 
had perished and that his body was entombed some- 
where in the half -completed structure. Stricken with 
grief she stood weeping on the Wall and in her desola- 
tion had given up all hope even of discovering her hus- 
band's remains and of bringing them back to the family 
burying ground, where the magic influences would waft 
prosperity to the family. Just then a beautiful fairy, 
lithe and slender, lightly descended before her and 
inquired of the disconsolate widow the cause of her 
tears. "Oh, help me to find my darling husband," replied 
the half -frightened but expectant girl. "I am so mis- 
erable and unhappy, take pity on me, please." *T)o as 
I bid you," replied the sprite. "Cut your hand for 
blood that will flow from the heart, follow the crimson 
drops as you walk along." Eagerly seizing a sharp 
stone, the delicate girl gashed her pretty hand, and as 
the blood fell, her footsteps followed until they brought 
her to the object of her desire, lying in an opening that 
had been miraculously made in the Wall. Through all 
the ages since then, the Wall in this spot has never been 
repaired: and when rude, remorseless commercialism 
laid unholy hands on the Barrier of Chin to push 




u 

a 



A "* 



a, 

I 



The rewards of good and evil are like ahadow and 
anbatance. 



37 



through the parallel bars of steel for the iron horse, 
it was at this elfin pass where the beautiful girl found 
her dead lover, that the Wall was crossed and the road 
made. 

When the story was finished we politely said to the 
loealite: "We have delayed your chariot" He was 
walking. 

Our own chariot moved ofi^ in the opposite direction 
to reach the very terminal of the Wall. The sunrise 
end is below sea-level; the sixth emperor of the present 
dynasty ordered that three temples should be built on 
an adjoining site. Geomancers were employed to de- 
cide upon the exact spot that would be favorable, and 
the emperor came in person to add his august sanc- 
tion to the ceremony. A pavilion was erected where 
the last land tower had stood. Such deference to the 
lucky places is innate in the Chinese, and coalesces 
even with modern improvements. When a drought 
occurred there, orders were given to suspend sacrifices 
till the rain god relented; but he invited the lightning 
god to come with him, and their joint visit wrecked 
the telegraph line for one hundred and fifty yards. But 
in front of the tablet stands to-day another sign of 
change, a white lighthouse. 

After descending to the sea-level apd following on 
top the tumbled granite blocks that all awry now mark 
where the massive masonry once extended into the 
waters: after returning, ascending and studying the 
solitary stone tablet which beside the white lighthouse 
illumines the mind as it faces the Gulf of Chihli, we 



38 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

followed along on top of the Wall, past the modem 
searchlight, in a remarkable S curve, to the Pavilion 
of Literature, vi^hich is perched on the terreplaine of 
the Wall exactly at the corner where the Great Wall 
joins the city wall. Where one would expect to find 
cannon, rapid-fire guns, mortars and terrible dynamite 
throwers, as in the West, here on this most wonderful 
fortification of human history we find instead a white 
lighthouse, a searchlight, and a temple to litera- 
ture. Is it possible that after all the Chinese are right 
and that these are a better protection for a state than 
death-dealing machinery of the modern diabolical kind? 

There are modern schools within sight of this Pa- 
vilion of Literature; they are crowded, this temple is 
empty! Modem full, ancient vacant! The son of a 
rich man goes about urging the people not to oppose 
the modem schools. This son of an eminent family 
performs this patriotic work without compensation. 
The spirit of Chin is abroad again! 

From this Temple of Literature we could see to\]^- 
ing above the city, and in the center of it, the drum and 
bell tower. This is unique, for most cities have a 
tower for each. The drum and bell are both used at the 
beginning of the first watch only. In the oldest ages 
the Chinese had a copper pot with a small hole in the 
bottom to measure time; the water came through drop 
by drop and fell upon sounding metal. 

Beside this Tower of Literature we stand and look 
away. Yonder on the utmost summit of the mountain 
three thousand feet toward the stars, lay seemingly 
half asleep and half awake, a huge monster born in 




The Junction of the Great Wall with the City Wall of Shanhaikwan. 
The Pavilion was erected to the God of Literature 




The Great Wall of China Photos by Dr. Geil 

Curious Circular Tower outside the Malan Pass in the Province of Chihli. 
It is so situated that the near-by Gate in the Great Wall is eflfectually 
guarded 



« 14 A :f aw »« * a m IS 

The only way to prevent people knowing it» is not 
to do it. 



39 



the age of mythology, and just awakening out of a 
slumber of centuries. But our eyes were promptly seized 
by some mighty influence and dragged down from the 
light above to the dark restless blue below, and we 
thought of the tragedies of the Great Wall. What are 
the beacon lights of history? — ^this history we find in 
the Wall? Is there a handwriting on the Wall? The 
hand of time is ever writing on the Wall, on every wall; 
most people cannot read it. But is there another hand- 
writing on the Wall? We shall watch for it as we travel 
along this Great Wall! 

Hear one of the recent tragedies. We spent a night 
in the village of More-Fertilizer, and early the next 
morning pushed on the caravan toward Flowering- 
Obedience. But ere the sunset, gaunt smoke-smeared 
ruins of a foreign compound spoiled the lovely land- 
scape. Here had dwelt hapless innocents, guarded in 
a time of riot by four Chinese soldiers; they nobly 
refused to betray their trust to a mob, were themselves 
seized, overpowered, their bodies ripped open, and their 
brave hearts torn out to be ofi^ered in sacrifice. Heroes, 
allhaUI 

At Flowering-Obedience, an ancient Buddhist temple 
sheltered us for the night, redolent of confusion and 
dreadful death. The mind was irresistibly drawn to 
those bloody days when two hundred Christians refused 
to lie and live. As the shadows of night engloomed the 
landscape, the pure light of the stars shone down 
through the silence on the grassy graves of these 
modem martyrs. Not even in death had they been 



40 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

left at rest; the violent rage of the rioters passed or- 
dinary bounds. Hoping to deepen the agony of the 
living, and to involve even the dead in posthumous 
misery, they rifled the very graves of all Christian 
bones, that an endless unrest might beset those who 
had escaped their malice in this worid. 

Before sunrise, accompanied by a body of horse, we 
galloped away from the gloomy old house of idols. 
The keen frosty air quickened the slug^sh native 
blood, and soon we were on our way north of Tsunh- 
wachow. Here m the quiet landscape, silvered over 
with the morning frost, stood a Buddhist temple dedi- 
cated to the human virtue of almsgiving. And here 
an eyewitness told of dreadful doings he had been help- 
less to avert. 

A gentle girl had been torn from her humble home, 
with a lad of some sixteen years. They were haled to 
the temple of almsgiving, and were subjected to two 
ordeals. First to abjure the foreign faith, but no 
escape would be purchased by denying the Lord who 
suffered for them. Guilty then — of goodness! But 
what sentence? The Chinese dearly loves a gamble, 
and now chance is invoked to whet the appetite. Before 
the hideous idol are placed two bundles of incense, one 
dry, one soaked in lye. She may choose at random, and 
on her choice hangs life or — what? Should the chosen 
btmdle bum freely, freedom is the lot, but otherwise a 
speedy death is to be hoped for. Is there no clatter of 
hoof, no heroic lover as in the days of yore to brave all 
odds and cleave a path through the bloody rabble? Is 
there no heart touched with the patient heroism to 



Dont bite off more than yon can chew. 

harangue the moh and assuage their madness? Nay, 
she chooses, and most fittingly, for what Christian 
maiden would willingly select incense to hum at an idol 
shrine I It smoulders, it dies! And so must she I But 
now the cold cruelty of the mob pauses. Shall the 
death-stroke be given at once, and all the fiendish joy 
end at a blow? Cannot the agony be long drawn out? 
The lad divines the hellish torments, and who shall 
blame if nature shrinks? But the maiden rises to nobler 
heights and can find words of cheer that nerve him to 
endure all. Need we describe all? Insult after insult, 
virgin modesty outraged, buffeted, wounded, till the 
frail form is swathed in cotton, soaked in oil, lashed to 
a stake, to exhale the unconquerable soul in a chariot of 
fire! The days of heroism are to-day; the Church is 
still ennobled by the blood of her martyrs. 

Soon the Great Wall came into marvelous viewl 
Lines of massive masonry interspersed with towers con- 
structed during the haughtiest age of the Chinese realm 
were still winding along the summits of mountains and 
ridges. Near the Mule-Horse gate in the Great Wall 
lies a quiet village, but we failed to inquire its name in 
our elation over this wonderful view of the only ruin in 
China. 

The rising sun crowned the lofty towers with glory, 
then burnished the battlements on the precipitous walls 
with jasper, and finally plunged the whole temple and 
mud-sided huts in the pass itself into a magic bath of 
an indescribable copper color I It was a picture to rav- 
ish the heart of a painter. 



42 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Shanhaikwan and Tsunhwa were easy to find, but 
the Y of the Wall was a troublesome matter. It was a 
long and difficult search. The explanation lies in two 
parts. The ascents were steep and hard to make; the 
locals even did not know where the Wall actually 
branched off, to Kalgan on the northwest and to Nan- 
kow on the southwest. Several times we were led astray 
by natives who affirmed they knew the exact spot where 
the Wall forked. In answer to their confidence, the 
dimb was made, only to enjoy the superb scenery and 
to be disappointed in the quest for the junction of the 
two Walls from the west to the one Great Wall toward 
the east. There was also a chart error in the otherwise 
excellent map, which helped to lead us astray. The 
error consisted in the misspelling of a town name, and 
also in misplacing the Y by some miles, when con- 
sidered by angles with certain known towns. 

Our caravan of mountain mules had rested over 
night at the pass of "The Lily Pool," Lienhwa Ch*ih. 
Since there was no inn at the hamlet, we were taken in 
by the "rich man" of the place, with all the hospitality 
of a mountaineer. The whole population was permitted 
to come and look us over. As often as we have been 
subjected to that annoyance, we have never brought 
ourselves seriously to object to such a practice. Our 
arrival was to that hamlet what a circus, years ago, was 
to Doylestown, Pennsylvania. The size of my boots 
amazed the populace. At that we were not much sur- 
prised, for the size of them had often attracted my own 
attention! 

The day was very young when we began the ascent of 




3 






a 5 
•si 



It is not foolish to forgiye; good will come ol it 
bye and bye. 

the mountains in further quest of the lost Y. At one 
thousand feet above the Lily Pool, which, itself, was far 
above the sea-level, the scene enraptured all except the 
third muleteer; continuing the ascent, we came upon 
large sections of the Great Wall in almost perfect re- 
pair and in truly classic ensemble, which would rival 
that of ancient Greece. Not only the Great Wall but 
a solid tower, standing on the very verge of a steep cliff, 
and several hundred feet distant from the wall, and out- 
side, attracted our attention. The "rich man" acting as 
guide advanced two explanations. First: That the solid 
solitary tower had been used by soldiers for their horses. 
The tower being solid, this theory was explosive. The 
other explanation was the true one. Due south of this 
point lay the "Thirteen Tombs" or the Imperial Ming 
Reservation. The geomancers had reckoned it impera- 
tive to build such a tower in this high place in order to 
suck in good influences and concentrate the luck on the 
resting place of the Mings. How much of the "Fa- 
vorable" was converged by the tower on the Place of 
Tombs we could not learn. 

The simrise end of the Great Wall is below the level 
of the sea. The Wall never again descends to the tide 
line. Soon after leaving the wet shore, it follows a 
course upward and northward, bearing off to the west. 
During the first one thousand It it is never on a level. 
Irregular in direction and altitude, it has been regular 
only in purpose. Built for peace and repaired for war, 
the Great Barrier has never been disappointing. Even 
the scenery is satisfactory. For one whole day we 



44 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

passed through a chain of canyons of marvelous beauty 
often blending into the sublime. Eighty miles north of 
the over-estimated city of Peking, capital of the vastest 
empire of mortals, are location, altitude, and grandeur 
fit for the Olympian godsl From the tide to a height 
of nearly a mile this stupendous structure of sublimity 
keeps steadily on its westward course. After beholding 
China's wonder of the world, we would hesitate to cross 
the street to see Egypt's pyramids, for wonder pur- 
poses! 

But the Great Barrier passes through regions pleas- 
ing to the scientist. The botanist can stock his her- 
barium as he travels from the sea to the Y through 
seven belts of flowers, in addition to shrubs, plants and 
trees. The ornithologist is in almost equal clover with 
six belts of birds, while the student of rocks and 
stones has awaiting him binary granites, sandstones and 
conglomerates of variety and design to exhilarate a 
Hugh Miller. The anthropologist will find abundant 
material among the "imperial tombs" where the empress 
dowager will be buried. The imperial reserve for burial 
purposes of the reigning family known as the Eastern 
Tombs is located against the Great Wall. Indeed, the 
Great Wall furnishes the inclosure with its protection 
on one side. A charming spot the geomancers marked 
out as "lucky" for the interment* of the rulers of the 
present dynasty. In the inclosure grow funereal pines, 
and death by strangulation is the penalty to any mortal 
who dares to cut or mar the trees. Here her late 

^ A spot which is considered lucky for the burial of a king would haire 
also been lucky for his birtl^u 




The Great Wnll of China Photo by Harrison Sackett Elliot 

View of the Great Wall north of Peking, where the tourists go to see the 
most wonderful wonder in the world. Notice width, excellent work- 
manship, and different style of hrick work arising from the terreplain 



A little imiMtience ipoila great plans. 

majesty, the empress dowager, who fell dead in fhe 
presence of her eunuchs on the twenty-second of this 
Chinese moon, will be buried in a gorgeous grave palace. 
Then for the biologist is ready a list of a score or more 
of wild creatures that run about, several awaiting the 
call of a good gun. For mere unscientific people who 
love beauty and do not want exact knowledge let us just 
mention the peonies, roses, clematis, snow-in-the-moun- 
tains, white dandelions, with an armful of others in 
great profusion, growing amidst environments fit for 
the feet of Cherubim! Nature has done no better 
work anywhere than along the Great Wall, nor is 
there any work of man superior to this to be seen 
amidst forest-clothed mountain, streams, and ravines. 

Turning to human nature, much is to be desired. 
The people dwelling near the Great Wall are mostly 
poor. Our one thousand li of travel was through a 
thousand U of poverty; a thousand li of ignorance, for 
the natives knew as little of the history and condition 
of the only wonder of the Far East as an American 
University graduate! One thousand li of goiter! This 
disease we have seen in many mountain lands among 
difi^erent peoples, but never with the same proportion 
as among the people of the Great Wall. 

The effort necessary to provide the material (stone, 
brick and mortar), carry it and lay it, only impresses 
the traveler when he is attempting to scale the almost 
inaccessible portions of the Wall. And such portions 
occupy no small part of the whole. It was impreg- 
nable to the enemy because inaccessible. Often we 



46 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

were hauled up by ropes, and many of the ascents were 
accomplished by holding on to the mule's tail. Yet it 
averages twenty feet in height and is wide enough for 
three or six mules to haul up three or six weary travel- 
ers abreast. 

As a sample of the mountain villages stowed away in 
the fastnesses of these heights along the Great Barrier 
may be mentioned "Thistle Ravine." Far from the 
"Barbarian Sea," as Euripides terms the "deep blue," 
there are two colors, the green of the mountains and the 
blue of the sky. These are, however, in almost infinite 
shades, for this bulge of a lofty valley is entirely sur- 
rounded by mountain peaks of strange and picturesque 
form. We asked a birth native how many families 
dwelt here, and he said: "Five or six." When we urged 
on him the ridiculousness of his not knowing the exact 
number in so small a place, and it the village of his birth 
from which he had never wandered, he replied: "Six"; 
laconic and correct. 

As there are not ten acres of flat land, every inchjs 
under cultivation, and work extends well up the steep 
slopes where the tiller of the soil must brace himself 
when planting, to prevent sliding down. Along the 
Wall at regular intervals are the remains of garrison 
towns, but Thistle Ravine, three thousand five hundred 
feet above the ocean currents, was not one of these. 

At twilight we arrived, after a hard climb, at the only 
open end of the only street. There being no inn to 
shelter us, the kindly mountaineers placed a new house 
at the disposal of the expedition. This was called "The 
House of the Lucky Star." A red cloth with a bit of 







c 

1 



•sb 



'3 



a 

I 



=3 



.9 **-> 

xi O 

o X3 



1 2 

S .Si 



There is no fence that does not let the wind throagh 

charcoal dangled at the door to prevent evU spirits 
bothering us. When "The House of the Lucky Star" 
is finished a basket of cakes will be upset and a general 
scramble ensue, to insure and augment the good luck. 
We were amused to find on the main timber of this very 
modest mansion a happy saying: "This is a Great 
Work." We were, they said, the first foreigners who 
ever burst into that quiet valley. Our glasses interested 
them and they had never heard of false teeth. Vaccina- 
tion was unknown; an old man seeing our automatic 
Cordite rifles asked if they would shoot rabbits. We 
replied in the affirmative and then told him the best way 
to catch a rabbit was to put salt on its tail. Behold at 
last we had found a place where the old joke was new! 
A whole family had smallpox in full blast. These are 
handworking people, and on the Great Wall near 
by are slabs with inscriptions naming the head brick- 
men, blacksmiths and stone masons who directed the 
repairs on the Great Barrier centuries ago. 

These highlanders are religious people. Often along 
the Wall have we seen towers and temples erected to the 
tutelary gods of the Northern Boundary, but here we 
found a vacant shrine. No incense difi^uses fragrance 
in the godless, mud-made cairn of Chihli K*ow. Near 
this idol-less, picture-less worship house, we came upon 
a native with an ugly gash upon his head. We asked 
him: "How came the gash?" He immediately replied: 
"That is an humiliating question." He had killed a 
badger and then entered into a quarrel with another 
hunter, with the result that the other struck first and 



48 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

foully. There is one bird here, found nesting in the 
pear trees, which the mountaineers do not kill. One was 
pointed out by an old man. He said that years ago an 
emperor, whose early morning slumbers had been dis- 
turbed by the noise of this bird at his palace window, 
issued a decree, forbidding all feathered creatures of 
this description to screech within forty U of Peking. It 
is generally reported that these birds heard of the decree 
and obeyed the "Ruler of all under Heaven" until this 
dayl The Great Wall passes through a region which is 
now sparsely settled, but which was probably densely 
populated in ancient days. Indeed the Great Wall 
suggests that centuries ago in this part of the country, 
China supported a larger population than at the present. 

Here at Thistle Ravine is one of the most entrancing 
views to be had in any land, the wonderful festooning 
of the Wall exactly on the sky line from mountain peak 
to mountain peak, following an almost inaccessible 
ridge, seemingly hung there by the Maker of the moun- 
tains. How it was constructed is a mystery. But there 
it is, towers and wall, and it has been there for cen- 
turies and never idle for a moment, defying the frost 
and the rain, the snow and the wind, or protecting the 
mountaineers from a strong enemy, who might over- 
whelm their slender force of warriors, and overrun their 
meager farms; in more ancient time, helping the 
imperial legions to prevent the capital of the empire 
from falling into robber hands. Last night we saw this 
marvelous sight by moonlight. It has no equal except 
a moonlight night on the Isle of Fatmos. 

This ponderous mass of masonry upon which we are 



V Y 




A slave is the worst of masters. 

now looking lies like some mythical monster, prone 
upon the shadowy mountain and the dreary plain, as if 
prostrated by the blow of a proportionate foe. It does 
not suggest impious pride or sinewy force, but enor- 
mous might. It was evidently inspired less by rage 
than by the desire to prevent rage in an age of rage. 
The fierce Mongols between this heavy line and the 
frozen north, elate with unerring bow would gladly 




precipitate themselves on the plodding peasants of the 
southland. It seems to us that the Wall was designed to 
preserve peace, and as such, still stands the most pro- 
nounced effort of ancient or modem times. Which 
will be the more potent promoter of peace, the temple 
at the Hague, or the Wall of Chin? The builder even 
two thousand years ago was ahead of the senseless mil- 
itarism of Europe. Warful nations have disappeared 
but the peaceful Chinese continue through millenniums. 
The warlike spirit boomerangs and destroys its author 
— ^peace pays I 



50 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

It was then and is now madness to trust individuals 
or nations or the chance of blind impious luck I To 
avoid by peaceful means a dreadful fate to friend or 
f oe, to make harmless the noisy and heedless passions of 
wild and wicked men, to impede rage, prevent horror, 
perfume wrath with hesitation, is fit achievement for 
gods and women! These chaste and admirable virtues 
are here found writ in stone, mostly in granite stone I 

A part then of this Great Wall is immortal. It can 
now boast a lengthy youth and an old age just begun. 
It has prevented many a "dreadful harvest of the 
sword," slaughter cumbrous and fresh, it has prevented 
many a shameful tribute to the unf athomed hatred of 
barbarian hordes! Great Wall, all hail! It remains 
true that it is better to lay stones than to throw them. 
A wall to protect the living is better than a ditch to 
cover the dead. Let immortal honors cluster and be- 
stow themselves to praise the virtue that conceived and 
constructed the greatest wall in the world which has 
for ages stood for peace and which has for ages diffused 
delay. Great Wall, all hail! 



CHAPTER VI 

The Ancient Architectural Wave 

Marvelous is this stupendous work of man. To read 
of it trailing its bulk along the edge of an empire is to 
court incredulity: to behold it climbing the sides of 
ravines, cresting the watersheds of ranges, striding 
across ravines, is to conceive a mighty admiration for 
its architect; to traverse it day after day for months is 
to grasp at the strenuous activity of the builders; to 
hear that every third able-bodied man of the empire was 
pressed into, service to pile the massy stones, is to gain 
some idea of the limitless power of its designer; to 
listen to the legends of the remorseless speed of its 
construction, so that tardy workmen were immured in 
the sections they lingered over, is to realize the hatred 
inspired and handed on for generations. What danger 
threatened, or was it but the spirit of that age like ours 
millenniums later? 

Did this vast construction rise phoenix-like from the 
relics of a former barrier? or did it spring like Minerva 
fuU-orbed from the brain of one man? Was it the 
magnifying of similar indigenous monuments, a mere 
developing of Chinese ideas? or was it inspired by 
foreign ideals, by tales of barbarian doings in the west- 
em world, by a determination to show that when the 
Son of Heaven condescended to look upon the works 
of the foreign devils, he could by one exertion of his 

61 



62 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

power utterly outshine all their puny efforts? Was 
this a contemptuous defiance of the Seven Wonders of 
the Holy Greeks, who by the year 276 had just heard 
of "Thina," as the writings of Eratosthenes show? 

Scarcely one hundred years prior to the ere^on of 
the Great Wall the victorious phalanx of Alexander, 
the Flying Leopard, whom Daniel had foreseen in his 
vision, advancing eastward, ground under his heavy 
heel the beautiful "strong city Tyre," scattered the 
power of Persia and finally advanced into India in 
search of costlier conquests. He wisely avoided China! 
His ten years of military activity were not merely bril- 
liant maneuvers and series of bloody victories. The 
motives of Alexander-the-Great-Butcher must not be 
sought in martial movements. His conquests were for 
the better purpose, for the spreading of Hellenism 
among the nations of the earth. 

This Grecianizing leaven aimed at physical and intel- 
lectual culture; beauty and liberty — ^which is why the 
Greeks planted among the conquered peoples cities — 
centers of this influence. Alexander himself built no 
less than seventy cities. Indeed, he stretched a chain 
of cities from Media to Sparta, to disseminate the prin- 
ciples of the Greeks. And under the quiet, happy rule 
of the Ptolemies of mummy fame, the Grecian towns 
near and within Egyptian borders fostered the new 
ideas and many cities sprang up between the two 
mother metropolises, Alexandria and Antioch. 

Like Palestine, Rome, that world-conquering empire 
which "made the Mediterranean a Roman lake," came 
under the influence of Grecian culture. But Grecian 



It is euy to see the king of Hsdes, txit not one of 
his imps. 

manners and customs brought with them luxury and 
nocturnal festivities which, coupled with unwonted wan- 
tonness, sapped the life of the nation, and the fatal fall 
of the mighty but immoral mistress of the world was 
hastened. At the time of the building of the Great 
WaU commercialism and materialism had so com- 
pletely undermined the morals of Rome that civU mar- 
riages and divorces were no longer uncommon. Cato 
the Elder, foreseeing the eventual ruin, gave this advice 
to his son: "The Greek race is very vicious, and believe 
this as the voice of an oracle, with its literature will spoil 
everything at Rome!" And he might have said every- 
where else except in the Far East. 

The temporary glory of Hellenism shone most re- 
splendently from Alexandria in Egypt, which was 
founded 882 B.c. by Alexander near the delta of the 
Nile, out of the village Rhakotis. Its growth was 
marvelous and it soon ranked as the model metropolis 
with regular streets, magnificent sky-scrapers (four 
stories high), palaces and parks, a city of 500,000 
habitants. Here was the emporium of the western 
world, where the celebrated fine linen, so closely woven 
that its texture had one hundred and fifty threads to 
the inch, made by a secret process similar to that for 
which Sardis was famous, had an inunense foreign sale. 

But Alexandria gloried most in her scholarship. She 
was the intellectual center. The Museum — ^the shrine 
where the Muses are to be worshiped — sheltered the 
various philosophic schools. There Aristarchus edited 
critical and grammatical works, and left commentaries 



54 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

which are the basis of our investigations. Here also 
was the largest library on earth, containing five hundred 
thousand volumes. Most of these were originals which 
had been seized and for which copies had been given in 
return. The half -million volumes accumulated in this 
perfectly modern fashion were stored in the Temple of 
Serapis, the Serapeion. 

The city boasted of splendidly equipped observa- 
tories, zoological and botanical gardens. Fhiladelphus 
in 250 B.C. raised a temple here in honor of his father 
and placed therein statues of gold and ivory to be wor- 
shiped like gods. The feast which he gave at his acces- 
sion to the throne cost over $500,000, the most splendid 
festival ever seen, one in which the proud city of 
Alexandria enjoyed the most pompous pageants and 
the greatest games, "for the spoils of whole provinces 
were sacrificed to the curiosity of a single day to 
raise the frivolous admiration of a stupid populace." 
Among the men of the world, few have possessed the 
wealth ascribed to King Philadelphus, estimated at 
$750,000,000. 

During his reign he caused to be constructed among 
other projects the tomb to his sister Arsenoe. In this 
Dionachores, his architect, proposed to build a room of 
loadstone and place an iron statue of her, to be sus- 
pended without support in the air between roof and 
floor.* This plan, however, was not executed. The 
ancients kindly left this for moderns. 

"I would entreat thy company, 
To see the wonders of the world." 
^Did not the Moslem tradition of Mohammed's coiBn originate here? 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

Top of section of Mountain Wall sealed with mortar and stone. Mule- 
Horse Pass 



Tbe grass does not more when there is no wind. 

When the Great Wall of Chin was begun the narrow 
Hellenic world was discussing and admiring seven 
stupendous structures, the Seven Wonders of antiquity. 
Among these the greatest are the Walls and Hanging 
Gardens of "the Gate of God/' Babylon. The walls of 
this ancient capital, said old Herodotus, were fifteen 
miles on the side, eighty-seven feet wide, and three hun- 
dred and fifty feet perpendicular, and built in fifteen 
days. On each side were great gates of solid bronze 
which gave easy entrance to the inclosure. Towers, 
picturesque and powerful, rose at regular intervals ten 
feet above the parapet. The arrangement of the 
streets, each fifteen miles long, was so uniform that 
every well-compacted gate was joined directly to one 
lying opposite: the city having magnificent highways 
in each direction.* 

The Hanging Gardens built either by or for a woman 
stood within a triple mass of masonry in the ill-omened 
palace and formed a perfect square four hundred feet 
to the side. Terraces, one above the other, rose on vast 
arches, which were raised on other arches. A stair of 
stone gave ample access to these elevations, while the 

^''Already we know more of the glories of Babylon than Herodotus has 
been able to tell us, and a correct idea of the more important part of the 
city can even now be obtained. From the plans drawn up, we must dia^ 
miss from our minds the picture of a four-square city with all the streets 
at light angles Uke those of the great cities of America, and gates to the 
numt)er of a hundred giving access to the principal thoroughfares. Baby- 
lon was no larger, Delitzsch says, than Dresden or Munich, and the walls 
as traced by the explorers, though roughly rectangular, inclosed a very 
irregularly-shaped tract." T. Q. Pinches (Journal R. A. S.) Which is 
correct, Herodotus or Pinches? 



56 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

whole amazing garden was encircled by a wall seventy- 
two feet thick. 

Ponderous stones sixteen by four feet were laid over 
these strong and graceful arches, and upon them was 
spread a thick layer of reeds and bitumen; this again 
was covered with two rows of bricks cemented together 
by mortar made with slime from the Dead Sea. Lastly 
a thick covering of lead prevented the percolation of 
moisture from the mold that had been spread upon it. 
These unequaled gardens were adorned with gorgeous 
flowers, fragrant shrubs, and trees large and diverse. 
A pump placed in the upper terrace formed the water 
works. 

Wonder No. 2} Proud Kuf u built the Great Pyra- 
mid at Gizeh as his tomb. Shifting every three months, 
a hundred thousand men were constantly employed for 
ten years in its construction, and a million dollars' worth 
of onions and other vegetables were consumed by these 
same workmen. 

Its original height was over four hundred and eighty 
feet, the length of its base seven himdred and sixty-four 
feet. Pliny considered these pyramids as "Regum 
pecuniae otiosa ac stulta ostentatio," a foolish and idle 
display of the wealth of kings. This is the only "won- 
der" remaining to this day. 

Wonder No. j. Third among the wonders of the 
ancient world was the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, 
dated originally 772 b.c. Built in the name and at the 
expense of Asia Minor, its construction, according to 

^In chronological order the Great Pyramid of Kufu came long before 
the gloiy of "The Gate of God." 



The first time it is a &Toar, the tecoad a rale. 

Pliny, took over two centuries. "Of this temple great 
speech was made throughout the world." 

It is of gigantic size, four hundred and twenty-five 
feet in length, two hundred and twenty-five feet in 
width; more than six score costly columns sixty feet 
high, each dedicated by a king, supported the roof of 
this marvelous building. Master artists vied with each 
other to excel in adorning the edifice. On the night 
Alexander was bom, one Herostratus set it on fire for 
no other purpose than to make himself known to pos- 
terity. It was therefore a rebuilt temple that attracted 
sightseers in the days of Chin. 

Wonder No. 4* Next in time is the statue of Jupiter 
Olympus; the work of Phidias, who carved it at Elis in 
485 B.C. It is novel in this that it is* the work of revenge. 
Forced to withdraw from Athens to escape the intrigues 
of his rivals, he began making a statue of Jupiter which 
should eclipse the statue of Minerva which he had 
carved for the Athenians. This he achieved. It was 
carved in gold and ivory, sixty feet high and wrought 
so well that it was believed nothing could ever surpass 
it. At the base were graved these words, a seal of 
approbation from the god, "Phidias the Athenian made 
me. 

Wonder No. 6. The fifth wonder of the world was 
the work of a woman, the beautiful tomb of Mausolus, 
known as the Mausoleum. His widowed wife caused 
it to be erected in 854 at Halicarnassus in Caria. The 
four most famous sculptors of the time adorned the 
beautiful structure, each embellishing a side. It was 



58 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

oblong in shape, surrounded by six and thirty Ionic 
columns, crowned by a pyramid diminishing by twenty- 
four steps to the summit. A colossal marble quadriga 
crowned the top. The total height was one hundred 
and thirty feet. The marble lions, the magnificent 
frieze, its gorgeous color effect caused the admiration 
of all beholders. And this was all. For Mrs. Mausolus 
placed her husband's sacred ashes in costly wine and 
drank the hideous mixture, desiring that her husband's 
body should be buried in her own body. 

Wonder No. 6. The watch-tower lighthouse at 
Pharos, completed in 288 B.C. in the reign of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus. It stood on the island of Pharos, named 
after a pilot buried there. Its marble tower rose to a 
height of four hundred and fifty feet, and on its top a 
fire was kept burning which was visible at a distance of 
one hundred miles. This "wonder" endured for fifteen 
hundred years. Sostratus, commissioned to build it for 
the price of $800,000, carved his own name into the 
great pillar, neglecting to do honor to the king whose 
munificence was responsible for the erection of the 
lighthouse. Ordered to correct this neglect, he filled 
the hollow with mortar and carved therein: "King 
Ptolemy to the gods, the saviors, for the' benefit of 
sailors." The mortar finally crumbled away and re- 
vealed the original inscription, showing the modem 
spirit of the architect who had carved: 

"Sostratus the Cnidian, son of Dexiphanes, to the 
gods, the saviors, for the benefit of sailors." 

Wonder No. 7. Closer to the time of the Great Wall 
came the Colossus at Rhodes, finished 280 b.c. after 



Better giye a monthfti] to the hnngry than a 
tyoahelfiil to the well-led. 

twelve years of buflding. Chares of Lindus wrought 
this stupendous brass statue, — ^so tall that ships in full 
sail might have passed between its legs, but they didn't. 
It was one hundred and five feet high and occupied a 
place in the harbor. The thumb could hardly be 
clasped with both arms. A winding staircase led to the 
top of this Tor de Speechi whence by aid of glasses 
hung around the neck of the statue a view could be had 
off the shores of Syria. It cost $400,000. 

While the Great Wall was building an earthquake 
shook Greece and destroyed this gigantic figure. It 
was never built up again. The Seven Wonders, to quote 
a medieval, were big "prosperous edifices, of exagger- 
ated hugeness, dazzling and ruinous luxury." 

Four Great Roads. While Grecian architecture 
erected monuments of grace and beauty, Rome worked 
persistently along more useful lines; she began to build 
highways. The queen of roads, the Via Appia, most 
important and celebrated as a highway, was built in 
812 B.C. under Appius Claudius Carcus and paid for 
with money collected as fines from rich estate holders. 
It put Rome into connection with such important towns 
as Capua and Brindisium, paved with blocks of lava 
for a distance of three hundred miles. A network of 
roads sprang into existence branching off from this 
great highway, and enlacing Italy. 

Then came the Via Latina, also running south. By 
it Rome had direct communication with Beneventum, 
one hundred and forty miles distant. Another ancient 
road, if not the oldest, was the Via Solaria, running 



60 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

from the CoUine Gate to Ancona on the coast of the 
Adriatic. Branch roads from this later crossed the 
Apennines to Ficenum. 

In 220 B.C., while Chin was considering the project of 
building the Great Wall, Consul Flaminius fortified 
Italy by adding the Via Flamirda to the many military 
roads. The terminal points of it are Rome and Ari- 
minum to the northeast, about one hundred and fifty 
miles distant. 

Rome after the first Punic War saw her wealth in- 
creasing and with that her power. With the luxurious 
life also came the desire for larger architectural develop- 
ment. Dumey suggests that Rome's art until then had 
been sacerdotal, i.e., it served merely for ornamenting 
the temples. But now moneys were appropriated to 
works of public utility; an aqueduct was constructed by 
Carius, and after 275 a new mint was erected to coin 
gold instead of silver as before; new temples were 
reared more from a feeling of vanity in perpetuating 
the glory of a family than from a sense of piety and 
devotion. 

For a time this revival of art received a check through 
the coming of young Hannibal into Italy and his march 
toward Rome. Having sworn eternal hatred to Rome 
this Carthaginian leader of great genius crossed the 
Alps at precisely the time when a Chinese emperor, a 
greater genius. Chin Chihhuang Ti, is occupied with his 
building projects. Contrast these two historic charac- 
ters, one bent on massacre, the other on masonry. The 
terrible losses Hannibal sustained in crossing the Alps 
were not serious enough to prevent him engaging the 




C 



c 

c 
o 

c 

IS 



^ I 



A lost inch of gold may be foond, a lost inch of 
time never. 

Roman army at Lake Trasimene in 216. Victorious in 
this massacre the one-eyed general administered so 
crushing a defeat to the Romans at the bloody battle 
of Cannae in 216, when seventy-two thousand Roman 
soldiers, together with eighty senators and the flower 
of the army, fell, that it remained a black day in Roman 
history. In those days so many knights were killed 
that young Hannibal stripped from the fingers three 
bushels of red-stained rings and sent them to Carthage. 

The chief characteristics of the epoch of the Great 
Wall seem to have been butchering and building. The 
Great Wall stands at the close of the greatest building 
age of antiquity. Athens, under Pericles, had risen to 
unwonted splendor. What a stately array of edifices 
were on the hill-crest of the Acropolis I Then was 
built the Parthenon, the edifice which critics of all 
schoob have pronounced the most faultless in design 
and execution of all buildings erected by man. It cost 
$700,0001 

It is interesting and astonishing to learn of the spirit 
of enterprise which filled one of the ancient architects, 
Dinocrates, the later architect of Alexandria. He pre- 
sented plans and designs to Alexander so stupendous 
that they are hardly credible. Dinocrates actually pro- 
posed cutting Mount Athos into the form of a man who 
should hold a great city in his left hand and in his right 
a cup to receive all the rivers which ran from that 
mountain and to pour them into the sea. Alexander, 
alive to every great opportunity and fond of the stu- 
pendous, did not seem to have favored this undertaking. 



62 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

In Egypt the Ptolemies were active. The engineer- 
ing projects of Philadelphus would do credit to modem 
engineering art. He planned a great canal one hun- 
dred and seventy feet wide and fifty feet deep which 
should connect Pelusium on the eastern branch of the 
Nile with the Red Sea, so that the vessels from the sea 
might be brought into the interior. 

Not only on land but on sea the stupendous pre- 
vailed. The types of naval architecture of that period 
both in point of luxury and comfort, would do credit 
to a modem nation. The Egyptians had one war vessel 
four hundred and twenty feet long, with fifty-seven 
feet beam, carrying forty banks of oars, weighted with 
lead at the handles to more easily move them. Four 
thousand rowers were required to propel this behemoth 
and four hundred sailors stood ready to shift its sails. 
On its deck enough room was left to draw up in rank 
two thousand soldiers and at its prow were seven beaks 
with which to strike the ships of the enemy. 

About the same time Hiero of Syracuse constructed 
under the direction of Archimedes, the inventor-philoso- 
pher, a vessel each side of which was divided into thirty 
apartments, besides quarters for the officers and the 
crew. All floors in these apartments were of mosaic 
representing scenes from the Iliad of Homer; the ceil- 
ings and other parts were also sumptuously finished. 
Between the upper decks was a gymnasium and prom- 
enades among arbors and gardens with plants and 
shrubs of all kinds beautifully arranged, both a hanging 
and a floating garden. One room had a floor inlaid with 
agate and precious stones, ceiling of cypress wood, 



/ 



Who thinks much of wealth and little of father and 
mother is not a son. 

and windows adorned with ivory and statuary. Nor 
was this all; there was a library and an observatory 
equipped with astronomical instruments. Finally it 
contained a bathroom of the most elaborate kind. 

But the vessel was not merely for pleasure, it was a 
man-of-war as well. For defensive purposes eight 
towers had been erected, from each of which men hurled 
missiles against the enemy from machines throwing 
stones three hundred pounds in weight. 

"These prodigies of art, and wondrous cost.*** 

In the realm of the intellectual a galaxy of names 
have made the achievements of the past seem inimitable. 
Homer, Pindar and Sappho had left their legacy of 
poetry, Herodotus had begun to set down in writing 
the history of the glorious deeds of the Greeks. Law- 
givers like Solon and Draco, and philosophers, no 
lesser ones than Socrates, Plato and Aristotle had 
reasoned among their generation. The seven wise men 
of Greece had been gathered to their fathers, and the 
standards of Sophocles and Aristophanes and Aeschylus 
set by them for the drama had inspired those who after 
them aspired to honor. Greece had had her most 
powerful persuasive orator Demosthenes, while the four 
schools of philosophy^ had been established, and the 
old Hebrew Testament, the most remarkable and valu- 
able of all ancient literature, was being translated into 
Greek 1 The epoch of the Great Wall was a period of 
great thinking and colossal achievement! 

« Ody wey. Book IV. 

'Peripatetics^ Stoics, Epicureans and Academics. 



64 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Eratosthenes, about this time, makes an attempt to 
ascertain the length of a degree, and in 240 B.c. calcu- 
lates the magnitude of the earth, while Archimedes 
makes his calculations and inventions in Syracuse. 

Plutarch begins writing biography; medicine and 
surgery command new interest and attention* Botany 
and pure mathematics, also mechanics, advance with 
rapidity, while Tenodatus and Aristophus of Byzan- 
tium make their first philological discoveries. 

Pergamus, the rich capital of Mysia, vies with 
Alexandria in learning and sculpture. Her wealth is 
untold, for she harbors part of the plunder of Asia that 
Alexander had amassed. Her school of sculpture 
leaves the world the beautiful statue of "The Dying 
Gladiator." A century later Mark Antony is to give 
his precious parchment library of two hundred thousand 
volumes to Miss— or Mistress — Cleopatra of Egypt 
for a kiss. 

About 250 B.C. there sprang up a new;, independent 
kingdom in the East, to become a most powerful and 
formidable power, Parthia. Arsaces foimded it after 
expelling the Macedonians. The new domain cor- 
responded to the modem Khorasam. 

The eminent French scholar Choisy holds that a 
wave of architectural ideas, starting from Chaldea and 
Egypt, swept eastward. The combined influence of 
Egyptian and Ass3rrian architecture is meant, for both 
countries influenced each other at an early period. In 
Persia are tombs built after the style of those in Egypt. 

The revival of architecture and building in India 
almost coincides with the building of the Great Wall in 





L-^-x'*^.^ ; ■'/ 










1 




i '-^L 


r^'^' n^ 




1 






o ^ 



5 

a 



53 O d 



g 

•? 






The great monntain does not reject the smelleet doit. 

China. It is the inauguration of a new period in Indian 
architecture known as the Buddhist period. Eang 
Asoka was then ruler over Afghanistan, Hindustan, 
South India, and Ceylon. At first he was devoted to 
the worship of Brahma, but having come under the 
teaching of Buddha he embraced the new faith. Asoka 
(286-226 B.C.) according to Buddhist legends massacred 
a hundred sons his father had by sixteen different wives, 
and extended his empire. With him began the history 
of Buddhist architecture. He caused columns with 
inscriptions, commending loving-kindness, virtue, for- 
bearance, temperance to be erected after his conver- 
sion to Buddhism. 

From this time dates the Buddhist period. Choisy 
thinks that the remains of these temples clearly show 
the influence of Greek architecture, which may have 
come by way of Persia and Bactria. 

The wave of Greek influence did not touch China. 
That Chma in the origin of her art is indebted to Chal- 
dea we question. Mu-Wang,* when Chaldean art was 
at its zenith, caused terraced temples to be erected for 
astral worship, and the introduction of astrology. This 
may show the influence of the art he saw in distant 
lands. And it is possible that he also brought back with 
him the knowledge of painting on wood and the use of 
varnish and enamel which were known to the Chaldeans 
and the Egyptians. But the potter's art and brick 

^The general opinioD among scholan ia that Mn-Wang did not go lo 
very far afield after all^-certainly nothing like w far as the Mediterranean. 
Mo-Wang faimaelf Is hardly more than semi-historlcaL 



66 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

making were carried to great perfection in China in 
remotest times.* 

In the building of the Great Wall we have every 
evidence that the use of mortar was known, for entire 
parts of this Wall were constructed, or at least faced, 
with baked bricks by way of mortar. Outside of the 
Chinese the Persians seems to have been the only nation 
which employed mortar in construction. Rome made 
use of it only after she had come in contact with 
Persia. The nations east of the Euphrates from 
remotest times knew the use of unbaked brick; and 
Dr. Schliemann in his excavations at Troy found walls 
of houses with baked and unbaked brick forty-five 
centimeters square. 

The use of brick was necessary for the nations where 
wood was not in abundance and unavailable for build- 
ing purposes. Hence Egypt and Persia largely used 
brick; Assyria, though having access to stone, preferred 
the use of brick. The brick-yards of Chaldea were a 
gigantic industry and the greatest structures in that 
country are made of brick pise, i.e. of wet clay bricks 
laid one on top of the other and then stamped down 
without any further cementing material. 

Here then we have abundant tokens of massive archi- 
tecture in the West. Whether of stone, of baked brick, 
or clay, there are huge piles which even in ruins excite 
the wonder of the present day. But did the West set 
the fashion for China? 

*Augustc Choisy, HUtoire de fArchiUeiure, Vol. 1, p. 180. 

"La Chine et le Japon sont ies contrto 6u Fart de la poterie s'est le 
plus developp^: la brique s'y fabrique avec uns rare perfection ct Tnaage 
en paratt fort andea." 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

The veneering of cut stone has fallen away exposing the rubble construc- 
tion inside. This is peculiar to mountain regions. Xortheast of the 
Thirteen Tombs 



It is too Ute to reia in your hone when oil the 
precipioe, and to mend a leak when in mid-atfeam. 

China was not addicted to taking hints from other 
peoples, and in this case all the evidence fails to link it 
up with even Bactria. The wave which started from 
Egypt and rolled on through Babylon, leaving behind 
it such huge deposits as pyramids, hanging gardens, 
towers of Babel, royal palaces, was split by the moun- 
tains. On the barriers of Afghanistan it dashed itself 
in vain, and India was left untouched by the art of the 
despised outcast. Thus through Asoka there came to 
China nothing of this cyclopean rage. Out to the east 
of the Caspian another part of the wave flowed into the 
desert, but there lost itself in the sands. We can trace 
nothing that joins on the plans of Chin and his conge- 
ners with Kufu or Nitocris or Alexander. Chin was 
original. 

Since China and India have come under the influence 
of nations where gigantic structures were in existence, 
and the cause of much admiration, the question has been 
raised why these two nations are now lacking in monu- 
mental works. The answer to this must be sought in 
the conditions and government of the people. Among 
the nations whose edifices we have mentioned, these 
monuments owe their existence largely to monarchs 
or individuals for the purpose of perpetuating their 
name and glory, whereas China and India, agricultural 
and therefore less vain, built largely for the present 
needs of the people. Thus we find outside of the at- 
tempt of Chih-Huang-ti to embellish his capital, no 
other but structures of utility like canals and highways, 
and structures of defense, among which the Great Wall 



68 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

stands as the most conspicuous type of all times. The 
Great Wall marked a great epoch. 

Thus, satisfied as to the originality of Chin and the 
uniqueness of his conceptions, we resume our survey of 
the mighty monument to his glory, uncoiling and luring 
us westward toward the home state of its huilder. 




The Great Wall of China Photo by F. E. Dilly, M.A., M.D. 

The celebrated "Language Arch," or Hexagonal Gateway at the Nankow 
Pass. The North Face is here shown (the South Face is the same 
design). The Arch, the crown and haunches of which form the sides of 
a hexagon, is 20 feet across at the base, 30 feet through, and has 5 Bud- 
dhas on each side of the flat haunches. In the perpendicular wall on 
either side are large tablets of granite with inscriptions in divers 
languages 



CHAPTER VII 

From the Thirteen Tombs to China* a Sorrow 

Tombs and a flood we sing; or at least that section 
of the Great Wall which is verged by two gruesome 
termini, the Thirteen Tombs and the Yellow River- 

The Eastern Y sends off its northern arm of the 
wall, a part of which we have seen. It passes from the 
Eastern Y through Kalgan, but is badly out of repair, 
while still farther to the north are the remains of yet 
another wall. Not far from Chu-yung is a famous 
marble arch spanning the road along the Government 
Pass; six centuries ago it was built, with carvings ajid 
inscriptions in no fewer than six languages. This has 
been visited and photographed so often that we be- 
lieved in its existence, and preferred to explore along 
a less known line of the Wall. 

Theinner line of defense starts from the Eastern Y, 
joining the outer hundreds of miles to the west and not 
far from the Yellow River. Before we went far along, 
we came to the famous Thirteen Tombs of the Ming 
dynasty, the great line that re-fortified the wall and held 
it long against the Tartars. This mountainous mauso- 
leum is to be carefully distinguished from the Western 
Tombs of the present dynasty, to be described farther 
on. 

The Mings consulted an adept in the study of the 
Book of the Blue Bag, a classic of geomancy some 

69 



70 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

thousand years old. He, by the aid of the magic to]> 
toise shell fixed upon a felicitous ground which the 
emperor approved, and re-named the Mount of Im- 
perial Longevity. Here was laid out the first of the 
Thirteen Tombs, and here most of the race were 
interred. 

Changling chien is the home of the hereditary tomb- 
guardians. The pride of their charge is the mound of 
the man who finished the northern capital, Yung Lo. 
There his corpse lay in state for a year while the pro- 
fessors of geomancy awaited a lucky day for the burial. 
Then it was put to its last home about thirteen miles 
from the Wall; a huge mound was piled above, and in 
his soul tower a tablet was erected to his memory. One 
by one others were buried hard by, till the lucky num- 
ber of thirteen was complete by the last Ming slaying 
himself on the conical coal hill in the palace yard. The 
cemetery was garnished with a dozen gigantic mono- 
liths of men, and two dozen of animals: so impressive 
are they in their cold, silent majesty, standing naturally 
on the soil without pedestals, that a later emperor 
thought of transporting all to grace his own tomb; but 
a horrified chamberlain chipped a piece off each, and 
thus rendered them unthinkable as decorations for a 
new tomb. It was this dynasty which ended the bury- 
ing alive of wives and concubines; perhaps these statues 
were erected in place of them. 

Our interest lay heavy on Lung Ch^ing, for along 
the Wall many tablets told us of his interest in the 
Great Barrier. 

The main spirit road does not lead directly to the 




Dr. W. A. P. Martin in the Western Hills near Peking 




The Great Wall of China Photo by A. M. Cunningham 

Coal Hill, inside the Imperial Palace Grounds, Peking, where the Last 
of the Mings hanged himself 



Flaying the zither to an ass and talking aatiology 
to the blind. 

septilcher of Lung Ch'ing; the Thirteen Tombs Ke in 
a valley mantled with pines and arhores vitae, into 
which lead half a score of picturesque passes, winding 
between thirteen hills, and f onning a lovely theater for 
the imperial shades. As we approached the group of 
massive mounds, we noted another instance of how East 
and West differ: Menelaus spoke for the Egean: 

"For if the gods are wise 
They lightly scatter dust upon the tomb 
Of the brave man who by his foes is slain ; 
But pile whole mountains on the coward's breast." 

Here, however, the artificial mountain is piled by 
reverential men above a hero. And yet not all his sub- 
jects reverenced Lung Ch*ing- As we climbed up the 
very steep stone stairway to his soul tower, we were 
rewarded by the sight of the famous tablet, shattered. 
"'Is is possible that after all the geomancers made a 
mistake and chose an unlucky spot?"* The guardian 
wavered; either some indignant workmen thus vented 
their revenge on the tyrant who had forced them to 
slave on the Wall; or else a "clap of thunder" had come 
to the wrong shrine in mistake for the thunder temple. 

The geomancers in their art of balancing the influ- 
ences of wind, water and hill, not only chose to put 
the imperial suicide beside Lung Ch*ing, but balanced 
the grave by a tablet with a moon upon it. This was 
reputed to wax and wane with the original in the sky, 
but the machinery is out of gear and there seems only 

*A mistake made in preparing the grave of the third emperor of the 
Sung dynasty defeated a conspiracy. 



72 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

some moonshine about the incident The Great Wall 
has fascinated these cemetery surveyors, for there are a 
very large number of graves hard by the Great Ram- 
part; indeed, some have actually been excavated in its 
thickness. Hence it has been fantastically termed: 
"The longest cemetery on earth.'* 

In the catacombs of Rome, amid the tombs of the 
dead, the living Christians sometimes sought shelter 
from the persecutions of the emperor or the fury of the 
mob. And so it was in this cemetery. Hard by here 
there were fugitive Christians who found safety a few 
years ago, hiding in the caves or the strong towers of 
the Great Wall, while others less fortunate lie buried 
not far away. Wliile the refugees were here, they 
wrote loving messages on any material they could find, 
and some of these precious documents have been found; 
perchance more await the explorer who would trace the 
results of the recent madness. Men have wondered 
whether life has become too monotonous and gray for 
the purple of heroism to show itself; whether in this 
ease-loving age the severer tests of character would not 
excite solicitude and alarm. "Should the cycle of time 
return us to the martyr days with vast amphitheaters 
crowded to the parapet, what then? Lions, tigers, racks, 
boiling oil, slow fire, mutilation; will these elicit the 
Christian virtues?" No cycle of time is needed, only a 
change of place; Uganda and China have exhibited to 
this generation men in such straits, climbing the steep 
ascent of heaven through peril, toil and pain. 

On a spot north of this inner loop perished eleven 
white and thirty-two yellow Christians. For the whites 



In the prosperity and decay of the fUte n common 
man has his share. 

there was no option; death was certain, and was made 
attractive as an end of awful torture devised by an 
ingenious, implacable and atrocious foe; they met it 
with a calmness bom of eternal hope. But in the yel- 
lows there was an opportunity to bow to Buddha; a very 
few under unparalleled trials slipped through this loop- 
hole; most joined the victors who bear the palm-branch 
of victory. The whites were beheaded first, then, in 
horrid mockery of the Christian sacrament, the natives 
were obliged to kneel and drink their blood before they, 
too, received the death blow. Here then is one of the 
sacred spots of earth. The Invalides, Westminster, 
Mount Vernon? These entomb no martyrs for Christ. 
The tumuli of Croesus, the pyramid of Cheops, the 
thirteen Ming tombs, what are they beside these humble 
graves of Shan-si, where lie, between the two arms of 
the Great Wall, the Martyrs of the North? 

Are the Chinese bloody? In the last fifty years they 
have shed less gore than any nation half their size. 
These believers in the Sacred Edict with its sixteen' 
maxims have taken fewer lives than followers of the 
Swordless Christ, believers in the Ten Commandments. 
The Civil War in America, Austrians, Prussians and 
French in central Europe, Russia and Turkey to the 
east, Britons in South Africa! May not the Chinaman 
kill a paltry two hundred when Christendom slaughters 
a hundredfold I 

From the graves of the humble Christians, pass to the 
magnificent cemetery of their persecutors, the Western 
Tombs of the present dynasty. This is the third Im- 



74 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

penal Burial Reserve we have met along the Wall; 
the first is the Eastern Mausolea, more popular of re- 
cent years; the second is the more ancient Graveyard 
of the Mings with their thirteen tombs; this is the 
Western Cemetery, southwest of Peking. Here are 
permanent camps where a garrison commanded by a 
prince of the blood keeps guard over the bones of his 
ancestors. A rugged mountain ridge forms the north- 
em boundary; dark pines rustle over the wide ex- 
panse, whence gleam the red walls and gilded roofs 
of the edifices. Canals border ofi^ one plot from an- 
other, and stately marble bridges span them for roads 
to the tombs. 

Visit one of the older monuments. They face south 
to gamer in the favorable influences. Inscriptions 
in Chinese, Manchurian and Mongol characters — ^for 
this dynasty is foreign — ^adom the avenue. Pass over 
the waterway, along the paved road, under the arch- 
ways, and when expectation is kindling, behold an altar 
for the emperor alone to sacrifice upon, in a court 
reserved for his sole use. Seek the goal of this mag- 
nificent approach, and there is a throne, draped in 
yellow silk, whereon is mounted the tablet of the de- 
parted. Before it is a table with censors and with 
bowls for the blood of the sacrifices. Is this the end? 
Behind the building is the hill scarped vertical, and with 
a recess marking where the tunnel was driven in to 
receive the coffin of the dead ruler. Is it true that when 
the bearers carried in their ponderous burden, the 
masons waited not for their return, but walled up the 
quick and the dead together? 




I 



H 



o 

JZ 



be 

.2 

e 



-3 



O 

JZ 

H 



o 






»•• 

Retmke yoniaelf as you rebuke others ; love othen 
•s yon lore yowsell. 

Tao Kuang, who died in 1850, is the last emperor 
entombed here, with his household grouped around. 
But since this journey along the Great Wall began 
the last sovereign of his race has been laid at rest among 
these Western Tombs of a dynasty that is marvelously 
transforming its realms after a vain struggle against 
the forces of change.^ 

Many towers of the Great Barrier remain intact, 
and even much of the Wall. Thus far in our trip of 
six hundred miles we appreciate the work of the en- 
gineers who brought masses of stone, brick and mortar 
and built them solidly. But our native companions 
appreciate yet more highly the work of the geomancers 
who fixed the sites of the towers, and so brought down 
good influences on the fields around. One guide would 
never enter a tower without kotowing thrice and re- 
peating a formula for luck, a prayer to the god of war. 

The Wutai Shan is a lofty shrine near this Wall; 
and if the Wall is in a fair way to become sacred, the 
Wutai Shan has arrived. Only, strange to say, it 
is sacred to the Mongols, the people who were to be kept 

'In this Imperial Forest Reserve are various animals, including three 
varletieB of wildcat, the long-haired, common, and spotted; three hamsters, 
the desert, striped and common; two jerboas, the dipui Sowerbyi, and 
the alactaga which has five toes, instead of three, and larger, longer ears. 
Then there are the interesting goitered antelope, badger hedgehog, mole, 
moLe-ntf myotis, suslik or ground squirrel, chipmunk, and rodents. The 
hare and his near relation, the pika, enjoy the Western Tombs as do rats 
and nats. 

The large forest, a day's journey south of the Wall at Ningwufu, in 
addition to tlie above accommodates the roe deer, Peking stag, leopard, 
wild pig^ David's squirrel, musk deer, and small mice, while north of the 
Inner Loop are mountain sheep, with enormous horns, who endure 'Hhe bold 
society of wolves and foxes.** 



76 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

out by the Wall, and yet it is within the circuit. Per- 
haps many centuries later it attracted them within and 
nerved them for the onslaught. If once again the 
hardy horsemen of the north seek to flood over the 
empire, this racial shrine may prove of crucial im- 
portance. If the Jewish fanatics rallied against the 
legions at Jerusalem, if a Christian assault on Mecca 
be almost unthinkable, let the Russian bear hesitate 
before provoking the Mongols by violating this sacred 
mountain, whence the more pious will return even a 
thousand miles, measuring their length on the ground. 

The Wall itself finds votaries all along its course. 
The mortar from its crevices works wonderful cures, 
especially for punctures of the dermis. "If you cut 
a mouth in your hand, take of the Magic Mortar quan- 
tum suff. and pulverize, take an unborn mouse and 
mash it into the powdered lime; apply the ointment to 
the mouth. Should the mouse be not available, sub- 
stitute oil.*' The same mixture is good for bums — or 
is good to take oif more skin. If applied internally 
it will cure stomach-ache; for an average stomach and 
an average ache take a pill the size and shape of a lotus- 
seed; for a baby, less. Life may be hard in China, 
but death seems harder if men will try such remedies 
as Boho, Frog-blood-extract, Mouse-mortar-pills. 

The pathos of life here was well illustrated by the 
gloom of a coolie met at a fork in a road. We asked 
which branch led to the Wall, and how far oif it was; 
he told the way, and told correctly enough that it was 
three miles off. "But I have not seen it; to gather 
fuel takes me from early morning till toward sunset 




The Great Wall of China 
Tower No. 41 Ch'a TzU at Tushancheng 



Photos by Dr. Geil 



mmm^f&mm 77 

A dragon floandering in shallow waters incnn the 
ridicale of shrimpa. 

in the woods; then the heavy burden prevents me from 
looking up, and I have never set eyes upon it." Yet 
how many Londoners have seen the Tower? How 
many Kentuekians their IVIanunoth Cave? 

Where solid facts are wanting, fluid fancy easily 
arises. John Gwadey here produced a tale of Chin 
and his big bludgeon. This was seven Chinese feet 
long, studded with knobs of metal — iron or gold — and 
precious stones. This had magic properties, so that 
when the Wall was built of any material that came 
handy. Chin struck it with his staff, and it all changed 
to one kind of stone — which remains to prove the story. 
More, it could make stones fly in any direction, and 
this properly proved disastrous. For when he flung 
one into the sea at Chef 00, it hit the sea god, who was 
incensed, and decided to take away the dangerous 
weapon. 

From these picturesque legends turn to solid fact. 
We discovered several tablets which record either the 
original construction of the Wall or the last rebuilding 
of it and of the towers. Here is one in the armory 
tower at Peh Shih K*ow. A complete translation 
follows: 

Built in the autumn of the first year of Wan Li, by 
Wang Tao Kung of Sihsien, inspector of Chi (Chicow) 
Liao (Yung ping Fu) and Paoting Border Affairs, junior 
vice-president of the Board of War, and associate president 
of the Court of Censors, Liu Ying-chieh of Wcihsien, di- 
rector general of Military Affairs for Chi, Liao, Paoting 
and other Departments, controller of commissary supplies, 
associate president of the Court of Censors, and junior 



78 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

▼ice-president of the Board of War, Sun Pei-yang of 
Fup'ing-hsien, governor of Paoting and other Depart- 
ments, commander-in-chief of Tze King (Purple Thorn 
Bush) and other passes, and associate president of the 
Board of Censors, Wang Hsiang of P^ingtu, associate 
gOTemor of Chihli and supervising censor of Provincial 
Circuits. Kao WSn-chien of Ch^Sngtu in command of 
military functions at Tze King and other places and coun- 
cilor in the governor's office. Shantung, Fu Chin of Yensui, 
brigadier general of Paoting and superintendent of affairs 
Wang Fu Min of Yensui, adjutant general and associate 
commander of Tze King Pass and other places. Chang 
Chu of Nganning, assistant prefect of Paoting Depart- 
ment in control of the Tze King Pass, Chu Chia-Chiang of 
Chengting, junior captain in charge of Peh Shih (White 
Stone) Pass, Huang ShSng, deputy director of Hwei YOn 
and Hsing Lan Ting, overseer of works, keeper of Yang 
Chuan Tze K*ow (Sheep Fold Pass) and brevet captain in 
charge of the Middle Post of the Advance Guard. 

Then in the same tower is a second tablet vrhich 
records the building of the Wall; but the tablet is too 
defaced to allow of the exact translating of the whole 
text. This is certain; it accounts for the building of 
two pieces of Fiest Class Wall; each piece was one 
hundred and forty-eight tens of feet long plus eight 
feet. It was built in the lucky days of the winter season 
in the third year of Wan Li. 

Or take a third: a tablet stands beside the Natural 
Tower, between Towers Number Fifty-three and 
Fifty-four Black Letter, Shui K'ow and reads: 

WALL RECORD 

General of the light brigade Tsui Ching, commanding 
the yeomanry under the jurisdiction of the goyemor by 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

How the Wall climbs the ridge of Shweikow north of the Wut*ai Shan 



A woman with a lonflr tQupie Ibm ladder of woe. 
imperial appointment at Paoting, Ensign Shen Tzu Hsien 
of the above department, Ensign Sun Erh-Kuo, superin- 
tendent of works, Lui Ching, military contractor, and others 
to the number of one hundred and thirty names cooperated 
in building this extension of five hundred and ninety-one 
feet, six inches, of Thied Cukss Wall, beginning on the 
north at the end of the Military Graduate Lung Kuang- 
hsien's portion of Tower Number Fifty-five of the Black 
Letter **Wu** series. The completion of the construction 
was reported by the Autumn Guard on the sixteenth day 
of the ninth moon, of the fourth year of Wan Li. 
Master Stone Mason Chao Yen Mei and others. 
Master Border Artisan Lu Huan and others. 

This stone was erected by the Autumn Guard 
on the sixteenth day of the ninth moon, 4th 
year of Wan Li. 

A fourth tablet is set in the Wall south of Shui K*ow 
and commemorates how: 

Li Pei, major of the Central Camp of Chen Tu Tang 
Hsiin, sergeant in command of the Department of the 
Right and brevet captain of the Shen Wu Right Guard, 
heading a battalion of one hundred and forty-one names, 
cooperated in constructing one hundred and seventy-one 
feet, eight inches of Middle Class Bordeh Wall, be- 
ginning on the north of the mouth of the Wang Erh 
Hurry-Scurry Ravine, at the connection with Tower Num- 
ber Fifty-five of the Letter Wu series, and ending with 
the termination of the wall constructed by Sergeant 
Yang Hang, director of works of the above-mentioned 
DejMurtment. 

The work was begun on the twelfth day of the 
third moon of the current year, and its completion 
reported on the twenty-fourth day of the fourth 
moon. 

This stone was erected by the Spring 
Guard In the 4th year of Wan Li. 



80 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

These four tablets and others which we found witness 
to a simultaneous and hasty construction of Wall in 
the reign of Wan Li. They suggest that the old Wall 
had fallen into bad condition, but that the towers were 
in better order, and were carefully numbered. Perhaps 
they had been used as blockhouses for some time, but 
some fresh menace of invasion caused a general over- 
hauling of the defenses. First, the towers were put in 
thorough repair, then the wall between them was rebuilt 
at a speed that reminds us of Nehemiah's forced labor 
at Jerusalem. 

If, perhaps, the Wall in this part is of comparatively 
recent construction, the ancient engineers who laid out 
the line seem to have done their best in selecting natural, 
strong lines of defense, and then intensifying these. 
Indeed, they followed the line of greatest natural re- 
sistance. In parts more inland they had occasionally to 
deal with a mere plain, but here they had crags and 
mountain chains. Two level furrows were chiseled out 
in the solid rock, about twenty-five feet apart, and 
squared granite blocks were laid on this foundation 
some few feet up. Then special clay was chosen and 
molded by skilled workmen into bricks twenty-two 
and one half inches long. The unwieldy blocks, accord- 
ing to another local legend, were tied to goats, who 
dragged them up the almost inaccessible ridges. Here 
the bricklayers placed them, all as headers, not stretch- 
ers, and the two faces were filled with earth well 
rammed. As the Wall arose, it was seen that its pro- 
jecting faces formed a mutually defensive scheme of 
salients and curtains. 




The Great Wall of China 
A Picturesque View 



Words spoken In the fields, some one on the rosd hears. 

Through centuries of neglect this massive structure 
has endured, — ^a fit emblem of the Chinese character. 
Little by little it has gathered to itself legend and super- 
stition. If wells and trees, chairs and tables, are sup- 
posed to be the abode of spirits, how much more easy 
to imagine this Wall the home of a superior race. A 
tower or peak to the north of a home assures its good 
fortune, the Wall to the north of the empire must be 
propitious. And if the Wall have numerous pinnacles, 
these must bring special good influences down. The 
canny foreigner will know how to utilize this idea, and 
when he wants to put up a factory stack, but finds the 
esthetes object, he has only to locate it to the north of 
the factory and point out that he is insuring its good 
luck, and this reason will carry weight: ask the super- 
intendent of the arsenal if in 1878 this did not remove 
his obstacles. And thus the towers along the Wall, 
being properly located, add moral strength to its 
defenders. 

As we try to find one thousand different people along 
the Wall and get one thousand legends or opinions, we 
come at times across a few curious specimens. One 
legend is strangely utilitarian. "Chin went up to 
heaven and took hold of the frost tree ; he shook it and 
shook it till the coimtry was covered deep with frost* 
and all the young crops were ruined. Then he obliged 
the people to work on the WaD, but would not give them 
enough to eat." The old grumbler who produced this 

*"B.C. 2S8 in the 4th moon, there appeared a great frost In Tiln so 
that people died tram it** Ancient Chinese MSa 



82 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

tale was overlooking that the Wall shut off some of the 
cold north winds, and shut out the desperate foragers 
from the Mongolian steppes. 

A little westward the scenery is wonderfully beauti- 
ful, as was recognized by an imperial censor about the 
year 1670. He caused an original ode to be incised 
upon a stone slab; the version following is due to Dr. 
Martin, founded on our rubbings, expressly for this 
expedition: 

Yon summit like an arrow head 

Appears to pierce the skies; 
A rocky fortress westward looms, 

A battleground there lies. 

The northern sky is veiled in clouds, 

The harvest gathered in; 
Our autumn rains, a precious boon. 

Will very soon begin. 

Peaceful the times, the flocks at ease 

O'er grassy plains may roam; 
There's scarcely heard a falling leaf 

To mar our dreams of home. 

Wen Ju-chang, of the Board of Censors, 
in command of Border Garrisons, Imperial 
Commissioner on a tour of inspection. 

It seems a pity to descend to prose after such a 
spirited reproduction of the original. But for those 
who want a baldly literal version, here is a Bohn: 

The Arrowhead Mountain rears its vast mass against 
the crystal sky; the rocky fortress to the west appears. 



n.^:^^^^B«L 83 



If yon don't wonder at the wonderfnl it ceaaei to 
be a wonder. 

and farther away a well-known battleground. Two moun- 
tain ranges unite to inclose a camp of the ancient Chin 
Tartars (the Grolden Horde). A stream of water flows 
athwart, with iron bridge and lock. The north is veiled 
in clouds, the ripe grain is all gathered in, the autumn 
rains from the northwest begin to increase. The times are 
tranquil; from the Great Desert is neither ismoke nor dust 
(from the camps or marching of soldiers). After sunset 
the drifting leaves alone disturb our dreams (of home). 

This poetical efTusion with the vastness of the over- 
hanging space and the soul-enthralling earth scene, 
prompted my muse to vague yearnings. Here the 
works of nature and of man intermingle, sheer preci- 
pices affright, steep altitudes, up which winds the line 
of battlements jeweled by the massy towers, lead up 
the vision to the living light. 

In the grouping of the mountains, 
In the tracing of the valleys. 
In the shaping of the hilltops, 
And the arching of the heavens. 
There are scenes and deep impressions. 
Which the mighty mind of Milton 
Or the aged seer of Patmos, 
Both inspired and yet still human. 
Fitly might describe for mortals. 

But it must suffice to say that this picturesque pass 
is bounded oa two opposite sides by friendly mountains 
on whose neighboring flanks the firs mantle the hard 
rock. Among the thronging hills and peaks winds the 
Great Wall; beyond a single bare valley lies a remote 



84 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

and hazy horizon. But toward the rising sun a vista of 
ravines and heaps of heights rise loftier and ever 
more blue until the line of land is lost in the ocean of 
the sky. 

Could we but see the original design on which nature 
wrought when these majestic proportions came fresh 
from the creative hand; could we but study them in 
silence, alone upon this lofty summit where we stand 
among the sighing pines; could we but compare them 
with the present superb vision; what would be more 
inevitable than to ask, "What relation does the outward 
world bear to the unseen world of thought; the down- 
ward gaze prompts to upward musing, and leads to 
consciousness of conscience." 

And conscience is stirred by the sight of one human 
amendment to God's proposals. A film of blue smoke 
floating from a hiunble home enwraps a mud-walled, 
curved-roofed fane or temple, wherein are idols not fit 
for men to see, much less' to worship. To contemplate 
the handiwork of God in this masterpiece of the 
Creator and then make deities of mud I Have the 
aborigines done this, or only half of this? We exclaim, 
""How has man fallen, or from what a fall has he not 
arisen!" Not mountain majesty, not heavenly expanse, 
not splendors of art, not miracles of science, can uplift 
men and nations. Beauty depends not only on the 
outward scene, nor on the seeing eye, but on the inter- 
preting mind and heart. 

Yet would that we had been able to photograph this 
wondrous landscape in all its glorious changes for one 
brief hour. It is not the still picture, but the fleeting 




s 

o 

E 
S 
S 

H 



I 



5 1 



.S 

« 3 

^ s 

^ § 

1 1 

2 5 



The door of charity it hard to open and hard to shut 

shadows of the clouds, the light ever changing, which 
so enriched the vision. The dark cloud floats by; from 
the sun comes a gleam that gilds with glory the moun- 
tains and picks out the chain of Wall with its jewels of 
towers. Words fail to tell the splendors of this view 
above the pass of Ch*ach*ien Kow. Even "if life be 
granted me enough," however often my longing feet 
may draw me hither, there will be some fresh scene of 
magnificence, the scene in the same group of natural 
spires and these human buttresses 6t granite, yet ever 
new in the glory of the seasons and of the heavens. 

Here we have come across inscriptions of the reign 
of Wan Li, and seen the tomb of Lung Ch'ing. Let 
us investigate these two men and see what exactly they 
had to do with the Great Wall. Wan Li at least is so 
closely associated that in this part of the country many 
people speak not of the "Ten thousand U long wall" 
but of "Wan Li's Wall," both being pronounced Wan- 
lich'ang Ch'eng. 

Who was this great king? 

Wan Li "sat under heaven," as the Chinese phrase 
has it, for the lengthy period of forty-seven years. He 
was preceded by Lung Ch*ing, who occupied the throne 
for no more than six years, yet it was during his brief 
tenure that no fewer than one thousand two hundred 
forts were erected on the Great Wall, each garrisoned 
by one himdred men. Nmnerous tablets along the Wall 
testify to his activity in building and repairing. This 
renewed care of the huge bulwark betokens a menace of 
some sort in that direction. In fact the Chin Tartars, 



86 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

sometimes called "the Golden Horde," had not for- 
gotten that they had once been masters of half the 
empire. They were watching for an opportunity to 
reassert their ancient claims. Foiled by the vigilance 
of Lung Ch*ing or his officers they had nothing left but 
to nurse their strength and bide their time. Unable to 
cross the Wall they wandered away to the east, and 
obtained a footing in Manchuria, where they reappeared 
under a new name as Manchus. 

What Wan Li accomplished in strengthening that 
incomparable fortification is in the history, which is 
supplemented by many stone tablets. During his long 
reign the forts were occupied and the towers were not 
allowed to go to ruin. In fact, the explorer finds that 
at many points new masonry was erected by him. Evi- 
dence is not wanting of the unsleeping vigilance with 
which the Chinese of that day kept watch on both the 
inner and the outer wall. 

Near the end of the dynasty and not free from the 
faults of a decadent period. Wan Li may not unfairly 
be taken as a type of the average emperor. Proclaimed 
heir apparent when an infant of six siunmers, he 
ascended the "Precious Seat" at the age of ten, but 
remained in tutelage until his sixteenth year when he 
was permitted to marry and to assume the reins of 
government. Of his early precocity the court chronicler 
gives the following instance: "When a child of five 
or six years, he one day saw his father gallop un- 
attended into the inclosure of the inner palace. Strik- 
ing an attitude he begged to remonstrate, not on the 
impropriety of an emperor galloping within those 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Gefl 

Mark the line of the Tower Wall at the left. Near Lienhwachih 



sBi ii ^ m »^ 

Amiability begets wealth. 

sacred grounds, but on the danger of his doing so. 
Said the chOd, *Your majesty is "the Lord of all under 
heaven." If you ride alone at such a furious speed might 
you not fall, for which you and your people would be 
sorry?' " His mother, one of the secondary wives, was 
in the habit of taking hun with her whenever she went 
to visit the empress. On such occasions the empress 
always took up some of the classics and asked the young 
prince questions. All of which he "answered like an 
echo." 

Not until the first year of his reign were the water- 
courses so improved as to admit of the tribute rice 
reaching the garrison of Miyiien, which is near Kupei- 
kow, the "ancient northern pass" in the Great WalL 
This was really an extension of the great canal, a work 
which the Mongols had left unfinished, and large 
portions of which were completed by their Chinese 
successors. 

The official history of his reign presents us with a 
confused medley of occurrences, such as a child might 
jot from day to day, or a monk put down on his parch- 
ment, confounding trivial and important, local and 
general, fact and legend; but with no attempt at tra- 
cing connection or generalizing. The account of his 
first year is as follows: "In the second moon on the day 
Kuei Ch*ow, the emperor presided for the first time at 
an entertainment given to the higher literary graduates. 
On the third moon. Ping Shen Day, an edict, command- 
ing all officials whether of the capital or of the provinces 
to recommend men of ability from whom high military 



88 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

officers might be chosen. Summer, fourth moon, I 
Ch*ow Day, the news comes of the suppression of a re- 
bellion near Swatow in Kwang Tung. On Keng Wu 
Day of the same moon, a distressing drought being re- 
ported the emperor commanded all his officers to culti- 
vate their virtues and examine their conduct} In the 
fifth moon, on the Kia Shen Day, by decree he ordered 
all officials of the capital and provinces to be careful 
in imprisonments and the infliction of punishment. In 
the sixth moon, on Jen Shen Day, he ordered relief to 
be given to the settlers from floods in North Kansu. 
Seventh moon, day not given, the Yellow River burst 
its banks at Su Chow.^ In the ninth moon, on the Kuei 
Wei Day, relief was given to three districts in Hupeh 
and Shangtung. News comes of the suppression of a 
revolt in Szechwan. He orders as an expression of joy 
the suspension of punishments. In the eleventh moon 
he commands the provincial officers to keep a careful 
journal of their movements in order to prevent loss of 
time. In the twelfth moon supplies were issued to suf- 
ferers from famine in Manchuria. This year the 
Siamese and Lewchewans came to the capital with 
tribute." Let this be sufficient for a specimen of the 
style from which the student of Chinese history is 
obliged to extract great truths and great principles. 
In Wan Li's third year, an eclipse of the sun taking 

^The Ecclesia or Assembly of Athens suffered a similar manipulation. 
**If any untoward sign occurred which seemed to indicate the displeaaure 
of the gods, such as an earthqualce, or thunder or lightning, or even rain* 
the sitting broke up at once.** 

'We cannot find any town of this name on the Yellow Hlver. There U 
a Sucbow in Kansu, and a SUchow (not very far off the river) In Honan. 



A gttat ttaa !■ one who kooin the tistca. 

place, his majesty wrote down twelve good resolutions 
for his own guiding, and suspended them on the right 
hand of his throne to he a perpetual monitor. They 
were as follows: "Heed the warnings of Heaven. Em- 
ploy the worthy and the able. Keep virtuous officers 
near your person. Put the vicious far away. Let re- 
wards and punishments be well defined. Be careful as 
to those who go in and out of the palace. Rise early. 
Be temperate. Recall your wandering thoughts. Be 
reverent toward Heaven. Listen to faithful admoni- 
tion. Beware of lavish expenditure." Had he lived 
up to these principles, what a paragon of virtue the 
world might have witnessed. Yet after studying his 
subsequent career we have to exclaim, **What an im- 
mense contrast between promise and performance!'' 

His reverence for Heaven was mere superstition. An 
earthquake having occurred, or a strange appearance 
being observed among the stars, a comet, or an eclipse, 
a drought, or a fiood, or even a fire in the palace, a de- 
cree always followed commanding the officers to look 
into theur own faults. Seldom, indeed, did the emperor 
advert to his own. The custom of thus regarding un- 
usual manifestations in the course of nature is still kept 
up. In fact it is only during the present moon and 
since the accession of a new emperor that the beating 
of gongs to succor the "laboring moon" during an 
eclipse has been forbidden. If we compare Wan Li's 
conduct toward his officials with his loud profession, we 
are shocked by the contrast. One of his high officers 
implored him to name a successor, no doubt from 



90 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

patriotic motives, in view of the danger which always 
accompanied a change of rulers. Yet Wan Li chose 
to regard the reference to his own death as milucky, 
and insolent. He ordered the memorialist to be beaten 
with rods at the foot of the throne. 

In providing for the expenses of his sumptuous 
court, he had the habit of sending eunuchs as his official 
representatives into all the provinces, who not only op- 
pressed the people but exacted so large a portion of the 
legal taxes that the amount left was not sufficient for 
the provincial government. In the province of Yunnan 
the oppressed people rose in fury against the eunuch 
and not only put him to death, but burned his body. 
The present dynasty of Manchu-Tartars has taken a 
useful lesson from the experience of the Mings and 
made it an invariable law that no eunuch shall exercise 
any conmfiission outside the palace. 

After the first years of his reign Wan Li seems to 
have fallen into a condition of hopeless indolence, oc- 
cupying his time with wine and women like another 
Sardanapalus. In the fortieth year of his reign one of 
his great ministers handed up a memorial to this effect: 
"The treasuries of the provinces are empty. All enter- 
prises are at a standstill. The emperor withdraws him- 
self from his people; for more than twenty years he 
has never called a council of his great ministers. The 
empire is in danger of revolution." To this earnest 
remonstrance he gave no answer, but during his few 
remaining years he more than once appeared in pub- 
lic and seemed to show a desire to retrieve his lost 
reputation. 




Granary School in Liaochao 




The Great Wall of China 



Photos by Dr. Gell 

A view in the Imperial Ming Reservation, situated north of Peking in 
the Metropolitan Province of Chihli 



•I ± Jl T :^ * 91 

He has mounted a tlgtr and cannot get down. 

"Forty-fifth year in the seventh moon, eclipse of the 
sun." This dire event seemed to presage a host of 
calamities, for it is added, "in the latter half of the year 
the two capitals, together with the provinces of Honan, 
Shantmig, Shansi, Shensi, Kiangsi, Hupeh and Hunan, 
Fokien, Kwangtung, just half the empire, was re- 
ported as suffering from dire famine. During all the 
time an irregular warfare was kept up with the Tartars 
who had got possession of a large portion of Man- 
churia, and we are told that the imperial army, in- 
cluding the garrisons on the Great Wall, suffered much 
for the want of supplies. The cabinet oflBcers besought 
the emperor to appropriate the funds received from the 
provinces for his army in that quarter. Their advice 
remained unheeded. The record adds: "In the ninth 
moon of the next year, the capital was shaken by an 
earthquake." The following year brought to a con- 
clusion this unhappy reign, so full of strange occur- 
rences, recorded alongside the follies and extravagancies 
of the court and its oflBcers. 

In the midst of his long period of puerilities we meet 
with one item of surpassing interest. "This year a 
man from the western ocean, by name Mateo Ricci, 
hegged permission to offer the products of his own 
country; his request was refused!" That is, he was not 
permitted to come to the northern capital. Years pre- 
viously the Portuguese had found their way around the 
"Cape of Storms" to the coast of China. Xavier, the 
first of the Jesuit missionaries, after achieving triumphs 
in India and Japan had been refused the privilege of 



92 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

setting foot on the soil of China, and died on a neigh- 
boring island. His successor in the arduous enterprise 
was this Mateo Ricci who, foOed in one attempt after 
another, eventually succeeded in finding his way to the 
secluded capital in the north. Here he pointed out the 
mistakes of the Chinese astronomers, won for himself a 
position at the head of the astronomical board, and 
secured for his fellow missionaries the opportunity of 
preaching the holy faith in the provinces of the interior. 
Wan Li was followed by two emperors, one of whom 
occupied the throne for just one month. The next, the 
last of the Mings, was Ch'ung Ch^ng, whose virtues 
stand out in contrast with his weak and wicked prede- 
cessors. Yet there was no possibility of retrieving the 
fallen fortunes of his house. Already during the reign 
of Wan Li the Tartars had occupied for a time the 
Outer Wall, from which they were dislodged only to 
take up a more commanding position in the region of 
Manchuria. The provinces of the interior were overrun 
by desperadoes who contended with each other for a 
throne which was soon to be left without an occupant. 
Li Tzu-Ch'eng, one of these rebels, getting possession 
of Peking, the emperor hanged himself on Prospect Hill 
in his garden, after having stabbed his favorite daugh- 
ter to the heart to prevent her falling into the hands of 
the rebel chief. His general, in charge of Shanhai- 
kwan, called the Tartars to avenge his master and 
expel the intruder. Once inside the Great Wall, they 
refused to retire and from that day the destinies of 
China have been united with the fortunes of the Ta 
Ch'ing djmasty. 



Flaat meloiis and yoa fet meknit, pUnt beans and 
yoa get beaut. 



93 



From fhat day this portion of the Wall has ceased to 
be a frontier or of much importance as a defense. The 
waves of invasion have come from the sea, whence the 
visitants in their causeless aggressions have earned the 
title of ocean pirates, which we render all too vaguely 
as foreign devils. But ere we take leave of Wan Li 
and his rehabilitation of the Great Wall, pause to con* 
sider its long value as a rampart of defense. 



CHAPTER VIII 

The Defense of the Great Wall 

To describe the warlike use of the Wall properly, a 
military historian is needed, who can set forth accu- 
rately and technically all the strategy involved, the 
weapons employed, the successes and the tactics. In 
default of him, a lay view may help the general reader. 

The very conception of a chain of thousands of strong 
blockhouses, linked by a rampart, and stretching over 
more than a thousand miles, betokens a mind that can 
conceive great measures. Great resources were needed 
to execute the idea, and to defend the Wall once erected. 
A wall would need an army of workmen to erect it, an 
army of soldiers to defend it. The trowel might be laid 
aside in a few months, the sword must be ever ready. 
A mere wall without men behind it, cannot delay an 
invader for a day. The Wall of China involved a stand- 
ing army. 

Kings in other lands may have surrounded them- 
selves with a few guards permanently; but only at a 
fitting season would they call to arms the able-bodied 
men and go out to war. David had so few guards 
that he fled in panic from his capital when rebellion 
raised her head. The kings of Egypt put a little wall 
across the isthmus of Suez, and that necessitated a corps 
of soldiers to garrison it. But the few hundreds there 
employed were as nothing to the myriads needed along 

94 




The Great Wall of China P.ioto by Dr. Geil 

The historic "Cliff Tower" at Sanholow. Notice the three distinct fashions 

of construction. Four thousand feet above the sea and about 300 miles 
from the Gulf of Chihli 



Fiitt imoreMiotis mle the mind. 

the Wall of China: this led to a permanent army on a 
scale previously unknown in the world. China was the 
first nation to have a Standing Army, and the historians 
say it numbered 3^80,000 men. 

There are signs in the brickwork that the towers were 
designed and finished first, before any wall was erected. 
The order is not wall and then towers on it, but towers 
and then a curtain between them. In Cuba and in 
South Africa there was a stage when it was found wise 
to erect rows of blockhouses near enough to sweep the 
ground in between with bullets, and numerous enough 
to stretch for miles. The line of Chinese defense ap- 
parently began in the same way; only as they had no 
missiles that could be thrown far and swiftly, a solid 
line of wall became needful, at an early stage. We can 
imagine that each garrison would be charged to build a 
section of wall on to meet the builders from the next 
forts, and thus the time would not be idly spent in mere 
watching. 

But of the early period we have little real informa- 
tion, whereas we are fortunate in having detailed ac- 
counts of the frontier defenses in the last period when 
they were important — that of the Ming dynasty. The 
Mings were the last Chinese who ruled over China; they 
drove out a line of foreigners, even as the English drove 
out the Scotch Stuarts. Then they occupied the throne 
for two hundred and seventy-six years; and for much 
of the time they had to defend the empire against the 
northern barbarians, whom they had expelled, and to 
whom they at last succumbed. Since 1644 the Chinese 



96 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

have been ruled again by foreigners; but the Mings 
guarded the land against these from the days of Ed* 
ward the Black Prince to the days of CromwelL All 
that time the Great Wall was of supreme importance^ 
and the annals tell much about it. 

The policy was adopted of quartering huge perma- 
nent garrisons in fortified camps behind the Wall. The 
generals in command could easily plan for detachments 
to go on guard duty to the forts for a week or two at 
a time, and for the guards to post sentries along the 
Wall itself. The homes of the soldiers, however, were 
not the little forts, but the great camps farther back. 
Then their time was not occupied in mere drill and 
maneuvers; they were set to reclaim the land and to 
till it. Inscriptions point to a system of land grants 
which acted as bounties to induce enlistment But then 
again these would not avail to content a recruit long. A 
pioneer into Alberta or Saskatchewan may be tempted 
there by the offer of half a square mile, but when he 
has overcome the first difiiculties, he wants a home, with 
wife and children. The Chinese authorities recognized 
this, and encouraged the soldiers to marry, so that they 
should not wish to leave the garrisons and return to the 
older settled parts. And thus there grew up a cordon 
of married military settlers behind the WalL Much the 
same policy was adopted on the Danube against the 
Turks; Germans were encouraged to settle on the fron- 
tiers of Hungary, and to marry so as to stay for life 
and breed a hardy warrior race. Indeed, the Romans 
had adopted the same plan on their frontier garrisons; 




The Great Wall of China 
Gate in the Great Wall at Kalgan 



Photo by Henry J. Bogtwick 



Using a small thrlmp to catch a big fidi. 

not barracks of bachelors, but cities of martial married 
men, were found facing the barbarians. 

The modem policy of Europe is far different. Year 
by year thousands of young men are called out from 
home and quartered in enormous lodging-houses for 
some three years, then they go back to civil life where 
first they settle down. In those celibate dormitories is 
nothing of home comfort, and much of vice. The 
Chinese had a nobler plan, and encouraged a race of 
warlike farmers, who labored with plow and sickle, 
but took their turn at shouldering spear and standing 
ready to light the beacon. They needed little pay, but 
supported themselves by their own labor; they lived no 
long time in unnatural separation from the society of 
women, but had homes of their own to humanize them 
and to give them their stake in the land. 

There was one material resource they had, unknown 
to their foes, — ^gunpowder. This they had indeed used 
for centuries before in firecrackers, but had only lately 
learned to employ it for pro j ecting missiles. Gunpowder, 
invented by the Chinese, was used by them for the 
harmless pursuits of peace, and only after Christendom 
had turned the blessing into a curse did the inventors 
adopt it for purposes of war. The artillery of previous , 
ages had been on the bow principle, when springs or 
weights threw arrows or stones. The Greeks had 
learned how to use petroleum from Baku, and the 
terrors of the Greek fire were widely spread. Under 
the Mings the Chinese employed gunpowder to throw 
stones or lumps of metal — ^in a word they had guns and 



98 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

bullets, and thus had a great advantage over the wild 
tribes of the north. Let us now explore the official 
Chinese history to see how this native dynasty defended 
its fatherland. 

"The descendants of the Yiian dynasty, after being 
driven out of China, constantly endeavored to regain 
their lost dominion. When the capital was removed to 
the north by Yung Lo, the Great Wall was near to it 
on three sides, and from that time the enemy became 
day by day more troublesome. Therefore, to the end 
of the Ming dynasty, the defense of the Great Wall 
became a leading object. Beginning on the east at the 
Yalu River and extending westward to the Kiayii- 
kwan, in length three thousand miles, this long 
line was subdivided between numerous garrisons. 
The first was on the borders of Korea at Liaotung. . . . 
Four others were successively established extending to 
Ninghia in Kansu. This emperor Yung Lo was es- 
pecially attentive to the defenses from Siienhwafu and 
westward to Shansi; this reach extends over high hills 
and deep defiles, where he established watch-towers and 
guard houses connected together. 

"At each transit pass capable of admitting carts and 
horsemen, guard posts of one hundred men each were 
established. At the smaller passes for carriers of fuel 
and herdsmen with their flocks, ten men. The instruc- 
tions given to the general ran thus: *At each signal 
station let the towers be built higher and stronger; with- 
in must be laid up food, fuel, medicine and weapons for 
four moons. Beside the tower let a well be opened, 
inclosed by a wall as high as the tower itself, presenting 




The Arsenal Tower to Paishih K'ou, White Stone Pass, sixty li from 
Fiituyeh, containing two interesting tablets 




The Great Wall of China 



Photoj by Dr. Geil 



Fiituyeh Pass, showing exceptionally fine workmanship. Note the deco- 
rations over the doorwava. 



You may guess the minds of others by yonr own. 

the appearance of a double gateway, inner and outer. 
Be on your, guard at all times with anxious care.' Such 
were the commands of the emperor." 

Tongking being subdued in the south, the Chinese 
acquired common and small arms called the Shen Ti, 
and the emperor established an army corps equipped 
with the Weapons of the Gods. To use these, Yung Lo 
established a special army corps. The cannon were 
made of hard and soft copper mixed,^ others of soft 
iron, the latter preferred. Some were mounted on 
wheels, others rested on tripods; but on the whole, they 
were employed for defensive warfare, and so were 
specially useful at the Wall. Five cannon were mounted 
on the tops of certain mountains, and later on were 
placed at other points on the Wall. 

Such great importance was attached to these, that 
their very existence was long concealed from the enemy, 
just as modem powers try to keep secret their sub- 
marines or aeroplanes. Thus in the fifth year of Hsua^ 
Te, the general in conmiand of the northeast division 
was cautioned to use great discretion in employing 
divine weapons — "They must not be lightly given out." 

Despite the new resources, the defensive works 
needed renovation about 1436 a.d. under Cheng T'ung. 
The censor Chu Shun recommended repair of the bor- 
der defenses and the general in chief command. Tan 
Kuang, advised that the repairs should begin from the 
Dragon Gate and extend to the Black Cavern Pass, a 
stretch of five hundred and fifty li in which the work 

*Doc8 this mean bronze, ''hard copper" being tin from near Ton^^g? 



100 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

was an undertaking of extreme difficulty; reliance 
should be put on towers and forts rather than on walls 
and trenches; the emperor agreed and authorized the 
building of Purple City, forts and signal stations, a 
total of twenty-two new stations on that reach. At 
Ninghai, General Shih Kao reported that all his guards 
lay beyond the river, and eastward there were no effect- 
ive works of defense for some distance. It is not sur- 
prising that in the next reign under Ching T*ai, the 
border troubles increased, and cries for support multi- 
plied. Tartar chiefs invaded the provinces, and there 
was not a peaceful year. 

In the first year of Ch*eng Hua, the general at Shui 
K*ow reported that while to guard three hundred miles 
he had twenty-five regimental camps, yet each con- 
tained really only one hundred or two hundred men. 
Obviously one man cannot protect a hundred yards of 
frontier, night and day. Three years later the pressure 
became acute at the western end, under a chief named 
Manchuin. The troops succeeded in deflecting him 
northwards, but his people occupied what became hence- 
forward known as Manchuria, whence constant attacks 
were delivered. So Inspector Yii Tzu-Chuan erected 
many new forts. By the seventh year, however, the 
Tartars effected a lodgment within the loop of the 
river region, and could not be expelled for many years. 
Ch'Ing Hua rose to the occasion, raised a large army 
on the land-grant principle, and gradually expelled the 
Tartars from the River Loop, then establishing military- 
agricultural colonies along the northwestern frontier, 
and protecting it by a new wall. Further, he threw out 




o 



« 

^ 



o 

s 
ee 

3 



.s S 



be 

s 






HeaTen neyer cuts off a man's way. 

a new Hami garrison beyond the end of the Wall, pro- 
viding it liberally with fields, cows, and seed grain. We 
find, too, that he reformed the old practice of impress- 
ing horses for the cavalry, and paid fair prices, thus 
conciliating the farmers, while the soldiery was con- 
stantly drilled, even in wind and rain. 

Under Chia Ching a further advance was made, and 
detached forts were thrown up outside the Wall, while 
large numbers of cannon were cast: at first these were 
known as Ta Chiang Chiin, Great Generals; but they 
became known more popularly as Fo Lang Ch'i, For- 
eign Weapons. This was the time when Europeans first 
found their way to China by sea, and when their ships 
introduced to the Chinese the improved western 
ordnance. 

In the reign of Himg Chih, twenty-fourth year, 
Censor Ch'en Hao reported that the enemy had thrice 
invaded Shansi, and that a million soldiers had perished, 
while six hundred millions of taels had been spent, with- 
out "one inch of benefit." He advised an enormous 
levy and a decisive battle to regain the River Loop. 

This was apparently the time when the defenses along 
the Great Wall were most fully developed. The fron- 
tier must then have been protected by fully twenty 
thousand forts, with some ten thousand signal towers 
where solitary sentries watched for the approach of any 
foe. Such a line of buildings might well amaze the 
wild horsemen of the plains. 

In the reign of Wan Li, troubles became acute again. 
The Tartar chief An-hua pierced the Wall at Kupeikow 



102 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



and invaded Chihli, the generals not daring to give 
battle, and his ravages were repeated in successive 
years. Fresh artillery was cast, and the arrival of 




Headless—fought with the gods, who, because of its impudence, cut olf its 
head and buried it in a mountain. Drills with hatchet and shield, leasts 
are his eyes. Naval is his mouth. Dangerous. 

Portuguese ships gave them cannon of unusual size, 
which were called after the foreigners. Red Heads. 
These were twenty feet long, weighing three thousand 
catties J the balls being able to batter down city walls. 




u "^ 

o 

a ^ 

o 



s 



s 



c 

§ 



O 



.c 
O 



I I" 



When the top beam is not level, the lower ones are 
lopsided. 

So much valued were these, that a later emperor 
gazetted them as Great Grenerals, and sent officers to 
pay them divine honors. 

These were supplemented by more handy weapons, 
all with quaint titles: Flying Thunder, Fiery Wild 
Beast, Divine Mortar, Horse Killers, Invincible Hand 
61ms, Gk)ose Bills, Seven Eyes — ^was this a revolver or 
Hotchkiss? — One Thousand-Zi Guns, Double Headed, 
Quick Firers, Fire Wheels, Nine Dragons, etc. These 
are nearly as curious as Drake, Culverin and other 
western names. 

With the arrival of the Jesuits, the emperor obtained 
men of culture and science; he therefore employed them 
to found cannon, and western artillery was soon 
mounted along the Wall. Yet the Chinese had no 
trained artillery men, and the results were not very 
successful. More to the point was a very old device: 
the iron chariots long employed for transport were now 
converted into military machines and driven against the 
foe with terrible success.* 

Nevertheless, the pressure from without was con- 
stant, and the generals gradually neglected the line of 
the Wall, professedly concentrating on protecting the 
Imperial Tombs and the gates of the capital. That the 
Wall was held, was due, the history says, rather to good 
luck than to valor. When the Chinese themselves rose 
in rebellion in many parts, a Manchu chief easily es- 
tablished himself within the empire. One band of rebels 

' Fighting chariots had been commonly used under the Chou dynasty, 
long before Chin Shih Huang's time. But they suddenly went out of use. 



104 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

sacked the capital, whereupon the emperor slew his 
daughter and himself. After a period of chaos, the 
Manchus declared themselves emperors, and made good 
their claim. From that moment little reason remained 
for defending the Wall; the northern invaders ruled on 
both sides; and it became a relic of the past for most of 
its length. Only at the west, where the wild Turcomans 
of the desert ranged abroad, regardless of kin, with 
their brethren who had conquered the Land of Promise, 
was it needful to keep up garrisons and maintain the 
Barrier in good repair. But since the might of Russia 
has restrained these nomads, the whole problem of de- 
fense has been utterly altered; and China at present is 
preparing first to assert her supremacy in the East by 
a Mongol-Monroe doctrine; then perhaps to terrify 
Europe into erecting a Great Wall to shut off the men- 
acing myriads of the yellow race. 

• Here, then, we have had a glance at the military effi- 
ciency of the Great Wall in its last and palmiest days. 
Though it may have fallen into disuse of late, there is 
here one of the oldest stretches along the line of the 
original feudal state of Ch*in — the Savoy, whence grew 
up the united Italy of China. Let us now traverse this 
section — ^the Loess Loop in the midlands. 



CHAPTER IX 

The Loess or River Loop, in Oldest China 
Land of Legend and of Dry Fog 

The Hwang ho is the second most important river in 
the land, and is popularly styled "China's Sorrow"; the 
reason for which soon developed itself. Hardly were 
we across its uncertain flow, before we found the land- 
scape obscured by a dry fog, enveloping the whole re- 
gion.^ When this settles, it does not coat hedges and 
herbage with refreshing moisture, such as makes Ireland 
an emerald isle, but with a "ginger powder," as the 
Chinese call the yellow dust, ground to the tiniest par- 
ticles by the wind. So fine is it, that it will sift through 
the veriest cracks, even into the protected portion of 
cameras, dry-fogging the plates, or also into the deli- 
cate adjustments of the scientific instruments. The 
dry fog produces a dull twilight, like the light on the 
planet Neptune, — ^a dim and dreary world. This dust 
has created the fertility of northern China, and has con- 
verted the Hwang ho into its scourge. 

Transportation of dust by the wind is no specially 
Chinese method. When Vesuvius first burst again into 
activity, the dust transported by the wind sufficed to 
bury Pompeii. On the uplands of the Andes there are 

^Changkai, who lived about a.d. 100, studied magic and managed to 
raise a fog seven U in diameter, for which uncanny performance the emperor 
threw him into prison. 

105 



106 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

large mounds of sand which are being slowly but stead- 
ily blown across country by the prevailing winds, and 
which assume the form of crescents. On a far smaller 
scale, every resident near a low sandy coast knows how 
the dunes are formed by the sea breeze blowing the sand 
inland. Now the center of Asia has inexhaustible sup- 
plies of sand and dry earth, where there is no moisture 
to cement it into a hard surface. It also has a large 
supply of wind, which appears to come down in the 
middle of the continent Uke a colossal down draft in 
the middle of a big public hall. It was some of this 
dust-laden wind that greeted us on the right bank of 
the Hwang ho ; water acts on dry fog as on witches, and 
stops its going farther. But as the wind drops, so does 
some of the dust it conveys, and so the rocky soil gets 
coated over with dust from afar. This process has 
gone on for a few millenniums, and the result is that the 
yellow dust is occasionally a thousand feet deep. It 
has embedded all sorts of decaying vegetation, and 
common sense would suggest that it must have em- 
bedded villages and even men now and again in a raging 
dust storm.^ But while the Sahara, also swept by dust- 
laden winds, gets no rain and remains sandy, northern 
China gets plenty, and the rain not only lays the dry 
fog but hardens it into earth again. Thus the whole 
of North China, and far as the Hwang ho, is covered 
deep with yellow earth, or Huang-t'u, as the natives 

***I saw a dust-^torm at Kueichow which lasted for seven hours, burying 
some hovels and much agricultural country, and even producing a meta- 
morphosis of the rocky bed of the Yangtze.'' Bird Bishop in The Yangtze 
Valley and Beyond, John Murray, London. 




The Great Wall of China Photos by Dr. Geil 

Two views of ruins of the Great Wall at Shiching, Twenty li from Ging- 

pien, in the Ordos Country. The lower picture shows a house built 
into the WaU 



S * K 1^ H P 107 

Mischief all comes of mncb opening of the month. 

call it, though the Germans have taught the Western 
world to call it loess. 

Now, for agricultural processes, three things are 
needed by the farmer; seed, fertile soil, water. The 
soil spreads thickly over the surface, is fertile, and 
as it is being constantly renewed by a top dressing 
brought by the wind, it is constantly fertile. The water 
question is entirely separate in China, whereas in 
Egypt the annual top dressing is brought from 
Abyssinia by the Nile water, and is spread in fluid form 
with very little trouble to the farmer. In China the 
water is furnished by another department of nature, 
the clouds. When these work regularly, the soil is 
moistened, and the crops are amazingly prolific. So 
much is this the case that this district was settled early, 
and is the very oldest part of China. Indeed, because 
its prince was the Lord of the Yellow Earth, he took the 
title. Ruler of the Yellow, Huang Ti. And this re- 
mains one of the imperial titles to the present day. 

Now comes in the Hwang ho. This river, having 
started from the Sea of Stars and wandered about in 
the north, comes on to a soil of this mere dusty forma- 
tion. Of course it cuts through it easily and leaves the 
banks nearly vertical, as often happens in sandy forma- 
tions. But it takes up an enormous amount of the soil 
it displaces, and flows on, charged with yellow mud, like 
the Nile, the Mississippi, the Po. As the slope to the 
ocean is very slight, this mud always tends to settle, and 
raise the bed. In much of the lower course, the bottom 
of the bed is above the level of the country around, and 



108 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

the banks have to be built up with millet stalks to con- 
fine the water. This is a difficulty with all rivers of this 
kind, but the floods caused by the Po, or even by the 
levees of the Mississippi bursting, pale into insignifi- 
cance alongside those caused by the Hwang ho. To 
say nothing of frequent minor floods, it has changed 
its course ten times within the period of history, and 
debouched into the ocean at many points separated by 
three hundred miles. Even to the end of its course it 
retains enough mud to discolor the ocean, which on the 
coast is therefore called the Yellow Sea. As it is silting 
up the gulf of Chihli, and has a bar of mud across 
it some eight miles up, another huge burst is quite 
imminent. A few Dutch engineers, familiar with the 
problem of rivers flowing much above the land level, 
might manage to avert the calamity, but the native 
engineers prefer to pocket the appropriations, not to 
dredge, nor pump from without, but merely tinker with 
the banks. 

Since beginning the third section of the journey along 
the Wall the mountains have yielded the landscape to a 
great elevated plain where for miles and miles the 
boundary may be seen stretching off in graceful curves 
toward the west. 

The plateau is intersected by numerous canyons with 
vertical sides, cleft down by rivulets or rivers. On a 
small scale the same phenomenon is seen in the Blue 
Mountains of Australia. For scores of years these 
barred all access to the interior, though low level can- 
yons wound in, and then terminated abruptly where 
streams plunge headlong down hundreds of feet. But 







■5 ^ 



-s 



c 



o 



s ft^ 



^ r^ 



? 8 



A word once spoken the fleetest hofse cannot over- 
Ukeit. 

the Australian mountains are of hard rock, while the 
Chinese plateau is simply compressed dust. Occa- 
sionally the sides of the canyons are in long terraces, 
corresponding to various heights of the watercourses. 
Into the faces of these the villagers dig, and get ex- 
cellent cave dwellings, while stairs are easily carved 
from one level to another. 

An instance of the water difficulty we found at a 
hamlet called the Wolf Sleeping Ravine. This is on 
the side of a hill four miles from Chingpien Hsien. 
The villagers depend on a well more than five hundred 
feet deep, and are not too fond of drawing water from 
its cool recesses. "Mr. Vermilion,'* for all the people 
here belong to the Chu or Vermilion family, "will your 
honor be so gracious as to deign to bestow a drop of 
water on your insignificant visitor?" In a general way 
this would gain a quick response, but here it depends 
which day the request is proffered. The villagers will 
hand out food readily, but the water is only drawn 
every three or five days, and if supplies on the surface 
are running low, they will not anticipate the regular 
day for a chance traveler. 

In districts of this kind, where water is scarce and 
sand or loess is plentiful, the builders of the Great 
Wall had quite new problems to encounter. Where 
should they build, what sort of foundation could they 
secure, what sort of rampart should they erect? The 
engineers traced a line from the river to the river again, 
like an inverted bow, and strangely enough, unlike the 
engineers farther east, on the line of least natural 



110 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

resistance. Finding that the dust drifted against it 
and sloped up on the desert side, they laid out a second 
wall behind, and in very wind-swept stretches even a 
third.* Not only so, but they sunk a moat, its width 
and depth being equal to the height and width of the 
wall, walling it on sides and bottom to try to make it 
water-tight. Having thus settled their direction, they 
built sometimes on the style prevalent in the East, but 
more often by scarping the natural formation. The 
fabric was either erected or cut out. For long stretches 
the natural state of the loess formation admitted of its 
being hewn down in the shape of a wall. They split 
the soil down vertically, and then veneered over with 
brick or stone. If the levels were not convenient for 
this, a wooden framework was erected, soil excavated 
from the moat, watered and rammed into the casing, 
which was presently removed and set up farther on, 
for another filling, while the rammed earth was cased 
with brick to protect it from the weather. This style 
of building is still practical in these parts. It has been 
sneeringly said that the Wall in Shensi and Kansu is 
only a heap of hard mud; but if mud will do to keep 
people out, why not use it? Earthworks were often 
good enough for the Romans and are often good 
enough for European and American fortresses. Even 
now, after long neglect, when our men measured the 
ruins, the remains were found in many places over 
fifteen feet high, nearly fifteen feet thick, with towers 
thirty-five feet square at the base and rising thirty feet. 

* These three walls should not be confused with the walls built by the 
three dynasties. Chin, Sung and Ming. The ramparts erected by the 
Chin and Sung dynasties have disappeared. 




Loess Cone of a Great Wall Tower. The brick veneering has wholly 
disappeared 




The Great Wall of China Photos by Dr. Oeil 

The Ruins of the Last Tower in the Great Wall 



Fish see the bait, but not the hook; men see the 
profit, but not the peril. 

This would be awkward to climb over at any time, but 
when men are waiting on them with something humor- 
ous, like boiling oil, for a welcome, they would seem to 
furnish a good defense. 

The action of the rain had been rather exciting just 
before our arrival. Two days before we reached Ning- 
tiao-Liang, enough fell to sweep away a large flock of 
sheep with the shepherds. Just west of the Level 
Village of the Li family, the innkeeper tried to detain 
us with tales of the sudden rises; but we took these to 
be of the Lie family. When we reached the brink of 
the flood, the usually quiet stream was a wild tempestu- 
ous rush of whiris. On the shore we tarried to await the 
subsidence of the waters, and after half an hour a 
native waded over. Him we at once engaged to lead 
our mountain mules over the ford, and in a few minutes 
the whole caravan was safely over. Not too soon; 
swirling down the narrow channel between the steep 
rocks, came a fresh volume of water quite four feet 
high, sweeping everything before it. To note that, 
despite such torrents, the line of the Great Wall lies 
high and distinct, is to conceive great admiration for 
the engineers who planned and built so well. 

Here the top dressing of dust was thin, and we saw 
the bare rock ; but southeast of Ching Hsien we found 
a moimtain called the Wut*ai Ao, the Five-terraced 
Rambling Hill. Only a few families inhabit it, for the 
loess is here a thousand feet thick, and will not retain 
water. Going down the hill to fetch a pail of water 
does not commend itself to Chinese Jacks and Jills 



112 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

when the distance is some miles; so they prepare cis- 
terns. On the hardest parts of the slope they dig pits 
scores of feet wide and deep, and ram the exposed 
sm*face to try to make it water-tight. Trenches are 
arranged to lead as much water as possible into the 
cisterns. But they have a prejudice against mere sur- 
face water, and to clarify it they collect all the manure 
of cattle, sheep, and pigs, which they blend with the 
contents. When well brewed, it is used for drinking, 
and has a smooth oily flavor as if a decoction of hemp. 

Here and there we found rock underlying the soiL 
The bed rock is mostly sandstone, sometimes a gray 
shale that is black when newly fractured. Hard sand 
varying to soft sandstone is found. Conglomerate 
occurs. The wild vegetation is not plentiful, nor varied. 
The willow tree is the only common one. Indeed Yu- 
linfu literally means "elm wood prefecture," but elms 
are certainly not the conunonest trees. That name must 
have been given when the country was different, i.e. 
before the Ordos desert had covered up so much of the 
land. Willows alone can stand the sand well. Grass 
grows well, with bushy juniper and scrub-like Ameri- 
can sage brush; the natives can get fuel out of this, but 
no timber. Yet the Ordes plant gardens and find that 
when tended they will yield well. No afforestation is 
done, though it might be thought the deep roots of trees 
would get nutriment when the surface is bare, while the 
foliage might attract more rain and keep it from dash- 
ing away in devastating torrents. 

With the flora thus scanty, the fauna are not numer- 
ous. Rodents are well represented: the kangaroo rat 




Desert Hamster 




The Great Wall of Ohina 
"Kangaroo Rat.** Jerboa 



Drawings by A. deC. Sowerby, M.A. 



Every sect has its trath and every truth its sect 

or jerboa suggests by its appearance that it is an evolu- 
tion due to the appearance of the Wall: a high obstacle 
demands high jumping powers, and only those rats 
which developed kangaroo-like legs could survive. Our 
scientific friend, Mr. Arthur de C. Sowerby, possesses 
several specimens of these "compensated rats" — ^indeed, 
he is the discoverer of the Dipus Sowerhyi. Another 
local curiosity is the dwarf desert hamster. This has 
not long legs, and so has to ascend the Wall by degrees: 
as the Wall is not well stocked with vegetables, the 
thrifty hamster has developed two pouches in his cheeks 
to carry his lunch for the expedition, usually in the form 
of millet or small seeds. The "sage brush'* found 
among the sand hills is very valuable, for the seeds from 
this plant form the staple diet of our little four-footed 
friends, — desert hamster, meriones, jerboa. Birds be- 
longing to the finch family also depend upon these 
seeds for their daily food. 

In this region are to be found five other animals 
which carry lunch in their cheeks, whether in imitation 
of the desert hamster, or to compete with it in climbing 
the Great Wall, these curious and most interesting 
little creatures — ^mammalites — are silent. Their names 
deserve advertisement in a book on the mammoth 
masonry of Chin: striped hamster, common hamster, 
David's squirrel {S cutis Davidi)^ chipmunk, and mi- 
cromys (speciosus which has very small pouches). 

The natives here in oldest China speak of wild pigs, 
but these did not present themselves to us. Antelopes 
by the score were often seen pasturing on the ramps of 

8 



114 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

the Wall. As for birds, they abounded, the magpie be- 
ing peculiarly in evidence. Among the birds seen may 
be mentioned the red-tailed thrush, crested lark, plovers^ 
geese, ducks, cranes, doves, swallows, wagtails, fly- 
catchers, wild pigeons, and sacred cranes. 

As for snakes, the traveler meets at Yulin two kinds: 
a brown one, the other a vivid green, with a row of bright 
red patches on either side of the neck getting smaller 
and smaller until they disappear near the taiL There 
are also two species of lizards, one of which is found 
pretty generally over the whole of north China; the 
other is found only in the Ordos, and is purely a sand 
inhabiting reptile. There is a species of toad prettily 
marked which inhabits the sand hills, while at least two 
species of frog are to be found in the streams near 
Yulin, in which water are also at least four species of 
fish. 

Insects are plentiful, especially beetles. We have 
often observed their antics with interest. There are 
four black varieties which infest the sand. Their 
nightly wanderings leave a network of pretty chains — 
their tracks — all over the sand hills. These beetles form 
the sole diet of the hedgehog and this prickly fellow 
seems to thrive on the hard-shelled creatures, for he 
is laden with fat and is most unpleasant to skin. 

The most remarkable product of this district in this 
line is the Chinese pigmies, or hairy wild men. We 
heard rumors of a wild and uncivilized people living to 
the south in mountain forests, — ^a sort of forgotten 
people, who in turn had forgotten the ways of the civil- 
ized. Unable to investigate in person these dwarf s^ 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

A Chinese "Pigmy" or Dwarf and a Giant near the Great Wall east of 
Yenkingchow 



It is easy to avoid a naked spear, Imt not a hidden 
sword, 

hairy and naked, as the story ran, we wrote to Philip 
Nelson, Esquire, and received this reply: "When living 
northeast of Pinchow, four hundred and fifty K, bird's 
way, I heard much about this wild people, who are as 
wild as wild can be. They have been uncivilized since 
the building of the Great Wall. They were badly 
treated, and being unable or unwilling to do the work 
set for them each day, numbers were thrown into the 
Wall and beaten down like earth. Unable to stand this 
treatment, some escaped to the woods, where they have 
ever since been. Only a few are left. I am told they 
do not wear clothes and are grown over the whole body 
with hair like wolves. Smaller than the common run of 
people, they are shy and run when anybody approaches 
them. There are also dwarfs living near here; I 
saw a married woman three feet tall." Having seen 
the pure pigmies in our explorations in the Forest of 
the Eternal Twihght in the heart of Africa, we had a 
great desire to visit the yellow pigmies, and hope to 
later.^ 

While forced labor did not wreck the reason of the 
laborers who piled up the pyramids, or of the Hebrews 
who worked for Pharaoh, or of the Israelites who slaved 
for Nebuchadnezzar, or of the Jews who toiled at the 
Colosseum, doubtless there was terrible suffering when 
these vast fabrics were erected; the indignant workmen 
must have revolted under the lash, some may have lost 
their reason, others have broken away into the forest or 
into the desert. We have no doubt that men fled from 

^ See A Yankee in Pigmy Land, by Dr. William Edgar Geil. 



116 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

the hard, harassing labor on the rampart that grew like 
a raxnpired rock and, caught where they dare not 
emerge, there was this left — ^to live the life of vultures 
and night-nurtured vipers that eat in ambush. That 
habit still holds themP 

The following from the Manchester Evening News 
seems too good to omit: "A Lesson to *Work Shys.' An 
instructive moral may be drawn from the discovery of 
a pigmy race in central China by Dr. William Edgar 
GeiL The ancestors of the pigmies, Dr- Geil declares, 
fled to the mountains to escape the curse of labor in 
the shape of assisting in the task of building the Great 
Wall of China. Whether or not they were justified in 
acting thus does not concern us now, but the fact re- 
mains that the present representatives of the race have 
degenerated into hairy pigmies, living in a state of 
savagery. This awful example should be a warning 
to those people in civilized communities who, blindly 
refusing to recognize the blessings of labor, pine for a 
life of ease and idleness!'* 

Revenons k nos moutons — ^to first-hand observation. 
As a sample village let into the perpendicular loess, 
take Wanyin Chien. Our party contains not only pale 
faces, but some yellow servants, a girl-faced boy, and 
a "Black Dog." The last mentioned kept a diary, and 
an extract may be welcome: "After passing through a 
town there was the Yellow River. We went ahead to 

* "Sang Wei Han, who lived 946 a.d., was a great minister but very short 
of stature; indeed, he was a dwarf. On one occasion he stood in front of 
a mirror and said, 'One foot of face is worth seven of body.* ... He 
had a long beard and was so fiercdy ugly that the 'sight of him made 
people sweat even in midwinter P ** 




Moone, the Great Detective 




The Great Wall of China 
Black Dog and the girl-faced Quin 



Photos by Dr. Geil 



A dead man is terrible as a tiger, a dead tiger harm- 
less as a lamb. 

cross the river. When on a high bank we could see a 
dead man lying in the water. The corpse faced up- 
ward, and stopped in a cleft of the rock where it bobbed 
up and down with the motion of the water. The body 
looked as if it had been blown up with the wind. Truly, 
truly hard to look at also. . . . 

"We went forward to every hamlet and village just 
at the time the wheat was ripe and in full ear, until we 
came to Wanyin Chien and stopped; and directly it 
was the Sabbath. Before we arrived here it was one 
piece of sand hill land. If the wind rose big, the roads 
were hard to find. The original men of the place plant 
a tree for a sign. Wanyin Chien is near the Long 
Wall. The towers, which although ruined somewhat, 
are not much destroyed ; every U they are arranged one 
seat after one seat. We had worship on the side of the 
hill. The name of the inn was the Ten Thousand Flour- 
ishing Inn. The men-mouths of the Inn-Lord were 
very many and the place fiercely dirty, so we all slept 
on the roof of the mule house. When the Sabbath was 
past on the next day, we arose on our journey. ... I 
asked the governor of the inn about the Long Wall. 
He made answer, *Chin Shih Huang without doctrine 
compelled the people to build it. He walked his horse 
and examined the boundary. Afterwards there was the 
husband of the Meng Chiang woman. Because he was 
building the Wall, he was compelled to die in it. The 
Meng Chiang woman, weeping for her husband, moved 
heaven and earth. The ten thousand U Long Wall 
with one cry, was wept down.' These words are with- 



118 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

out evidence." This final comment of the Black Dog 
will win approval. 

In this village, untouched by civilization, ignorant of 
camera, where a photograph of a beautiful young lady 
affrighted the beholders, many interesting legends about 
the Wall were gathered. Chin, borne triumphantly 
across the empire on his horse of cloud, stamped 
thrice every K, and on each crushed spot sprang 
up a tower. And to this day, instead of the expression, 
"do it quickly," one hears "do it on horseback." Chin 
was a broken, bad, rotten man. The wall was erected 
in one day, being eighty thousand U long. It was 
ruined when one woman gave a scream, and it collapsed 
from the sea to Tibet. There were eighteen suns when 
Chin built; the men were kept working so long that 
grass had time to grow in the dust which lodged on 
their heads. The men worked so long that they fell 
asleep and were buried; when they awoke they were 
ancestors. Chin had mammoth shovels that threw up a 
U of wall at a scoop ; the men were twelve feet tall and 
broad in proportion; nowadays men are small and could 
not build the Wall. 

John Gwadey, Esquire, furnished us the popular 
version of the ancient legend of the wonderful whip of 
Chin, or as he calls it, "The Magic Whip." We wiU 
quote John Gwadey's words: "A certain god up in 
heaven looked down and saw the people were being 
killed by the king and thrown into the Wall because they 
could not get the work done. So he pitied the people 
and came down from heaven with a magic thread 
which he gave the workmen to put about their wrists. 



»A:f :g»ilW-^# 119 

The good are short^liTed, the evil last a thooaand 
yean. 

It gave them great strength, so that when the king 
came along he was surprised how fast and well the 
work was done. Inquiring the cause he found the work- 
men wearing the magic thread. So he took all these 
magic threads and out of them made a lash for his whip 
which thereupon became more wonderful still. With 
the woven magic threads it had great virtue. With it 
he could remove mountains or make the Yellow River 
stand back for his men to build the Wall. Indeed, when 
he wanted to run the Wall into the sea he simply swung 
his whip and a mountain tumbled into the sea and the 
Wall was built on it." Gwadey went on to say that 
Chin's horse was white and could fly with its legs as 
well as if it had wings. 

We aisked a birth-native, "Was Chin a good man?" 
He replied, "He was a king. Look into the books; if 
the books say he was a good man then he was a good 
man." Not far away to the northeast is Yulin. 

Yulin, we might point out, is the great mule mart of 
the north. About the town and surrounding country 
cling many legends. Indeed, the folk-lore in the sec- 
tion between the Yellow River and the Christian city of 
Siaochap is as prolific as in charming Shetland — of a 
vastly different sort, of course. 

Seventy U west of Yulin is a natural stone bridge 
spanning a branch of the Wuting Ho. The water 
after passing under the arch, plunges down to the river 
bed below, forming a very pretty waterfall. The 
natives say that in this bridge was a mysterious room 
where the hermit of the Wuting Ho hid valuable treas- 



120 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

ure. From the secret chamber ran an eyelet to the top 
of the bridge, and into this wee opening the people 
of the district continually poured oil which fed a magic 
lamp and kept it burning perpetually. 

Many attempts had been made to find a secret door 
which was said to furnish entrance to the heaps of gold 
stored in the room of the hermit. It had long been 
prophesied that some magic word would open the way 
to the treasure. A vagrant fellow bethought himself 
to practise on the room. He tried various words and 
one evening to his amazement the bolts slowly released 
themselves and the stone door mysteriously opened. 
Now he had taken the precaution to take a grain bag 
with him. When the light of the lamp fell upon untold 
treasure he leaped in with a muttered shout of joy. 
He filled the bag and descended the stairs to the door 
only to find it closed in his face. Doomed to die of 
starvation, he fell to serious thinking, and concluded 
that covetousness had closed the door. He emptied half 
the gold and gems, but no, the word failed to work. 
Then more gold was flung out of the sack, and still the 
magic was not in the word. At last he took one shoe of 
silver and the word was with power. The door, opening, 
let him pass and as mysteriously closed again never 
more to be opened, for the gods carted off the treasure 
to prevent men destroying themselves. Moral, beware 
of covetousness! 

To Oldest China, local legends say, came Fu Su, the 
eldest son of the first emperor, who because he refused 
to acquiesce in the burning of the books was banished to 
the north where he aided in directing the building of 




THE BIRD OF THE CiREA I WALL 
The Indian BKie Ma^^pit- 



Being good is like climbing, being bed like falling. 

the Great Wall. He was murdered immediately after 
his father's death by command of Li, the chancellor, 
that his younger brother might succeed to the throne. 
The building of the Wall was as good as a jail for the 
punishment of offenders. On not a few occasions The 
Only First deported dishonest judges to the north, con- 
demned to labor on the rampart as an expiation for 
their sins. 

Far away toward the west we stopped at a hamlet 
of four houses, known as the Water Grave Ravine. 
Here we patronized the Inn of Increasing Righteous- 
ness kept by a Boniface called Happy Son of Move- 
ment. This mine of folk-lore produced corroborative 
statements as to the giants of Chin's day. "Oh, yes, I 
know the men were over ten feet high; the old men say 
so, and I have seen the bones in the Wall, four feet long 
below the knee." The truth of this is guaranteed, for 
Happy Son is clean, cheap, a widower, a goatherd, he 
does not shave, and he worships seven ancestral tablets. 

These bone stories awakened in us an interest in the 
Anaks of history. As a result we fell upon the Chinese 
historical records and found mention of men of height 
and might concerning which narratives we have no 
doubt save only that a few additional inches may have 
been added in some instances to their stature to intensify 
the native imagination. 

Shih Tien Tse, high minister of Kublai Khan, with 
a voice like a bell, stood eight feet high! In 297 a.d. 
lived the famous Mu-jung Huang, seven feet, eight 
inches. . . . Mu-jung Hui, 268 a.d., eight feet high. 



122 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

. . . 886 A.D., Mu-jung Tse; eight feet, three mches. 
. . . 819 A.D., Mu-jung Tsun, fond of books, eight feet 
high. . . . 

The history often speaks of strong men. One such 
was the giant Chu Hai, a man of prodigious strength 
who was sent as an envoy to the court of Chin. The 
emperor threw him into a den of tigers. Whereupon 
Chu's hair stood on end and he took on such a hideous 
aspect and glared so fearfully at the tigers they did not 
venture to attack him. We also read of huge humans 
not only over seven feet high but otherwise developed 
in proportion. Goliath of Gath had progeny here. 
Then there was the old man Huang Mei Weng of the 
second century B.C., who is spoken of as follows: "An 
old man with yellow eyebrows, who told Tung- fang So 
that he lived on air, changed his bones and washed his 
marrow, cast his skin, and cut his hair once every three 
thousand years, and that he had done these things 
three times already!" 

These abnormally large men were provided with 
correspondingly liberal appetites, for they ate a bushel 
at a meal. We offer the legends this corroborative tes- 
timony: if the men who built the Great Wall were not 
giants they, when seen at a distance and on the sky line, 
appeared to be of unusual size. We saw men on moim- 
tain ridges who, by some atmospheric illusion, had every 
appearance of being a dozen feet tall. Often we re- 
marked this strange phenomena. Horses were also 
abnormally increased in size by some mirage-like con- 
trivance of nature. Opinions may differ as to there 
being giants in the days of Chin. We are convinced 



»»T>«A 123 

In good works don't yield place to others. 

that more men of exceptional size existed then than 
now. The appearance of many of enormous stature 
as we passed along, due to some freak of nature, leads 
us to willingly credit the ancients with the human virtue 
of honesty in these semi-historical legends of the giants 
who built the Great Wall. 

Here we gathered a choice selection of local legends, 
showing many variants on a few themes of cruelty, love 
and magic. The line of the Wall was marked out not 
by Chin, but by Chin's white magic horse. A saddle 
was tied to its tail, and it was allowed to wander freely; 
where it strayed, the architect followed and pegged out 
the line for the builders. John Gwadey improved on 
this by adding that at one point the workmen could not 
keep up with the horse, so stopped to drink tea. A dry 
fog blew meantime so that they could see neither the 
horse nor its footprints; so after tea they continued in 
the same line as before for ten miles. But not seeing 
the horse yet, they became suspicious, and sent one up 
a hill to look out. He found the horse far away to the 
northwest, heading in quite a different direction. So 
they abandoned the last stretch, returned to the tea 
camp and built a new wall after the horse. And to this 
day stand the abandoned forty K of wall to prove the 
story. 

Hear another. Hsiian Tung was a man employed 
on the Wall, but because he was not active'enough. Chin 
had him thrown into it. His widow heard of the diffi- 
culty and came a long way to find the body. Weeping 
as she went along the line, her grief caused the Wall to 



124 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

open and show many corpses. To identify her husband 
she bit her middle finger and let fall a drop of blood on 
each till one moved. This she drew out and gave proper 
burial, sorrowing for him the rest of her life. 

Once again. Chin planned to build this Wall a hun- 
dred yards high, so as to intercept all the gracious influ- 
ences from the south, and reflect them back on to his 
realm. So well did he succeed that for ten miles to the 
north nought but evil and terror reigned; no desert 
herdsman dared bring his cattle within thirty U of the 
Wall. 

Having thus arrived into the ancestral territory of 
Chin and all his family, it behooves us to winnow out 
the facts from the multitudinous legends. 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

John Gwadey, Esq. 
The small picture in the upper left hand comer shows him as he appeared 
when our Expedition reached Kiaytikwan 



CHAPTER X 

The Rise of Chin: The Seven Great Chancellors 

Although the Great Wall is the hugest of the works 
of men it did not prevent the Tartars, whom some think 
it was meant to exclude, from getting possession of 
the empire and holding it for two hundred and sixty- 
four years. And other branches of the race have held 
it in whole or in part for periods amounting to three or 
four centuries. Still it may be affirmed that there is 
no relic of antiquity more deserving of study than the 
Great Wall of China. And Huang Ti, the title of the 
autocratic sovereign, appears to be as changeless as the 
granite stones of the Wall. 

Historians are accustomed to speak of the rise of 
Ch'in as due to the influence of six great chancellors. 
We, on the other hand, are inclined to say that seven 
great chancellors were responsible for the faU of six 
kingdoms and the establishment of a vast and stable 
empire of China. In addition to the six to be men- 
tioned in this chapter, mention must be made of an- 
other, Wei Jan, who lived in the third century b.c. He 
"played a leading part in the aggressive policy which 
culminated later on in the triumph of the first emperor." 
Under the regency of the Dowager Hstian, Jan ac- 
cepted the position of commander-in-chief of the armies 
of Ch'in. As a military leader he was successful. 
After destroying multitudes of men and seiadng 



126 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

seventy-six cities he handed over the command to 
General Po Ch*i and himself accepted the portfolio of 
the chancellorship. For upwards of forty years Jan 
exercised almost absolute power in the feudal state of 
Chin. During his term of oflice one hundred and thirty 
cities were permanently added to the realm of his mas- 
ter besides hundreds of U of territory; making alto- 
gether a vast accession to the prestige, power, wealth, 
and aggrandizement of the state of Ch*in. He deserves 
mention among the great chancellors who wrought the 
ascent of Chin the king into Chin the emperor. 

While the guest of Dr. Martin in the Western Hills 
before leaving for Tibet we asked the wizard of Pearl 
Grotto "who made the rise of Chin possible?" The 
great scholar at once laimched out on the rise of Chin: 
the six great chancellors: the power behind the Great 
Wall, and its political significance. 

Impressed by the wonderfully informing conversa- 
tion of the brilliant author of A Cycle of Cathay j and 
not caring to risk a reproduction from memory, we 
were fortunate enough to procure from him the follow- 
ing sketch: 

The Problem. Who was the builder of this monster 
fabric? Who was the originator of the political system 
of which it stands as the appropriate symbol? Were 
they both achievements of one master mind? Or were 
they the result of ages of preparation? 

The Answer in General Terms. In answering these 
questions we must distinguish between achievement and 
preparation, between those triumphs in war and peace, 
which make the builder one of the greatest figures in 




The eight famous Churtons of Kumbum, on the borders of Til)et; also 
the Temple of the Golden Roof 




The Great Wall of China Photoa by Dr. Qeil 

The Beautiful Bridge at Chinchow, the ancestral house of the Chins 



The work being adequate, the result is a matter of 



human history, and on the other hand the occult 
processes, which made possible the existence of such a 
revolutionary autocrat! 

This extraordinary personage, is he not a myth like 
Hercules with his twelve labors? So far from being 
veiled in obscurity, like the heroes of the classic West, 
he stands before us in such light as the Chinese histo- 
rians afford. They have supplied us with a mass of 
material from which it remains for us to extract a 
sketch of his life and character. Four imperishable 
moniunents he has left behind him, each amply suffi- 
cient to keep his memory alive — the Wall which 
stretches from the sea to the desert, the island of Ching 
Wang Tao that bears his name and is visible from the 
eastern end of the wold, the empire which he molded 
into a compact body, and lastly the name China which, in 
spite of the objections drawn from Japanese and Indian 
sources, I take to be the name of Chin — ^his native state 
— ^which after absorbing all rivals stood alone between 
the mountains and the sea. 

To vindicate his title to these notable distinctions we 
shall have to allow him a pretty long space in the fol- 
lowing pages, although our special object is to point out 
the conditions and agencies which brought his career 
within the range of possibility, for it was the gradual 
rise of an obscure principality that prepared the way 
for Chin Cheng the "Tyrant of Ch^in.'* Would any 
one think of giving an account of Napoleon without 
referring to the French revolution? The arena which 
tempted the ambitions of Ch'in Cheng was as large as 



128 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

half of Europe, filled with jarring elements seething 
and exploding like the crater of a volcano. He it was 
who enf oix;ed peace, making them at least compara- 
tively quiescent. 

The third great dynasty, that of Chou, had occupied 
the throne for six centuries when the ancestors of Chin 
Cheng hegan to make a figure in history. Already were 
its vassals yielding to centrifugal forces: which even- 
tually brought them into terrific collision with each 
other and precipitated the fall of the decaying house. 
In their combinations and conflicts they consulted their 
suzerain as little as the papal powers of Europe do the 
wishes of the pope of Rome. Heir to a venerable name, 
he had little territory and no army. Yet as a sort of high 
priest and the recognized fountain of honors, he was 
held in reverence long after the disappearance of his 
military force. The first seat of the Chous was on the 
upper waters of the Yellow River at or near Siangf u. 
Their dominions extended to the borders of the other 
great river, the Yangtze, but not a foot of what is at 
present the southern half of China proper acknowl- 
edged their sway and the whole of the territory swarmed 
with hostile tribes. Within this area their book of history 
opens auspiciously with a fair degree of good order. 
But the court was in one comer of the empire, and 
wisdom dictated a more central location; perhaps pru- 
dence, too, suggested removal to a greater distance from 
the frontier. Following the river they established their 
headquarters not far from Kaifeng in Honan. This 
was their eastern capital. The other capital was not 



An inch of time is an inch of gold. 

taken by the Tartars but quietly appropriated by the 
growing state of Ch*in. 

A sparsely peopled and semi-savage region on the 
northwest border was the domain of the Chins. There 
the ancestors of the first Huan Ti hardened themselves 
in conflict with stOl more savage foes — ^their people 
making equal use of spear and pruning hook, or follow- 
ing their plow armed with sword and crossbow. Of 
the five ranks of nobility, theirs was the lowest; that 
of baronet or little baron. Nor were they regarded 
merely with disdain by those who wore the insignia of 
highest rank; their people were despised by those of the 
more cultivated states. So deep were these sentiments 
that princes and people objected to admitting the Chins 
to a seat in their national conventions. Scorned and 
despised as they were, who could detect in those border 
ruffians the founders of an imperial house? The story 
of their transformation, of which we shall not give 
more than an outline, reads like a fairy tale. Aschen- 
puttel, Cinderella of the ash-heap, was to be the coming 
princess. 

Yes, history in retrospect discovers in them marvelous 
though gradual development. It is something like a 
law of nature — ^given a border state with adequate area 
for expansion, claiming kinship with people of higher 
culture and engaged in repelling the incursions of bar- 
barous tribes, and you have the conditions out of which 
have sprung more than one of the great powers of the 
world I What was Macedon but such a border state, 
claiming affinity with Greece, yet serving as a buffer 



130 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

between the Greeks and the wild tribes of Scythia? 
Disowned by the Greeks and compelled by Xerxes to 
assist in his invasion, could it be doubted that the fore- 
fathers of Alexander cherished, even before the time 
of Philip, the dream of compelling the homage of 
Athens, and of crossing into Asia at the very point 
where the Persians crossed into Europe? Had they 
not before their eyes Xenophon's story of the "Ten 
Thousand" and had not the youthful hero the greatest 
philosophers of Greece to train his expanding intellect? 

Keep this parallel in mind, and it will help us to esti- 
mate the merit of a conqueror who led larger armies 
than those of Alexander, who vanquished as many 
kingdoms, and whose grandest exploit was the found- 
ing of an empire which did not break up at its founder's 
death, but endures after two thousand one hundred 
years. 

The Agencies of Foreigners. In Europe there was 
a time when soldiers of fortune roved from state to 
state and placed their swords at the service of those who 
paid best; but Europe furnishes no instance of an 
ambitious power taking its leading statesmen from 
abroad and shaping its policy by their advice. Yet this 
is what the chiefs of Ch*in persistently did through a 
period of more than two centuries. 

The Czar Peter did something of the kind under the 
influence of the same motives when he put himself 
under the guidance of the Genovese Le Fort and when 
he became an apprentice in the workshops of Holland. 
But Peter the Great stands among the Romanoffs as 
a solitary example, whereas among the chiefs of Ch*in 



It is homely Un that feeds and ooasae cloth that 



there was a long line of Peters and half a dozen 
Le Forts clothed with the fullest powers. 

The Six Chancellors of Ch'in. The most noted of 
those foreigners who contributed to the upbuilding of 
the rising power will now claim our attention. They 
were Po-li Hsi, Shang Yang, more commonly known 
as Wei Yang though his real name was Kung-sun 
Yaiig, Chang I, Fan Chii, Lii Pu-wei and Li Ssu.* 
Names strange to Europe, but in the part which they 
played they answer to the Mazarins and Cavours. 

1. Po-li Hsi. To remedy the disadvantage of a 
sparse population, the chiefs of Ch'in had been wise 
enough to open their gates to immigrants from the 
neighboring principalities. Of these many were em- 
ployed in grazing on the confines of Mongolia, the land 
of grass. "For safety they had to band together; and 
with them existence was one unceasing conflict — ^their 
principal enemy being the Tartar, always on the alert 
to swoop on an unprotected flock. By chance the name 
of Po-li Hsi came to the ears of Mu Rung, i.e.. Baron 
Mu (of Ch'in). His merits were recognized alike by 
the settled people and the wandering strangers. A 
cowboy, like those of Colorado or Dakota, he had by 
courage, probity and talent made himself a king of men 
wanting nothing but the insignia of power. Finding 

* Besides Wei Jan, mentioned in this chapter, there has been omitted 
Su Ch*in (see p. 1S4); Po-li Hsi, on the other hand, who lived in the 
seventh century b.c., is not usually included in this list. Even thus we get 
seven chancellors, namely: (1) Wei Yang; (9) Su ChHn; (3) Chang I; 
(4) Wei Jan; (5) Fan Chil; (6) Lil JPu-wei; (7) Li Ssu. The last 
named, however, was not made chancellor until 914 m.c., and might there- 
fore be omitted from the list of those who contributed to the tit* of Chin. 



132 THE GREAT WALL OF CfflNA 

him to be a man of real culture, ready wit and inex- 
haustible resource the baron, after a brief trial, invested 
him with the full honors of the premiership. 

Here is the eulogy pronounced a generation later in 
reply to one who was jealous of his fame. "Po-li Hsi, 
a stranger from Hupeh,^ was lifted from a herdsman's 
booth. So poor was he when he entered the country 
that he sold (hired) himself for five sheepskins as his 
monthly wage. At the height of power he never forgot 
his primitive simplicity. To the rich he was a master; 
to the poor a friend; and when death snatched him away 
after a tenure of six or seven years, the whole people 
wept from sincere sorrow. Shops were closed, there 
was silence in the streets and the whole state mourned 
for the man who was the first to make it conscious of 
its strength.*' 

2. Shang Yang. With this example before his eyes 
Hiao Eung, the next chief of Ch*in, made public 
proclamation that any man, native or foreign, who had 
a wise scheme for augmenting the power of Ch'in, 
would be listened to and rewarded, and if his plans were 
adopted the highest honors would be heaped on him. 

Borne on the winds — ^without telegraph or news- 
paper — this appeal reached the ears of a young man 
from Honan^ who, as the Chinese say, was "wagging 
his tail" before the door of a neighboring prince. A 
minister who had received him into his family and knew 
his worth, was on his deathbed, and being asked by the 
prince whom he would recommend to succeed to his 
portfolio he replied, "Here is Shang Yang; either 

^ These names are anachronisms. 



A foot of fade is not precionst but an inch of time I0 
m thing to be straggled for. 

make him your premier or kill him before he enters the 
service of your northern rival/' The advice was not 
heeded and the prince had occasion to regret that he 
had put a powerful weapon into the hands of his enemy. 

The chief of Ch^in was delighted with Yang's scheme 
for the aggrandizement of his country. "You," said 
he, "are the man to carry it out," and in a short time 
Yang found himself clothed with authority from which 
there was no appeal, except to the veto of the chief. 
For twenty-three years the chief stood by him while 
he was pushing forward the most drastic and unpopular 
reforms. 

He readjusted the tenure of land, rectified the mone- 
tary system in which the currency had become debased, 
and did the same for the weights and measures, placing 
fair standards in every market and making them ac- 
cessible to all. His most heroic performance was com- 
pelling certain privileged classes to bow to the majesty 
of the law. Like Achilles of old, they "denied that 
laws were made for them." And two members of the 
chief's family undertook to trample on the new regula- 
tions. One of them was branded on the face as a warn- 
ing and the other subjected to long imprisonment. So 
thorough was the reformation that violence and robbery 
were nowhere heard of, and it is added that "valuables 
might be left in the street, and no one would venture 
to pick them up" — ^a phrase used to describe the secu- 
rity of the golden age. 

Yet the people were not satisfied with a Draconian 
legislation, which though it was so severe as to look like 



134 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

oppression, gave safety to the toiling multitudes; the 
privileged classes fomented discontent and on the death 
of his patron it broke forth, and Shang Yang, bound 
between two chariots, was literally torn to pieces.^ 

By this time it had become apparent that nothing 
short of imperial power could satisfy the ambitions of 
Chin. Shang Yang was the first to perceive this and 
in a sketch of the situation fanned the flame, while he 
adroitly put forward his own merit. Had his chief, 
with whom his own star had such a fatal connection, but 
enjoyed a longer lease of life, no doubt the bold minis- 
ter would have attempted to win for him the rank of 
dictator, if not that of emperor. But other eyes were 
equally alert to discern the trend of Chin's policy which 
looked to the south instead of confining his attention to 
the Tartars. 

Su Ch'in and Chang I were fellow students in a 
political school, the existence of which was a sign of 
the times. It was located in a moimtain gorge, called 
Kweiu, the Devil's Hollow, and its head masters were 
careful never to disclose their real names — ^though eager 
to attract students. They were not committed to any 
party; and drew aspiring youth from all the states. 
They were, no doubt, men who had filled high posts in 
cabinet or field, and who found consolation for vanished 
glory in training the youth for services; which 
could hardly be called patriotic, for their policy was 

^ He first fled to the Wei state, but owing to his previous treachery was 
refused asylum. He then took refuge in his own fief of Shang and offered 
armed resistance, but was speedily overpowered and killed at the head of 
his troops, his body being subsequently torn to pieces. 




The Great Wall of China 
The Great Wall north of Tsunhwafu 



Photo by Dr. Geil 



To the believer it is a foct, to the tmbelierer a fiction. 

Machiavelian and the test of success, personal ad- 
vancement. 

Su was the first to emerge from the academic shade 
and like Shang Yang he proceeded to the court of Chin« 
Finding the new prince not so ready to adopt new 
methods as his predecessor had been, he left the court 
resolved to devote his energies to checkmating and de- 
feating his schemes of aggrandizement On the east, 
says the chronicle, were six strong states; and on the 
south more than half a score of smaller ones. These 
strong states he proposed to form into a league for 
mutual defense, and by dint of superhuman effort and 
matchless skill he succeeded in forming a phalanx that 
seemed impregnable. 

Receiving a separate commission from each state, Su 
Chin brought all their chiefs together in one grand rally 
where, under his directions, the league was ratified by 
solemn rites, an ox being offered and each chief laying 
his hand on the head of the victim. 

8. Chang I. A greater master of statecraft now ap- 
peared on the field, seeking to associate himself with Su 
in the honors and emoluments of the league. But Su 
treated him with such insolence that he betook himself 
to the court of Chin and pledged himself to undo the 
formidable confederation. Themistocles was not more 
subtle nor more unscrupulous. Commissioned to form 
a counter league, he soon had the six states at logger- 
heads, and Su had the mortification of seeing his proud 
structure collapse like a house of cards. 

4. Fan Chii. A native of the same region and proba- 



136 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

bly a student in the same "devQish schoor* was the next 
to win the chancellor's seal. He might have said of him- 
self, like the Younger Cyrus, that no one should be 
more terrible in punishing his enemies or more generous 
in rewarding his friends. 

Sent by his own prince as secretary of legation to 
Shantung, he had been accused by the envoy of accept- 
ing a bribe, and on his return was condemned to be 
beaten to death. Seemingly dead, he survived to exact 
a terrible vengeance. Betaking himself to Chin he 
acquired such an ascendancy in the councils of the state 
that he made war on his own country, and reduced it to 
such extremity that it was glad to make peace by send- 
ing him the head of his enemy. 

The chief service which Fan Chii rendered to his 
master was the inauguration of a policy of encroach- 
ment on near neighbors in lieu of doubtful expeditions 
against remote rivals. 

6. The fifth chancellor was Lii Pu-wei, a merchant 
of Hantan in South Chihli. Meeting at a foreign 
court of Ijen, a grandson of the prince of Ch*in, he 
ingratiated himself to such an extent that he was in- 
vited to the capital of Ch*in. There he pulled the wires 
so cleverly that he got his patron Ijen raised to the 
throne on the death of the old prince. The son of the 
new king was Chin Cheng, the builder of the Great 
Wall, then a youth of thirteen, and his mother, the 
princess regent, appointed Lii Pu-wei guardian of her 
son with the title of Ch'ungf u — second father. 

6. The sixth chancellor was Li Ssii. Chosen directly 
by the young prince who thereby declared his own inde- 



A b07 without ambition is blunt iron without steel. 

pendence, Li Ssu surpassed the other five in radical 
reforms, as much as his young master eclipsed his fore- 
fathers in the splendor of his achievements. He, like 
his master, built on the solid foundation slowly laid by 
those who had gone before. Some of the five had 
nursed a feeble state into a formidable power, others 
had prevented its overthrow and enlarged its borders at 
the expense of its neighbors. Nothing remained but 
to sweep the chessboard and to adopt measures for 
securing what was regarded as universal dominion. 

The house of Chou was stripped of its shadow of 
supremacy, and its last scion pensioned off as a de- 
pendency of Chin. Five of the greater states now laid 
down their arms and begged to be allowed to retain 
their lands as vassals of a new sovereign. To their sur- 
prise their petition was rejected because king and min- 
ister were bent on obliterating all the old landmarks and 
remaking the map of the empire. 

Here we have in a word the secret of the burning of 
the Confucian classics and the slaughter of Confucian 
scholars — ^two things which have led the ofiicial his- 
torians — ^all Confucians — to blacken the character of 
the greatest of China's emperors, by making him a 
bastard and a fool. The books were burned (they say) 
that Chin Ching (or Lii Cheng, as they call him^) 
might stand alone in his fancied glory as the first 
emperor, wilfully ignoring the fact that he was the first 
to wear the title of Huang Ti, which has continued to be 
worn by twenty-two dynasties. The scholars, they say, 

* So-called on account of Ltt Pu-wei's alleged paternity. 



138 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

were put to death to ensure that the books should not 
be reproduced, whereas the books were burned by way of 
suppressing a feudal system, which is enshrined in their 
pages, and the scholars were slain because they plotted 
the overthrow of the new power. 

The Building of the Watt. The last of his rivals 
reduced to submission, the first Huang Ti, as we may 
now call him, turned his attention to the Tartars of the 
north. It was vain to think of subjugating them by 
force of arms. The best expedient would be to erect 
a barrier between them and China, which would enable 
a well-organized force to hold them at bay. This grand 
scheme, if not the suggestion of Li Ssu, met with his 
unqualified approval; otherwise how could he have con- 
tinued to retain the seals, as he did, to the very end of 
his master's long reign? The building of the Wall was 
the chief work of the monarch's last twelve years, and 
his prime minister must have had much to do with it. 
The oversight of the construction was, however, en- 
trusted to Meng T'ien, one of his military officers, 
known for energy and success in the battlefield. It is 
curious that his name survives only in connection with 
the hair pencil, of which he was the inventor. In a 
revolutionary age, few of its reforms were more im- 
portant than that which substituted the pencil for the 
stylus and paper for cumbersome strips of bamboo. 

Tien pi Lun chih. "Meng Tien invented the pencil 
and Ts'ai Lun invented paper," is a line daily recited 
by boys in primary schools — ^preserving the memory of 
two inventions which have had much to do with the 
course of events in modem China. 




The Great Wall of China 
A Section of the Northern Loop of the Great Wall 



Photo by Dr. Geil 



A kind word keeps warm for three winteiB. 

Chin Huang TVs Travels. Mu Wang, one of the 
Chous, was a great traveler. But poetry has had quite 
as much to do with the record of his journeys as with 
the creation of a marvelous whip beneath the lash of 
which the broad earth grew small. Chin's travels were 
often in connection with his military expeditions. His 
last journey was to the Shantung promontory, from 
which he looked out on the eastern ocean. Though he 
despatched a fleet to obtain tidings of those Isles of the 
Rising Sun (the literal meaning of Japan) of which 
he had only heard vague rumors, was he, like Alex- 
ander, longing for more worlds to conquer? or, as 
others than Chinese had done, foolishly seeking the 
elixir of life? 

A ballad based on a legendary story may here be 
added as a not inappropriate appendix to this historical 
disquisition. It was written a year ago. 

THE FOUNTAIN OF YOUTH OR CHINA'S GRAND 

ARMADA 

A Legend of the Wall BuUder 

From a lofty tower the Tyrant of Ch^in 

Looked out on the Eastern Sea ; 
When struck by a thought he at once started up. 

And awoke from his reverie. 

His vizier he bid a council convene 

In his tent on the top of the Wall ; 
All wondered what scheme had come into his head. 

As they met at their Master's call. 



140 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

**My lieges," he said, "your help I require. 

My labors are only begun. 
The kingdoms subdued no faction I dread. 

The Wall defies traitor or Hun. 

"Yea, though my success might envy excite. 

Yet when I from earth pass away. 
The empire that I with so much pains have built up, 

I fear, will fall into decay. 

^'Had I but a few years longer to reign 

I'd make China a permanent state. 
But old as I am, that end to attain, 

Myself I must first renovate. 

"In Nippon, 'tis said, there's a Fountain of Youth, 
There the flowers of amaranth bloom; 

Could I from that fountain obtain but a draught. 
It might keep me out of the tomb. 

"Haste, rig out a fleet, those seas to explore, 
Not a soldier on board shall you take, 

With the fruits of our land in beautiful store, 
A gainful exchange you may make." 

So the fleet sailed away — ^not a soldier aboard — 
By maidens anc| boys it was manned. 

To seek for the Fountain of Youth it sailed. 
And it carried the youth of the land. 

Their teachers and books were not quite forgot. 
But the yards with garlands were hung. 

They looked like a school on a holiday cruise. 
With their flags to the breezes flung. 




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Away sailed the youth in gallant array. 
But their homes they saw never more ; 

At those Eastern Isles they safely arrived, 
And took root on a foreign shore. 

The Tyrant of ChMn though on conquest bent, 
His spear point with roses concealed; 

To the Isles of the East by that festive troop, 
He the learning of China revealed. 

So Japan in our day her debt to repay, 
Brings China the Fountain of Youth; 

May China drink deep her youth to renew. 
And be led in the pathway of truth. 



141 



CHAPTER XI 

Letters from Ninghia? 

Ninghiafu,^ High Asia. 

June 
Deab Miss X, 

"Attend! for we must hold a long confabulation!" 
Thy fleet commands even though not urged by "the 
golden scourge" hasten our anxious quill. The dazzling 
prize of thy sweet smile allures tales of templeli gods, of 
tall pagodas, of lofty ramparts, and other legends which, 
in these parts, submerge the common mind. Thy re- 
quest to know what Black Dog thinks of things shall be 
oppressive until with inverted commas it mitigates "the 
stings of woe," and from thy meager measure of en- 
joyment drives corrosive grief. In morsels shalt thou 
have the diary of the Dog. Later be introduced to an 
old-school Chinese doctor. Remember that the Celestials 
have a thousand drugs and give queer prescriptions. 
Indeed, they remind us of the skipper of a sailing 
ship, who was supplied with medicines numbered to 
correspond with a book of explanations. When he ran 
out of medicine number twelve and sickness number 
twelve developed itself in one of his crew, he simply 

* Itc letters in this chapter were addressed to a yoang lady. 

'A legend says that one Huangti, a leader of a band of immigrants, 
came in a remote age out of the west, died, and was buried here. This site 
seems to have had a dense local population away back in the misty cycles 
of antiquity. 

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united medicines nine and three or ten and two and gave 
the compound to his patient! This is truly Chinese. In 
China, too, certain diseases are looked upon as inevit* 
able.^ It is said that a Chinese mother does not count 
her children until they have had smallpox. 

The Arabs call the desert "the land of fear/' It 
needs some such strong descriptive term. So we felt 
when at last we passed the barren wastes of scorching 
sand. Mandeville deposes thus concerning it: 

"The see that men slepen, the gravely see, that Is all 
gravelle and sond withouten ony drope of watre." 

The desert is suggestive to all men. Mark the Hindi 
saying: Banda na ko pan jo gaun parko banjo — "If 
women manage a village it will become a desert.'' Does 
this explain the presence of buried cities beneath the 
wave-like sands of Grobi? 

The horror of the desert lies in its nakedness, empti- 
ness, aridity, in its deceitfulness and death-dealing 
power. But it has, too, its charms. It is not only the 
territory of death; it is also the realm of the "no-door 
life." Out-of-door life is good, but no-door life is 
better. A door speaks of limitations, ill-ventilation, a 
place wherein to cower from the outer world. But the 
no-door life we live on this vast rediscovered plateau — 
what could be more free? With the silent stars above, 
and below the noiseless dust and breezes as bodiless as 
drifting cold, here is life I Here too, is health, away 

'Cf. the proverb: '*The doctor may cure disease, but he cannot cure 
fate." 



144 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

from cramped quarters, with flickering candles and the 
horror of newly breathed germs from the diseased bod- 
ies of other men, and out in the midst of a great arched 
chamber, indescribably magnificent, illuminated by the 
steady lights of heaven, and fitted with air as pure as 
the spotless snow. We are inclined to exclaim: "Give 
us the no-door life and its serene advantages, revealed 
to savages and to a few others among men I" 

This is the fair side of the desert. Nevertheless we 
must confess that our weary caravan most gladly 
entered the fruitful fields surrounding the first city of 
importance along the Red Fort, as its builder called the 
Great Wall of China. Historical interest is now 
awakened, for at this pass Genghis Khan entered the 
oasis and seized Ninghia. If you are curious, read 
the life of Genghis Khan. It is more informing than 
Mr. Toole's account of the Great Wall: "The most im- 
portant building in China is the Great Wall, built to 
keep the Tartars out. It was built at such enormous 
expense that the Chinese never got over it. But the 
Tartars did. And the way they accomplished the feat 
was as follows — one went first and t'others went arter.'* 

Whatever opportunities for humor the Great Wall 
offers, it must not be forgotten that it is a stupendous 
monument to China's past greatness and a huge index 
finger pointing to a greatness still to come. We can- 
not believe that the long lethargy of the Mongolians is 
due to any decay of their vital forces. Are they truly 
a nation of Rip Van Winkles? There may yet be need 
for our western workers, too, to lie dormant for centuries, 
in order to recuperate the nervous energies of the pale 



A melon seller never cries "bitter melons,'* nor a 
wine seller ** thin wine." 

pink race. Here there is before our eyes work enough 
produced by these wonderful Mongolians to defy com- 
parison with anything done by any people now living 
on our planet. 

Ninghia is a walled city. In the Chinese empire 
walled and bastioned cities number one thousand seven 
hundred, some put it at two thousand.^ The Taipings 
captured six hundred and had just fairiy begun their 
work. As for the total number of cities in China, that 
is an uncertain point. Nobody knows when a fish 
drinks water, and no one can tell when a Chinaman 
speaks the whole truth. The saying is funny but a fact, 
that no foreigner can tell the truth about China without 
lying. 

But, however, the cities He, densely or sparsely, 
throughout the country. In following the Long Wall 
we visit five important centers of population. In a 
triangle of land made fertile by the magic of man 
stands the "City of Quiet Summer*' — Ninghia on the 
maps. About this wondrous tract of ground, turned 
into an oasis by grace of the Yellow River, the sturdy 
farmer might, if he knew how, misquote the Odyssey: 

"I stretched my toil 
Through regions fattened with the flow" of Hwoang ho. 

^ **There are over 9,000 walled cities in the eighteen provinces, but not 
one fourth of them have resident missionaries. To the 2,000 walled cities 
another 3,000 unwalled cities or towns must be added, and to these cities 
and towns almost numberless villages and hamlets. Among the teeming 
multitudes of these cities, towns and villages there is but one Christian to 
every 2,600 non-Christians. Yet it may be said that every place is now 
open to the messengers of the Gospel" — British and Foreign Bible Society 
of China. 
10 



146 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

When our caravan had crossed the yellow sand and 
the yellow sod, it crossed the Yellow River, Soon after 
two tall pagodas appeared on the green plain. One 
was originally erected at Cheng Chow, according to the 
legends, but one night it forsook that site and moved 
over to here, a distance of one thousand U. A rather 
rapid transit for a pagoda — over three hundred miles 
between two days. A competing legend declares that 
thirteen years were occupied in building the thirteen 
stories of the pagoda and that a notorious spider then 
made its way to the pinnacle, a spider possessing the 
uncanny power of turning the shadow of the pile 
toward the sun! 

The small north gate of Ninghia was closed forty 
years ago and never opened because the keeper for 
three hundred taels opened it and admitted the Mos- 
lems, who destroyed half the city and took the Taotai 
out of his Yamen, tied him to a horse's tail and dragged 
him through the city. 

And now for an extract from Black Dog's diary: 
"The city of Ninghia is not complete. There is the 
Water-Fire Pagoda. ... At night we stayed in the 
Happy Righteousness Inn. The inn governor, by 
name Wang, belongs to the temperance society. He 
explained the honorable doctrine of the temperance 
society . . . how it should be carried out. • . . He 
bore witness that the proceedings of the society could 
be seen by all men, and they know the root of the 
temperance door. When a man talks you want to see 
his deeds. From his deeds you may see his heart. Thus 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

The South Pagoda of Ninghia City of the Quiet Summer. Native skill 

and artistic design united to produce this strictly oriental structure. 

Its size and decorations command the admiration of the l)eholder. 

Like all pagodas it has an odd number of stories 



Without the di^andra you cannot allure the phcenlz. 

you distinguish the straight bottom of the doctrine, the 
is and the not kr 

(Ah! the is and the not is! How long and how often 
have we sought in vain to discover the "is and not is." 
Black Dog is a philosopher.) 

The Christians also have a temperance organization 
called the "Abstain from Three Poisons Society.'* The 
three poisons are wine, opium and tobacco. A temple 
to piety bears this wholesome inscription: "Temperance 
and Long Life — ^both high." Wu Wang the ancient 
issued an announcement as to wine: "When small and 
great states come to ruin, it is also invariably wine that 
is the cause of the evil." The emperor threatened with 
death all prominent persons who failed to reform their 
conduct. The curse of drink is of ancient origin, and 
numerous examples of its disastrous effects are to be 
found in all literature. 

A native medicine man now made a seasonable ap- 
pearance. But my distemper is one which jrields not 
to lotions or potions; it demands notions. So he told 
me tales. His tongue is intimate with stories. The 
conquests of love find in him an auspicious chronicler. 
You shall hear about him. But first we must away — ^to 
send two telegrams. Yes, even on the Grobi desert there 
are telegraph stations. The wise words of Max Miiller, 
said of India, are even more emphatically true of China. 
"You will find yourself between an immense past and 
an immense future." At half -past seven a clerk ushered 
us into a "reception room" and would have filled the 
water pipes with tobacco, had not Black Dog pre- 



148 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

vented him. Two "wires" cost 4.99 taels. The oper- 
ator occupied twenty minutes figuring out the cost of 
the messages and weighing the money. It is but fair 
we should give the Chinese the telegraph, since they 
gave us the compass that made the discovery of America 
possible. For gunpowder and printing thank the Celes- 
tials, and for the bad divisions of an hour into sixty 
minutes vilify the Babylonians! 

Northeast of Ninghia are three jutments of the 
Great Wall toward the Yellow River. The main line 
here takes an angle of almost ninety degrees and passes 
on to the southwest. The city is at the corner of the 
Wall.* We wonder, shall the Great Wall have an ig- 
noble end? Other walls, once the pride of capitals, have 
fallen into the itching hands of vandals and been made 
to serve purposes remote from the original. Witness 
the Turkish stone-cutters at ancient Laodicea carving 
marble pillars into tombstones, and fluted coliunns, 
once the glory of temples, into troughs for donkeys! 

These Turks of Laodicea are descendants of the 
Tartars walled out of China. This leads us to inquire, 
what is the future of the Great Wall? We suggest, and 
the idea will meet with thine approval, thou disciple of 
Linnasus, that the Flowery Empire make of it a huge 
hanging-garden of sunflowers! An artificial rampart 
of blossoms, excelling the lofty flower beds of Babylon! 
This may be achieved by a people whose ancestors made 

*"How lovely is the retiring girl! 
She was to await me at the corner of the Wall. 
Loving her and not seeing her, 
I scratch my head and am in perplexity." 

From the Shih Ching (Book of Poetry). 




The Great Wall «>f China 
Spurs run off from the main line of the Great Wall to protect a hill over- 
looking the east and west structure. The ahove is one of many between 
the Yellow Sea and the Yellow River 



All human afiairs are my afiairs. 

the Chentu sand plain blossom in the west, and whose 
neighbors, the Japanese, in the east planted whole 
mountain ranges with trees. Let us hope one day to 
ascend in a balloon and view a flower bed twelve hun- 
dred miles long! 

Here another idea strikes us, the hanging gardens of 
Babylon (which, you know, were built by Nebuchad- 
nezzar for his Median bride Amytis) were the first sky- 
scrapers of history — ^sky-scrapers of an agricultural 
brand, the farmer for once being on topi Why not 
extend the plan in modem life? One day we may find 
the world so densely populated as to require hanging 
or many-storied farms. Can you not see the picture of 
our gigantic office buildings with their sides knocked 
out and the floors fields of grain? And every roof 
yielding corn and every sidewalk growing food 
creepers? 

This city of Ninghia is four thousand feet above the 
tide, and the climate is good. But the fish for which it 
is famous are bad. We ate some, because we followed 
the highly recommended but dangerous plan of 
Thoreau, who when asked at a dinner which dish he 
preferred replied, "The nearest 1" Well, we ate some 
and then fell ill for several days. The trouble with 
people always is that they do not take proper precau- 
tions and then they blame probably the climate. You 
know the Irishman's saying: "They eat, they drink, they 
die, and then they write home and say the climate killed 
them I" 

We look forward to a pleasant sumimer, riding on 



150 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

these high plateaus towards the home of the Tibetans. 

To-morrow the quill shall write again. 

P.S. The Great Wall has just reminded me of a 
strange custom somewhere in India, told in these words: 
"When my husband is pleased with me he throws a 
brick at me." Here is a fine use for the unnumbered 
bricks in the Great Wall I If you like statistics, I have 
worked out a sum. The city walls of China somewhat 
resemble the Great Wall. Seventeen hundred cities, 
with an average of four miles of wall, would aggre- 
gate six thousand eight hundred miles. Add to this 
the two thousand five hundred miles of the Great Wall, 
and we have nine thousand three hundred miles of wall, 
or more than the diameter of the earth! 

Ninghia, To-morrow, a.m. 
Greetings from the Desert I 

The medicine man is still with us. About him lingers 
"the breath of the desert." He is sad and portentious. 
His eyes are like those of a discouraged frog. It is 
lucky for him his father was bom first. This is not Our 
vagrant fancy. He reminds us of the desert sunshine 
on dusty days — ^illuminated darkness. He comes from 
the silent sands. (But the sands are not silent; theirs 
is the active stillness of a summer's day.) He belongs 
to solitudes. 

Here is one of the legends which the mysterious man 
told us in the City of the Quiet Summer: 

"Chin's famous horse was coal black, with a red mane 
and tail of flame, eyes resembling bright lamps and 
flashing forth terrible light; mouth large as a winnow- 



Cutting down a weed is not so good as uprooting it 

ing fan, teeth "fiercely'* big, ears only an inch longl 
He ran one thousand It a day. The small ears made 
speed convenient. The pagoda made equal time, but 
traveled at night." 

(It is not at all surprising that the superstitious 
generation have invested the Great Barrier and its re- 
mote builder with all sorts of powers and companions.) 

"The horse was a Dry Dragon, and his hair pointed 
forward. When Chin engaged in a battle, he rode the 
horse between the opposing lines, whereupon the animal 
•gave a horrible screech, leaped into the air toward the 
enemy and then dropped on the enemy, stamping until 
the earth and the heavens shook, and the fire wind 
sprang up and swallowed the stupefied warriors. Chin 
thus conquered six kingdoms and the others submitted." 

This is what an Ordos scholar called "Long Wall 
wild talk." Watch the mail for another tale to-morrow. 

Ninghia, Day after To-morrow. 
The Doleful Traveler salutes Theel 

Attend 1 The medicine man tells of grain in a secret 
granary in the Great Wall. It was good to eat and 
plant when eight hundred years old! 

"Times of peace and anarchy ordained by heaven 
are not constant. Great victories are not continual. 
Exceeding good things will certainly perish. From of 
old this is a general principle. However, in the reign of 
T*ung Chih, Ninghia was confused. The Mohamme- 
dans rebelled twice. The second rebellion was under 
the intrepid fearless leader Tang Men, who, traveling 



152 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

by Lan Chow and Liang Chow, caused the people to 
eat bitterness. He fired the temples, destroyed the 
gods, seized the silver, drove off the cattle, burned the 
houses and robbed the inhabitants of their sons and 
daughters. For three years the fields were not culti- 
vated, the aged died in the ditches, men ate men, dogs 
ate dogs, and there were no travelers I 

"Now, in the tenth year of the reign a star of salva- 
tion appeared. It was a strange incident. In a gorge 
of the mountains lived Liu Chi, who, having no elder 
or younger brothers, was the only son. His mother 
was sixty, his wife was thirty, and his daughter was 
younger than either of the parents! The famine be- 
came worse and worse and the rebels more and more 
active. The people fled to the cities. Liu Chi, weak- 
ened by hunger and imable to carry his three women, 
with their little bound feet, thought over the situation, 
but could not fix his mind. Just then a black dog came 
into the courtyard. He killed it, cooked it, ate it and 
said: *To-day we have eaten the black dog. To-morrow?' 

"Perplexed, he determined to kill his \\dfe and 
daughter and carry his mother to the city. Now, near 
the Great Wall was a dried-up well. He told his wife 
and daughter that in the well was a sheep. They went 
with him, and while they were looking into the well he 
put forth all his strength and threw them in. He then 
took portions of the earthen core of the Long Wall and 
proceeded to bury them. As the earth fell away a great 
surprise awaited him — a door, on which was an in- 
scription: *In the third year of Tang Tsao,* the ninth 

^ We cannot ilnd this name among the emperors or their year-titles. The 



A word may make a state and a word may mar it. 

moon, a lucky day/ . . • Then Liu Chi saw the golden 
grain, stored eight hundred years before by a wealthy 
man, who purchased it for only three cash a bushel. 
Then Liu Chi, remembering the ancient saying, *The 
grain of Liang Chow is good for one thousand years,' 
held the mouth-to-mouth saying true. The reason for 
hiding the grain was this. A tribe of barbarians outside 
the Long Wall were dangerous and the wise, wealthy 
man was providing against a surprise. 

"In the spring Liu Chi distributed the grain. It 
was planted and yielded heavily and the famine was 
over." 

All because Liu Chi liked his Mai The thread fol- 
lows the needle. 

Ninghia, Second Day after To-morrow. 
My dear Young Lady of the West I 

The salutation is admirable. Once upon a time there 
lived a Chinese "Royal Lady of the West" (we are in 
the "West" now.) She grew peaches in her garden 
that ripened once in three thousand years, and con- 
ferred immortality upon those who ate them. Please 
raise peaches! 

This letter finds itself growing in the Lucky Public 
Inn. Which is lucky, the inn or the public — ^who do 
not stop there? As early as the fifth century B.C. an 
innkeeper, by the name of Ch*in, received a commimica- 
tion from an old customer who presented him with a ' 
mysterious drug, of which he was to take a dose every 

tenth year of T'ung Chih is 1871, 800 years before this takes us to the 
rdgn of Sh^ Tsung of tlie Suag dynasty. 



154 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

day for thirty days. After that he would know *Hhe 
nature of things''! By experience we have learned the 
"nature of things" that crawl and walk and run and 
bite, particularly at night. We would like to supply 
this innkeeper with the drug so that he might know the 
"nature of things.'' We will away from insignificant 
matters to a subject of profound and permanent 
moment. 

"The Yellow River protects Ninghia!" It certainly 
protects nothing else. This then is a distinction. There 
are pagodas here, tall ones, square ones, brick ones. 
Rugs are manufactured in Ninghia, rugs of design and 
color. Sixty thousand lambs' skins are exported each 
year, one thousand two hundred tan of licorice root, 
produced in the surrounding country, is collected in 
numerous ox carts and sent eastward to the sea. This 
one-time capital of the province contains fact and fic- 
tion to fit the fancy of historian and novelist. West is 
the Ala Shan range, and beyond are the wide wastes of 
Tartary, where the Gobi stretches out its embalming 
sands over cities once alive with hmnan activity, in the 
days when patient irrigation kept droughts at bay. Is 
it not curious to reflect that the countries which have 
harbored most of the ancient civilizations are regions 
of deficient rainfall and compulsory irrigation? Wit- 
ness Egypt, Persia, Arabia, and China, all contiguous 
to deserts. 

On the fringe of this delsolate desert dwells the noto- 
rious Prince Tuan, who led the bad "Boxer" business. 
Here he is expiating his crimes. But from such 



An honest heart begets an honest face. 

thoughts the traveler gladly turns to contemplate better 
things. 

In the City of the Quiet Summer lives a lone "white" 
lady. Her brother, his wife and child were foully 
murdered on the plains of Mongolia. Her husband's 
brother, his wife and children also met an untimely fate 
as did other friends. By this time a gloom envelopes 
your kindly mind. But the Lone Lady of Ninghia is 
the opposite of gloomy. She laughs easily, heartily, 
frequently, and is full of fun. She plays and sings for 
the Mohanmiedans, doctors the families of mandarins, 
drinks tea with the cultured Chinese, and preaches the 
gospel to everybody. Ahl We have failed to say she 
belongs to the sacred order of missionaries. 

The unconscious devotion of this Lone Lady to the 
needs of humanity and to the teaching of her Master, 
whom she reverently calls "Christ," is worthy of all 
praise and beyond it. Devotion without advertisement! 
This modem Tabitha does not know that she is heroic, 
devoted, sublime! 

Here is a queen who deserves a palace for herself and 
her work. Three thousand pounds of "the assistant 
god" (as money is called in Hindi), invested here by 
those who believe in Christian mission work, would be 
a good investment. Thirty thousand people live in 
Ninghia, and thousands more roimd about, but this is 
the only mission station at the apex of this fertile 
triangle. Let some munificent person erect a memorial 
building here and support it until it becomes self -sup- 



156 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



porting! The work now being done is admirable,* and 
the Lone Lady is waiting for companions to assist her. 
We met a big rug manufacturer, who was a poor man 
when he came to the Lone Lady for medicine to kill the 
desire for "foreign smoke." He was cured and ever 




Doable-piir— Head at each end of the body— brings famine. Need a wall to keep 
them out 

since has prospered, until now he employs many persons 
in the making of beautiful rugs. A sugar loaf is sweet 
on all sides, and Christianity benefits the whole man in 
his relations. 

Before continuing our journey we called to bid the 
Lone Lady good-bye. As always, so then her old peo- 
ple were with her. We urged her away for a rest. She 
replied, "The Lord will lead!" She believes it. We 
lifted our hats and said: "Lone Lady of the Quiet Sum- 
mer, fare thee well!" 

And now, Young Lady of the Noisy Winter, fare 
thee well! 

^ The following figures of the total distribution of the Bible in China, 
which have been collected with great care, may be given here; Total circu- 
lation of Scriptures to the end of 1907, 35,799,673. 




The Great Wall of China Photo by W. M. Belcher 

One of the .two large Pagodas of Liangchow, Kaiisu. This beautiful 
bit of scenery is immediately in front of the Buddhist Convent of 
Nuns 



CHAPTER XII 

Genghis Khan, the Red Raider, who passed through 
the Great Wall at Ninghia 

Soon at the head of myriads, blind and fierce 
As hooded falcons, through the universe 
Fll sweep my darkening desolating way, 
Weak man my instrument, curst man my prey. 

Among the mighty Mongol men bloody Temujin, 
Genghis Khan, was first but not last After Genghis 
the Marauder came Kublai the Civilizer. These two 
complicated, convulsive characters were to the Mongols 
what Pike's Peak and Long's Peak are to the Rocky 
Mountain lovers, most distinctly seen and longest on 
the receding landscape. In the whole range and plain 
of Mongol history there are not other two such cragf ul, 
strong, and bloody^ leaders of the men of Mongolia as 
Genghis and Eublai: great Khans of the East. But 
Kublai, however interesting and important in himself, 
with the Great Wall has little to do; we pay our respects 
to him and bow him out. Genghis, forward! 

At times regarded by friend and foe as supernatural, 
the words of Genghis Khan wrought like magic and his 
presence was as potent as a legion of loyal bowmen. 
He shed a lake of human blood — crimson lake; he had 
what Horace called "gigantic boldness," — ^and what 

^Kublai was, comparatiyely speaking, a mild and temperate ruler— 
wonderfully so for a grandson of Genghis. 

15T 



158 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

evil tendency did he not possess? This Mongol monster 
massacred millions of men and stands to-day the great- 
est slayer or wholesale murderer of human history. 

A man of elemental fury, violent and savage beyond 
the sweep of twentieth century imagination, he let slip 
such dogs of war as never before or since have barked 
to battle. His thought by day and dream by night was 
personal power. He massed his mounted headmen, 
and with terrible impetuosity and irresistible charge 
destroyed any tribes or peoples who dared resist him. 
His bloody career did not end until he had ruthlessly 
slain as many people as now live in all New England, 
New York and Pennsylvania. Of human blood he 
shed 28,000,000 gallons — enough, if pumped into the 
mains and pipes of New Orleans, to supply that city 
for twenty-four hours; if poured into the channel of 
Niagara it would require fifteen seconds, as a crimson 
cataract, to pass the falls. He let enough human gore 
to float the largest modem battleship. And while he 
did not spill suflScient blood to paint the planet red he 
approached that feat more nearly than any other one 
of the sons of men. 

(xenghis Khan was a masterful man whose sagacity 
concentrated into a supreme selfishness. Nothing found 
in the course of his progress was too sacred for vigorous 
and even violent demolition. In comparison with (xen- 
ghis Khan, the faithless, bloody Napoleon was a saint. 

But Genghis was more than a human revolver, he 
was an epoch! To get the date of bloody Genghis 
Khan, set back the time lock to 1162. As you swing 



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speak of Tsao Tsao and Tsao Tsao appears. 

the globe around to reach his place, catch a glimpse of 
hapless Henry of Anjou in England engaged in his 
fitful fight with the Church, in which the leading popu- 
lar incidents are the murder of Archbishop Thomas 
k Becket and the scourging of the king by the Canter- 
bury monks. Over on the mainland is the keen Kaiser 
Frederick Redbeard, also occupied fighting the pope's 
authority. Across the Baltic the Norsemen are re- 
luctantly settling down to their new faith, changing the 
hanmier of Thor for the cross of Christ, and drinking 
wassail to the Lord. The great military orders are 
busy offering baptism or death in Prussia. A new city 
has just arisen at Moscow, destined to supersede the 
old Russian capital of Kieff, but unlike the latter. 
Christian from the start, with all the gorgeousness of 
Byzantine worship. 

In northern latitudes Moscow is the last outpost of 
anything that could be called civilization. But a 
southerly sweep down the Volga past the Caspian Sea 
encounters another great empire, founded on the debris 
of ruined states which had occupied the valleys of the 
Euphrates and Tigris. This fertile soil once tilled by 
Assyrians and Babylonians with their documents of 
brick, overrun by the wandering Medes, graced by 
Persian art, leavened with Greek versatility, held down 
by Parthian cavalry, rejuvenated by a Persian renais- 
sance, is now in the power of the Muslims. At Baghdad 
the caliphs hold their court, made famous once by Aaron 
the Just, immortalized in the Arabian Nights. Here 
Omar Khdyy^m is writing his wonderful poems with 



160 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

their gloomy views of life, only brightened by the 
influence of wine and women. One of his stanzas is 
unconsciously prophetic of Genghis Khan: 

Ah, Love, could you and I with Fate conspire 
To grasp this sorry scheme of things entire. 
Would we not shatter it to bits, and then 
Remould it nearer to the heart's desire? 

To the northeast lies a great empire of the Khoras- 
mians with such mighty cities as Bokhara and Samar- 
cand. This, too, is ruled by Muslims, one king bearing 
the picturesque name of Aladdin, though this has 
been softened and Gallicized from his religious title 
of Allah-ed din-Muhanmied. This "Faithful Servant 
of God" has extended his power from the borders of 
Syria to the Indus, and from the Persian gulf north- 
wards to the Jaxartes, flowing into the Aral Sea. 

Farther to the east is Hindostan, where also the 
Muslims are rooting themselves under Mahmud of 
Ghazni. Here the beliefs of the people are being 
molded anew by the teachings of Ramanand, bringing 
from the Christians of Cochin a doctrine of faith 
destined to raise the religion of the natives and teach 
them not to fear their gods, but to love and heartily 
obey. Up the Himalayan slopes in the mysterious 
mountain land of Tibet, the Buddhist monks are taking 
over the externals of worship from the Christian 
church of St. Thomas, which has outposts all through 
mid- Asia. And within the flowery land of the central 
kingdom of China, the Taoists are manufacturing pills 
for immortality. 



Happiness and miaery an not fated bnt aell-songlit 

In the great sweep of Asia between China, India, 
Persia and Russia, of civilization there is little. Here 
rove hordes of hardy horsemen, called indifferently 
Tatars or Mongols. Of these "Tahtars'' the Chinese 
stand in fear/ 

Fortunately for the Mongols, the devitalizing com- 
forts met in Cathay, — ^as China was called after the 
Khitai — ^were not transported out into the wilds. There 
the herds of horses constitute all wealth; food, fuel, 
clothes and homes, all come from the animals. The 
milk of the mares is fermented into kumiss, the staple 
beverage; the dung of the herd provides warmth; the 
hides and hair are turned into leather and felt for 
clothes and tents. 

Just as a thousand years earlier the rich Roman em* 
pire attracted the hunger and greed of the tempestuous 
Teutons, who rushed at the Roman walls and tried to 
burst into the fertile fields behind; so the wild, warlike 
Tatars are always ready to follow any great leader and 
precipitate themselves with terrific fury on the nearest 
prey. 

The Christian Patriarch of Babylon in his uneasy 
seat at Baghdad had not been forgetful of these wan- 

* Central Asia was the home of two great allied raoes, the Turks and 
the Mongols. Distant cousins, the Finns, Lapps, and Hungarians, had 
migrated to Europe already, where they still remain as undigested morsds. 
The Turks were pressing westward by a more southerly route. The 
Mongols had not yet risen to great eminence, though the Chinese had 
experienced the ravages of a particular tribe, which they called Ta-ta or 
Tahtar. The Chinese name for the Mongols is Mtog^ku. *^artar^ became 
the general name for all the nomadic tribes, embracing on the one hand the 
Huns, Turks, Ouigours and Mongols, and on the other the Khitans^ 
Tnnguses, Ntt-chtoiy from whom the Manchua are desceoded* 

11 



162 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

derers. Frequent embassies had gone forth from 
Persia into the Mongol wilds. One visited the Uigurs, 
and reduced their uncouth language to writing. The 
Keraits had been won to the gospel, and their pictur- 
esque prince was of sufficient force for his fame to 
filter into Europe, where he gave rise to the myth of 
Prester John. All the savage Tatar tribes had a vague 
belief in one god, but many worshiped with idols, 
made, like much else, of felted hair. 

Such is the scene of our story. Now for the dramatis 
personae. The metropolis of Mongolia was Karakoram, 
about two hundred and fifty miles south of the modem 
Irkutsk. Here dwelt the real Prester John, known 
locally as Wang Khan, ruling over the Black Tatars, 
Kara Khitai. These included a clan of some forty 
thousand families, infesting the district between the 
Amur and the Great Wall of China, governed by a 
chief called Yezonkai Behadr, "The Ninth Hero." 

The ancestry of Yezonkai is vague, but there are two 
notable touches of genius in the pedigree prepared by 
their Royal College of Heralds for his descendants; 
apparently in Asia long ago, just as in London to-day, 
a genealogy can be faked for any one with sufficient 
dollars. According to these Grcorge Washingtons, a 
certain Budantar, eight generations back, was the off- 
spring of a widow unassisted by any mate. And the 
poets, who are always licensed to draw on their imagi- 
nation, make the ultimate father of the tribe a great 
blue wolf: this beats Romulus and Remus fairly out of 
court. 

It is not necessary to swear an affidavit that these 



Treat self aeverely, others leniently. 

stories are believed before the reader may proceed far- 
ther. But he is entitled and requested to accept the 
statement that in 1162 Yezonkai became the happy 
father of baby Temujin.* He was bom on the shore of 
the river Amur, immediately after a bloody battle, and 
with clotted blood in his hand, the son of a stolen 
wom^n. 

It is customary in out-of-the-way parts for fairies to 
come to a birth festival, and the nearest that could be 
done here was to produce an astrologer, who called him- 
self Son of Heaven, and won the heart of the happy 
sire by predicting that the new arrival should become a 
great warrior and have a wonderful career. This was 
a safe sort of promise, for the most sanguine would not 
prophesy beauty for a Tatar, and academic distinctions 
were not valued in those parts; besides, some twenty 
years might reasonably elapse before any fulfilment 
could be demanded, and in a score of years there was 
ample time to hedge, or to escape. As a matter of fact, 
the magician priest soon died and his son was appointed 
to train the lad, and did it on the most approved lines of 
physical exercise and athletics. Marvelous tales are re- 
lated of his boyhood days. The future Genghis Khan 
by nine years of age was a daring, dashing youngster 
who could ride a rapid horse without using the reins 

^Temujin, or the Emperor Genghis Khan, had four sons of importance: 
Yugfai, who rode in a pie (wliose son Baku ravaged iialf Europe), Jagatai, 
Agotai, tlie second emperor (whose son Kuyuk became tliird- emperor), 
and TulL Tuli had three sons to be reclconed with, Mangu the fourth 
emperor, Kublai the fifth emperor» who transmitted the power to his chil- 
dren, and Hulaku the conqueror at Baghdad. The five emperors ruled 
during the thirteenth centuxy. 



164 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

and shoot arrows before, behind, to the right and to the 
left. He also had visions. "Temujin dreamed one 
night that his arms grew out to a prodigious length, 
and that he took a sword in each of them, and stretched 
them out to see how far they would reach, pointing one 
eastward, the other westward. In the morning he re- 
lated this dream to his ambitious mother. She inter- 
preted it to him that he was to become a great conqueror, 
whose exploits history would record." 

So precocious was he, that at the age of thirteen the 
future king of kings took a wife, and in two years 
accumulated a pair of children. Heavier responsibili- 
ties were soon thrust on him. His father quarreled 
with neighboring tribes behind the Great Wall and was 
captured. He escaped, but soon died. He died of 
poison and a civil war followed. Confronted by a con- 
dition rather than a theory, the likely lad of fourteen 
proved himself a wise general, defeated the rebels and 
was acclaimed supreme chief. On the strength of this 
promotion, bloody Temujin invested in a second wife. 
While he was absent asserting his authority, the beauti- 
ful bride was carried off to Karakoram and handed 
over to Wang Khan. The young chief Temujin, re- 
turning from his furious foray, sent for his new wife, 
who was promptly expressed to him. On the way she 
gave birth to a wee laddie, and as cradles were scarce 
they made a mass of dough and embedded the little 
morsel, so that he should be saved from the jolts of the 
journey in the cart. The chief welcomed the youngster 
in the pie and decided that being thus early invested 
with the dough, he must be well bred 



r=m 



An inch of gold cannot bny an inch of time. 

It was perhaps on this occasion that the poet laureate 
produced the following effusion, of which a distorted 
version is current in western lands: 

Sing a song of sixpence, 

A pocket full of rye, 
A fat little Tartar boy 

Made up into a pie. 
When the pie was opened, 

The boy began to sing; 
Was not that a funny dish 

To bring to Temujin? 

But though he illustrated his manly prowess, bloody 
Temujin*s youth proved still a diflSculty, and he at 
last handed over the management of the tribe to his 
uncle and his mother, starting off himself with an escort 
of six thousand warriors and desperadoes for the court 
of his suzerain. With him the bonds of friendship 
were tightened by adding to the wives a daughter of 
Wang Khan, to the great annoyance of another chief, 
who wanted her. The disappointed suitor hatched a 
conspiracy to get rid of the upstart and of the ungrate- 
ful king. In the true oriental fashion, of which we 
get a glimpse in Abraham's proceedings, the plotters 
slew a horse, an ox and a dog, and imprecated on them- 
selves a death of like fashion should they be untrue to 
their engagements. 

At first the scheme succeeded, the capital was taken, 
and the king put to flight. But the genius of the 
bloody chief Temujin cast a spell over his followers. 



166 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

and little by little the cunning conspirators were over- 
come in battle and out-maneuvered in counsel. 

When the lad had reached the age of twenty-two 
danger seemed over. To celebrate the peace, a pair 
of marriages was arranged; a boy of the chief wedded 
a daughter of the king, and a girl of the chief wedded 
a son of the king. The boy and the girl could not be 
more than nine years old, while the daughter and the 
son were older than their father-in-law. 

It would appear also that the rules of the Church 
were neglected on this occasion. Wife number three 
became sister-in-law to her stepson and her stepdaugh- 
ter; the young hero became brother-in-law to his son- 
in-law and his daughter-in-law, his daughter and his 
son; and various other interesting consequences follow 
which can be worked out at leisure by the inquiring 
mind. 

Family jars are notorious, and it was after these 
complicated matrimonial alliances and a gift of jars of 
mare's milk that the two fathers fell out. Wang Khan 
decided to crush the rising chief, but his plans were 
betrayed. Temujin fiercely fought two great battles, 
smote down all his enemies and made himself undis- 
puted ruler in the northeast. Temujin marked the 
victory by mounting the skull of Wang Khan in silver 
and using it as a drinking cup. 

At Karakoram bloody Temujin now proceeded to 
organize his government and his army. Such discipline 
as he introduced was new to the Tatars, with com- 
panies, regiments and brigades, all subjected to regular 
drill, which gave the legions terrible efficiency; military 




^1 



I ^ 

O 4-' 



08 



9j ^ 






I 



9< 



I I 









A biting dog does not show hia teeth. 

forts and roads were constructed by labor; army sup- 
plies were stored up. It was decreed that the people 
should labor one day a week on public works such as 
roads, fortifications, canals, et cetera. Then came codes 
of law, division into provinces, establishment of a postal 
service and the machinery of civil government. And 
when all the new constitution had been outlined, a great 
Constitutional Convention was summoned to ratify and 
to elect the first king. No American ring could better 
hocus-pocus the people into thinking that they were 
free to elect, and that no machine would dictate to 
them. 

Of course, there was only one nomination, and by 
acclamation bloody Temujin was installed. Out stepped 
a hoary old priest, claiming to be inspired, and de- 
clared that he was commissioned by Allah to predict 
that the new ruler should quickly conquer the world 
and found an everlasting empire. In token of this he 
hailed Temujin by the Chinese title of Ch'eng-shih, 
Perfect Warrior, while all the princes came and paid 
homage. His Mongol title from now on was Genghis 
(Mighty) Khan, signifying King of Kings. This 
"great merger of interests" occurred about 1206, a 
few years before the English barons made John sign 
the charter; the hero was now in the prime of life, 
some 44 years old ; at the height of his wisdom he issued 
an edict commanding all to believe in one supreme Grod. 

As Genghis entered on active life at the age of 18, 
his school days had been short; and it will not be sur- 
prising under the circumstances that spelling was not 



168 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

a strong point with him. So if any reference is found 
to Genghis, Grengis, Zengis or Jinghiz Khan, it will 
be understood that the same gentleman is intended. 
After all, did not Shakespeare pass under various 
aliases, to say nothing of epithets such as the Bard of 
Avon and Divine William? 

Speaking of spelling: the Uigur Tatars had been 
converted to Christianity and had their own version of 
the Bible. Such civilization in the way of letters as 
Genghis ever acquired, came to him from them. 

In the midst of the lake of blood he was fast forming 
Genghis Ehan had time for else. The "King of 
Kings,'' a genius in both war and religion, established 
a custom later adopted by the Mormons, that of marry- 
ing for the dead, or even marrying the dead. Two 
families having no living offspring, but desiring to be 
made legally one, could do so by marrying the dead son 
of one family to the dead daughter of the other. Gen- 
ghis Khan, who claimed to exercise authority in both 
worlds, declared the wedding ceremony solemnized by 
the parents binding in the Land of the Spirits I 

First bloody Genghis investigated Cathay, and this 
proved, as ever, an inviting prey to human vulture. 
He overcame all difficulties, passed the Great Wall, 
and overran China. But even Napoleon at Moscow 
found it easier to defeat armies and capture cities, than 
to hold the people permanently in subjection, or even 
to secure an honorable peace. If the European powers 
learned this early in the century at Peking, Grenghis 
Khan had some experience at the same place. 

Three great hordes swept in over the Tatar half 



A loyal minister will not serve two dynastic kings, 
nor a virtuons woman wear two wedding rings. 



169 



of China, crushing all resistance, nor did Genghis him- 
self stop till he had crossed Shantung past Wei-hai-wei, 
and halted where in after days the German archangel 
should withdraw his mailed fist from the beehive of 
Kiao-chao. Twice was this operation repeated, and on 
the second occasion the few cities which held out at 
first were captured. But gory Genghis had no thought 
of establishing himself within the Great Wall, nor even 
of placing a vassal king to pay him tribute. Instead of 
a yearly dish of golden eggs, he preferred one gor- 
ging meal on roast goose, and so ravaged without dis- 
crimination. Then he withdrew to his own elevated 
plains away in the heart of the continent, with a pair 
of Chinese princesses and a few hundred girls for him- 
self, besides abundant plunder for his army. 

Flowing back, obedient to the call "Westward, Hoi*' 
he dealt with some mutinous tribes near the headwaters 
of the Yenisei, and looked around for additional ad- 
ventures. In those days there was no Captain Mahan 
to point out the advantage of sea power, but the rulers 
of Siberia have often felt instinctively the need of an 
outlet to the south and its warmer climes. Now, after 
many revolutions, the chief potentate in these parts was 
Sultan Aladdin. He had quarreled with the Muslim 
pope, Nasir the caliph of Baghdad, and set up an oppo- 
sition candidate. The caliphs were both spiritual and 
temporal dignitaries, like the famous prince-bishop 
immortalized in the Ingoldsby legends; and cursing 
having failed, they tried ordinary negotiations. These 
were contemptuously rejected, and then the caliph sent 



170 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

an invitation to Genghis Khan to come and deliver him. 

Nothing could have suited him better than a request 
to crush a state which reached right down to the warm 
shores of the Persian Gulf. A pretext was not hard 
to find; the families of Mongol merchants who were 
murdered across the border, were pleasantly surprised 
to find how earnestly their grievance was taken up. 

An embassy was dispatched to seek redress, but Sul- 
tan Aladdin in an unlucky hour had read about David 
and Hanun, the son of Nahash, without drawing the 
correct moral. He clipped the head off the chief am- 
bassadors and the beards off the rest and sent them 
back in this undignified plight. Did the Roman envoys 
at Tarentum declare that the filth cast on their robes 
should be washed out in the best of Greek blood? So, 
too, did Genghis arise in wrath with his Tatar chivalry. 

As their coursers charged the wind 
And the white ox-tails streamed behind, 
They looked as if the steeds they rode 
Were winged, and every chief a god. 

Yughi-who-rode-in-a-pie was put at the head of 
seven hundred thousand men, and sent to punish the 
sultan. The first great city he met was Bokhara, a 
famous Mohammedan center, where students flocked 
from all mid- Asia. It was girt around with a strong 
wall, and even the suburbs were defended by an outer 
rampart, the whole ten miles across. It took the Mon- 
gols nine months to force the outer defenses; and as no 
relief from without could rescue the doomed city, the 
garrison lost heart, and most stole away, receiving the 



Be resolute and the thing is done. 

natural result of cowardice by being cut to pieces in 
the open. The citizens were ready to surrender but 
found a harsh conqueror. First by torture they were 
compelled to bring forth all their treasure; then they 
were driven out and the city burned. 

Genghis Khan was a dazzling, dashing, fearless 
leader and merciless in the treatment of enemies. 

On one occasion he captured a horde of foes and 
disposed of them by placing huge caldrons over fires, 
boiling the water and throwing in the chiefs of the van- 
quished army. As Nero fiddled while Rome burned, 
so while the victims scalded to death, the mighty, mas- 
terful Mongol looked on, — ^superior to the Roman in 
this that he made no glee, and Yughi-who-rode-in-a- 
pie was a chip ofi^ the old block. 

So the onward march experienced no dull uniformity, 
except in the uniform success. 

A stubborn resistance was met at Kojend on the Sur, 
which empties into the Aral Sea. King Timur had torn 
up the roads and wrecked the bridges, after filling the 
town with eatables. On the river he had a fleet of flat- 
bottomed boats armed with the best artillery. The 
general detached to assail the city, repaired roads and 
bridges, and then brought stones and timbers twelve 
miles to dam the river and hinder naval operations. 
Timur sent fireboats down and burned the dam, and 
with his garrison embarked on a new flotilla protected 
with clay against a counter attack by fire. Despite a 
check in some shallows, he escaped with his family; but 
the wretched town sufi^ered the usual horrors. The 



172 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

temper of the savage victor may be pictured by 

Feramorz: 

He sits in savage loneliness to brood 
Upon the coming night of blood. 
With that keen second scent of death 
By which the vulture snufFs his food 
In the still warm and living breath. 

While such were the successes of the army detached 
under son Yughi-who-rode-in-a-pie, Genghis himself 
marched on Samarcand and the sultan. In the Ara- 
bian Nights the famous Aladdin was comparatively 
helpless and worthless, apart from thle jinns of the 
ring and of the lamp. His namesake, the sultan, was 
no more eminent by himself, and though this city was 
a gem of the realm, he was content to send an army of 
a hundred thousand to defend it, but he did not go forth 
to head his troops and in person oppose his assailant. 
Genghis found that the town was Sebastopolized — de- 
fended by extemporized earthworks; but dissensions 
within the city led to the citizens surrendering, whereon 
he massacred all the garrison except a few who cut their 
way out with the governor. 

At one of these sieges the people pleaded for a rais- 
ing of the blockade, and Genghis Khan's general with 
grim humor promised to do so if they would send him 
ten thousand swallows and a thousand cats. They were 
not well versed in the story of Samson and his foxes, 
and sent out the creatures required. To their tails 
bunches of blazing tow were attached, and soon the 
town was in flames. 

There is not much variety in the other sieges. Balkh, 



When there is a cart ahead there is a track behind. 

Merv, Nishapur, all fell to the Tatar lot; the new Sul- 
tan Jalaluddin retreated and great battles were fought 
at Ghanzi, and on the Indus. 

When the sultan saw that he was losing this latter 
fight, he mounted a fresh horse, leaped twenty feet off 
an embankment into the river, and swam to the other 
bank, to the admiration of Genghis Khan. Realizing, 
however, that "however magnificent, it was not war," 
he sent his best horsemen in pursuit. But the mad 
riders galloping through the night failed to capture the 
fugitive. Exhausted by the heat of the plains he gave 
all the northwest of India to be looted by the Mongols 
and returned to Ghazni. This had been the capital of 
a great Turkish kingdom for many centuries, so 
Genghis was residuary legatee of many monarchs. He 
may have passed through the famous gates to which 
the legend attached that when they were removed the 
power of the state would collapse. But, unlike Lord 
Ellenborough, he destroyed the state first and left the 
gates alone. While resting, he heard that Herat, which 
had quietly surrendered, had now revolted. He sent an 
army which besieged it half a year; then was inaugu- 
rated a week of horror, when one million six hundred 
thousand people were massacred within its walls. 

A detached army was climbing the Caucasus, striking 
terror into the head of Europe. "Who are these new 
enemies?" "Tatars,'* was the reply. And when Europe 
heara of their deviltry, they declared that they were 
well named "Tartars," from Tartarus the ancient helL 



174 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

And this jesting perversion has set the fashion for our 
spelling their name. 

It were wearisome to recount more horrors; an esti- 
mate of eighteen and one half millions of people has 
been made, put to death by this human centipede, in 
his carnival of carnage. The crimson lake of Genghis 
Khan was nearly full of himian blood I 

The days drew near that Genghis, too, must die. 
Like Herod of old, he decided that there ought to be 
mourning at his death, if not for it. And so as the 
procession moved to his ancestral home, every one met 
was killed. The time and manner of his death are 
unknown, but the tomb has lately been discovered. An 
oblong court incloses two circular felt tents, still 
guarded by his descendants. Here they kept three 
festivals yearly, the greatest being on the twenty-first 
day of the third lunar month. Then a man of a family 
which once insulted Genghiz is buried up to the arm- 
pits for three days and left without food or drink. 

His power did not die with him. The sons agreed 
to act in concert, and north China soon fell into their 
power. Thus the Mongols ruled from the Pacific to 
the Danube. And if their power in China has since 
shrunk, the family of Genghis still retains the peculiar 
privilege of riding into the Chinese palace and claim- 
ing a princess as wife. 

The red reign of Genghis was destructive. He was 
a cold, ambitious, venomous hiunan monster. But two 
great results followed, the transplanting the civiliza- 
tion of China to the barbarians of Europe and the 
spread of Christianity from Baghdad over all the Mon- 



331 A » P :?^ » ii> 175 

We know men's &ces, not their minds. 

gol dominions. It was during the thirteenth century 
that through the Mongols, Europe learned the use of 
the mariner's compass, of gunpowder, of paper money, 
of playing cards, of block printing, — ^all of them of 
ancient use in China, And on the other hand the 
"Patriarch of Babylon," head of the Christians of 
Saint Thomas, sent forth his missionaries throughout 
the new empire, and planted churches everywhere. At 
one time it seemed as if the Golden Horde and other 
divisions of the Tatars would join with Louis of 
France and Edward of England in crushing Islam. 
But then arose another ravager, Timur, who repeated 
the awful tale of devastation. And when the storm 
died, it was Islam that remained, and Christianity had 
been uprooted. And for Asiatic civilization in 

general — 

Where the Tartar hoof hath trod. 
The verdure flies the bloody sod. 



CHAPTER XIII 

The Desert Loop: Kansu 

In our journey from the sea to the mountains of 
Tibet we have followed various loops or inverted bows 
of the Great Wall. Looking at the map one is struck 
by the resemblance of the line of the Wall to three 
stupendous festoons. First in the mountains, second 
in the loess, and now in the desert. This interesting por- 
tion of the Great Wall reaches from Ninghia via Tapa 
Ying to Liangchow. It is a curious instance of the 
strong local feeling here that the people do not speak 
of the Ten-thousand-K Wall, but call it only the Eight- 
hundred-Z} Wall. 

While muling along on a level road, following the 
ruined boundary line, a sturdy blacksmith fell in with 
us. We lost no time in plying him with questions. 
"Chin," said he, "did not finish the Great Wall; the 
reason was that he lost his whip, his magic whip; the 
great misfortune fell in this wise. The emperor treated 
the common people with great cruelty. This worked 
upon the mind of a charming young daughter of a 
master workman. Chin took a fancy to the beautiful 
girl, and wanted to marry her, to which she objected, 
because she sympathized with the poor overburdened 
workmen on the Wall; she avoided matrimony by com- 
mitting suicide. On arrival in the lower regions, the 
Dragon Eang inquired how the Great Wall was getting 

176 



^ H :?! T - R 177 

Hats don't differ by a foot. 

on, when she up and told him how the mighty monarch 
with his wonderful whip was erecting the masonry. 
Nor did she stop with furnishing the news» but fell upon 
her knees and begged the Lord of Perdition to pity her 
people and to send up some spirit who should prevent 
further cruelty. The Dragon King ordered his own 
wife, a crafty and charming woman, to make her way 
to the earth, win the emperor*s affections and marry 
him. She was to wait an auspicious moment, and then 
make off with the wonderful whip. The female devil 
played her part well, stole the whip, and that is the 
reason Chin never finished the Wall." The honest 
smith ceased his tale. 

In coming from Ninghiafu to Ta Pa Ying, the road 
is level and good enough for a bicycle. A wire which 
parallels the Wall speaks of the present, as the masonry 
of the past. The modem will quickly pronounce which 
of the two may best be relied on to protect the empire. 
The wire was being used not only for messages but 
also for birds. Never have we seen so many birds in a 
straight line. The feathered folk rested on the wire for 
several U so closely together that the metal took a deep 
sag. 

As numerous as the birds above were the frogs below. 
Millions of frogs — ^the number is purely an estimate, 
but there was a sufficient number of them to cover the 
face of the land. They were of one size, as if hatched 
out on a lucky day by some mammoth frog incubator. 
We do not say that the hatching was by artificial means, 
and conducted by the great frog medicine concern that 

19 



178 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

has made Liangchow famous. The mystery remains 
miexplained, but my friend John Gwadey, Esquire, 
who, curiously enough, popped up away out here in the 
desert, just when he was wanted, repeats an ancient 
legend which declares that Chin had a huge frog, ob- 
tained when he visited America. It was a rain-making 
frog, evidently the forerunner of the Yankee rain- 
making machinery. The Kangaroo rat, which grew 
long hind legs, so it could jump the Wall, is called by 
the natives "the son of a jump." We wonder what the 
frog is called. Gwadey goes on to say that all the 
people hereabouts believe the moon story about Chin 
the First. Chin was sleeping on a costly rug. It was 
when the darkness of the night was densest that he had 
a soul-stirring dream. His soul made a journey to the 
moon while his body remained on the earth. While on 
that lunar orb the bodyless Chin looked about him and 
then down on the far-off planet where he had left his 
body. From that distance his kingdom was as small 
as a dot. Then and there it was that Chin took the 
idea of building the Great Wall, and in the midst of 
the moonshine he decided to construct a boundary line 
round his kingdom that it might become as one family. 
The soul of Chin traveled from the moon to the earth, 
took on again its body, drafted men, put them to work, 
and intended to construct the Big' Barrier so as to in- 
close an area vastly larger than the kingdom that it 
might thus be encouraged to grow. 

The moon legend suggests the reason why Chin built 
the Wall. There are other reasons. The Great Wall is 
the southern boundary of the Gobi desert — ^the soul- 




O 



I ! 

^ Si 
I I 



You have a myriad tricks and turns, I, one settled 
plaiL 

appalling desert. We asked the question, "Why is the 
Gobi desert?" The answer more properly belongs to 
the geologist than the geographer. And yet, as we look 
at the sands of Mongolia the problem of aridity pre- 
sents itself, and we wonder if they were deposited by 
wind action or precipitated by water. The evaporation 
here is very much in excess of the precipitation, so that 
the limit of the desert has been much extended during 
this present geological age, i.e. the post-glacial period. 
In historic times lakes have become in Central Asia 
terrible deserts. 

Desiccation continues. The most depressed sheet of 
water in the world is the Dead Sea. But here is lofty 
dead land. This region is in process of being dried. 
When a shovel goes down below the yellow, level, moist- 
less surface it is soon wet. There is a wet desert imder 
the dry desert. Shave off the top of the plateau and 
you will have a lofty plain containing a damp desert. 
But it is not our purpose to discuss scientifically the 
origin and development of the Gobi. We should like 
to write the biography of a grain of sand, and tell how 
a bit of rock requires a journey of thirty-five himdred 
miles in order to be rounded into a grain of sand. We 
should like to speak of the hardness of sand, and its 
ability to liberate oxygen and make sparks; of its 
weight; that gold-bearing sand is the heaviest, and gold 
is the only precious metal found in sand. Silver and 
copper are never found in sand; hence the ancients at 
Sardis had the River of the Golden Sand. There are 
as many different colors of sand as of rice. White 



180 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

sand, like that covering the graves of the Friendly 
Islanders under the southern cross; black sand, into 
which the metal is cast; yeUow sand and red sand, and 
the sand in human character. It would be interesting 
to speak about the uses of sand, — ^to measure time; to 
make glass and sandpaper; to furnish resistance either 
for a locomotive or a cannon ball; to mix in mortar or 
in sugar. 

A canary requires an ounce of sand per month in 
order to sing sweetly. Sand produces the feathered 
songster's ability to issue liquid notes on the desert air. 
The desert also seems to make men mad. Why is it 
that people go crazy on the great waste places of the 
earth? Many desert dwellers descend into madness and 
become violent; solitude is more than many can endure. 
Here is the reason for people in civilization huddling 
together in tenement houses, flats and fashionable man- 
sions, being unable to control their own mental move- 
ments. While it is true that on the vast sand plain 
there are no sky-scrapers, no trams or other earth- 
scrapers, no scramble to reach the top and annex it, one 
is in a free land, which nobody owns and nobody wants 
to, and there is no sign, "Keep off the sand" ; the very 
freedom endangers the sanity of the mind. If the 
Gobi is bad enough to give a camel two humps, it is not 
surprising that the desert should be considered 1:he 
birthplace of demons. Witness a bit of Gibbon: 

"A fabulous origin was assigned, worthy of their form 
and manners, that the Witches of Scythia, who, for their 
foul and deadly practices, had been driven from society, 
had copulated in the desert with the Infernal Spirit; and 



There is nothing difficnlt under heftven. if men 
will only do it. 

that the Huns were the offspring of this execrable con- 
junction. The tale, so full of horror and absurdity, was 
greedily embraced by the credulous hatred of the Groths.** 

Chin had an astute mind, and may it not be that the 
Great Wall was constructed for the purpose of pre- 
venting the devils of the desert entering the Central 
Kingdom? The English traveler, Atkinson, called these 
steppes "the cradle of invasions." The longer we fol- 
low this Great Barrier the more are we led to believe 
that it was intended to be a materialized dragon 
stretched along the entire northern boundary of the 
empire to protect it from demons and devilized human 
beings. This stupendous structure may be considered 
the incarnation of the supreme religious idea controlling 
the motives of Chin. 

At Ta Pa Ying is the first wet engineering feat, con- 
spicuous and important on the line of the Long Wall. 
It is a large and ancient irrigating scheme. During 
the day and a half of our investigation we copied a 
large housed tablet telling of the repairing of the canals, 
locks and bridges of the system. We recollect that the 
engineering feats of the sons of Chin, omitting roads 
and bridges, are classified under three heads, and the 
most conspicuous representatives of these three heads 
are the Great Wall, the Grand Canal, called "River of 
Flood Gates," and the irrigating plant. The Yankee 
Department of Commerce and Labor, a prompt and 
useful bureau, issued recently a pamphlet from The 
Summary of Commerce and Finance for January, 



182 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

1906, under the title of "The Great Canals of the 
World," We sent for a copy of this pamphlet, expect- 
ing to find considerable reference to the Grand Canal 
of China. Imagine our sm-prise to find the world's 
greatest canal not even mentioned, except briefly at the 
tail end. "The Great Canals of the World" mentions 
such pigmy afi^airs as the Suez, the Kaiser Wilhelm, 
and some Canadian cut creeks, and a few Yankee 
ditches like the Erie Canal. Shade of George Wash- 
ington, the great canals of the world! 

Look at the Grand Canal of the Chinese, built by the 
Tartars and constructed on the two fundamental prin- 
ciples of political economy: the easy production of 
wealth, and its easy distribution. Here we find both 
ends attained by the same construction. Even apart 
from the transportation, the Chinese have been re- 
markably clever at appreciating the importance of irri- 
gation. In the third century B.C. the plain of Ch'Sngtu, 
once a mere stretch of boulders, was changed over nearly 
three thousand square miles into splendid agricultural 
land, now producing five crops a year. Here at Ta Pa 
Ying, next to the Shentu Plain, is the best place for 
studying their irrigating system. 

Here follows a translation of the inscription on the 
large slab monument at Ta Pa Ying, province of Kansu, 
dealing with irrigation near the Great WaD of China: 

^*I, the Emperor, since ascending the imperial throne, 
have spared no pains in seeking the welfare of my poor 
people, even putting on my clothes in the evening and 
eating my food at night. Because the source of food and 
clothing for the people is convenient water, in the fourth 




A Fortified Farmhouse near Tu Men Tse in the Province of Kantsu. 




The Great Wall of China Photos by Dr. Oeil 

A Picturesque Pailo at Yungchang Hsien in Kansu Province 



A «l l£ JH ^ ^ Ifi: S 

The man who takes no thonght for the distant, has 
sorrow near at hand. 



183 



year of Yung ChSng, the sixth moon, I definitely com- 
manded my councilor, along with the statesman Shan Chow- 
shu, holding office at Ninghia, to examine the territory of 
Han tou Hu for the purpose of re-opening the two irri- 
gation schemes Hui Nung and Chang Yiin, and to dig a 
new canal to enrich the two countries that doors and mouths 
(families) may be induced to settle and cultivate the land. 

•*This great work was completed in the eighth year of 
Yung Ch^ng, in the fifth moon. We have received the holy 
favor in thus remembering the three irrigations of the Ta 
Ch^ingy Han and T'ang dynasties, from which comes the 
food supply of Ninghia Fu. The locks and branches of 
these rivers have fallen into ruin, and if not repaired would 
ere long be past remedy. We take advantage of the ex- 
perience of the statesman who has already constructed 
canals at Ninghia. He will naturally understand every 
detail. A meeting of officials was called to investigate and 
consult about the undertaking. With the imperial sanction 
they made careful investigations, and it was seen that the 
work of repairing all three rivers at one time was too 
great to be accomplished. 

•*They reported this to the Emperor and requested that 
the canal of the T*ang be first repaired. Having received 
the imperial decree, and in accordance with their own de- 
cision, they prosecuted the work of re-opening the T*ang 
canal. The canal divided from the river and entered the 
mouth of the stream below the One Hundred and Eight 
Pagoda monastery at Ching Tung Chia, and from Ta Pa 
it flowed round Ninghia, past P^nglo, and entered the West 
river, in length three hundred and eight Zi. It touches the 
He Lan Mountains, and impartially waters all the adjoining 
land. 

**Bj examining the book of records we find that the name 
of this irrigating river is Lai (Come). During the YOan 



184 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

dynasty Chung Tung- Wen sought to carry out this labor- 
saving plan of irrigating rivers. The work of deepening 
the bed of the stream was completed, but the locks and 
their foundations were still made of timber. In the reign 
of Lung Ch'ing of the Ming dynasty the wood was replaced 
by stone. One hundred and sixty years afterwards, al- 
though there was a law that every year these works should 
be repaired, the overseeing official neglected his duty and 
the locks and foundations fell into a ruined condition, 
while the body of the river filled with mud. The great 
statesman, having received the command of the Emperor, 
again repaired it. In the reign of Yung Cheng, ninth year, 
second moon, twentieth sun, forty efficient military and 
civil officials, together with all the officials of Ninghia, 
including the Taotai, prefect and magistrates, organized 
themselves and divided the work between them. Starting 
from the mouth, where the water entered the river, they 
simultaneously began operations." 

The tablet goes on to relate that the breakwater 
erected where the irrigation river branched off from the 
Yellow River was repaired, and that an aqueduct three 
hundred feet long to carry off the overflow was en- 
larged, and thus reduced the rapid current in the main 
stream. Locks were repaired, stone walls reconstructed. 
The inscription continues: 

"From the entrance of the water into the irrigation canal 
to the main lock, a distance of nine K, three divisions and 
eighty feet, all stopped up with rock and sand was counted 
one contract.'* 

The names of the various termini of the contracts are 
interesting: Moon Tooth Lake, Gemmy Fountain 
Bridge, Great Ferry Mouth, Harmonious Eminent 



The heart is like a race horse on a plain, easy to 
let go, hard to rein in. 

Tower, Three Canal Bend, Opening Light Bridge. As 
the body of the canal was narrow, and the lips much 
silted up, it was divided into three contracts. There 
seems to have been a great deal of difficulty with the 
tail of the canal, but this was remedied by the engineer. 
There were seventeen bridges in all, and at the new 
tail of the canal two new bridges were constructed for 
the passage of the comers and goers. The places tend- 
ing to silt up were examined, and twelve pieces of stone 
buried at the bottom caused the water to flow more 
swiftly. 

"On the fourteenth sun of the fourth moon the work of 
completing the channel was finished. All are deeply touched 
as they look up at the immeasurably loving intentions of 
the Emperor on behalf of his people, and at his using his 
utmost strength in carrying them out. There was not one 
who was not pleased with all the officials, large and small, 
at Ninghia; they beat drums and danced without end. 
Ninghia contributed materials costing eighteen thousand 
ounces of gold. From the opening of the work to the 
setting free of the water there were fifty-three days, and 
the people did not feel the work heavy. After the great 
work was finished, the irrigation system presented a new 
aspect. The water flowed smoothly, and the lands, whether 
high or low, all felt the benefit of abundant moisture. 

"The ten thousand names rise up in their joy, and the 
multitude sing songs ! 

"Date. Ninth year of Yung Cheng, being the year Hsin 
Hai, in the fifth moon, on a lucky day, this stone was 
erected.'' 

On the walls were various sentences inscribed by trav- 
elers. As a sample there was this: 



186 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

'^The suns and the moons change and depart. 

Men are born for a few dots of time, 
They meet with wealth and forget justice; 

What will their future be? 
When their evil is strung together to the full, 

They will transmigrate and become donkeys.'* 

Another traveler, who may have had an experience 
with an innkeeper, wrote: 

"The men on this earth are no good." 

The Great Wall is in ruins, but large and conspicu- 
ous, even where the decrepitude of old age appears, the 
circumvallation of China excites admiration. Immedi- 
ately we passed beyond the influence of the irrigating 
system the desert was entered. At Chungwei the Great 
Wall branches, one line crossing the Yellow River and 
passing southward to Lanchow, while the other, along 
which our caravan proceeded, ran a westward course 
toward the ultimate gate of China. 

Had we elected to follow the rampart as it wound on 
toward the south, the caravan must have passed the 
valley in which is nestled the small village of Ts*in- 
huang Chuan, which name means "King Chin's stream.'^ 
Named in honor of the First Emperor, the locals say, 
some of his descendants have for generations lived 
there; indeed, the natives claim that Chin's ancestors 
dwelt where they now live. This we cannot accept as 
more than legend. 

Aside from its association, at least by name, with the 
Great Wall builder the place is interesting because of 
the depth of the wells, which are said to be over four 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

The Great Wall at the Shweikwan Pass. Notice the extraordinary curve 
in the masonry and admire the grit and skill of the men who planned 
and buUt 



In the presence of a dwarf don't nse short words. 

hundred feet deep. The water buckets are drawn up 
by donkeys. From the name one would expect to find 
a stream near by, but at the present time there are no 
signs of it. 

Moving westward our caravan met many well- 
mounted but wild-looking men, and a sand storm which 
overtook us obliterated the track and we lost our way. 
These two incidents suggested that if the engineers who 
constructed the Great Wall surmounted difficulties in 
the mountains and on the loess plateau, they also had 
need to exercise their engineering skill in this land of 
sand. Probably for the two purposes of protecting 
against drifting sand and foraging barbarians the 
Great Barrier was constructed. This Wall suggests that 
the population of the world has not merely increased 
but that the center of population has shifted. During 
Chin's lifetime, north of the Wall were cities, important 
centers of population. These lie beneath the sands of 
Gobi — ^a much denser population inhabited the "out- 
side" then than at present. 

Oxir caravan now entered bad lands, — dry stretches 
where in the day the sun scorches with an arid atmo- 
sphere, while after a brief ghostly twilight there gath- 
ers a darkness that fills the caverns of the sky. To do 
justice to the dreariness of the journey, Black Dog's 
diary may be drawn upon again: "From this, going up 
the sand mountain truly was not easy. Going up just 
at the middle of the hill's waist, was a mat tent. In 
front of the tent was a large water jar, one piece; in 
this was water. Passers-by when tired and thirsty 



188 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

might use it. I asked what place possessed the man 
that put it there. It was answered, from below the sand 
hill ten U away, he comes here to carry out this meri- 
torious deed. One said, 'As he has no son he does this 
to store up secret merit that he may ask for a son.' But 
the man, although his deed is perfectly right, his prayer 
is one-sided. What he does though it is good, it does 
not come from orthodox doctrine." Poor Black Dog; 
how comforted he would be to know that many western- 
ers, too, prefer orthodox doctrine to charitable deeds. 

It was his relaxation in this forsaken road to jot 
down his impressions. "We went round a hill and then 
looked for some one that we might strike an inquiry. 
Alas, there was not even half a manl" Was he think- 
ing of the dwarfish Chinese vizier who was heard to 
reflect, as he stood before a mirror, that a foot of face 
was worth seven feet of body? At Ta Ching he noted 
how "we stayed the night in the Inn of Increasing 
Justice. The name of the controller was Chin. In the 
midst of the city was a lama temple. In the temple was 
the dead corpse of a lama. On the outside was 
fashioned a mud village. The word was this; the lama, 
seeking to become a living genius, sat in the midst of the 
temple where he hoped to change. Afterwards came 
here a great official named T'ien Kung, who entered 
the temple to worship. The lama paid him no attention, 
so the enraged official took his sword and cut off the 
lama's head, which fell to the ground. But the priest 
picked up his head and put it on again. When T'ien 
Kung again cut off his head, from the lama's neck came 
forth white breath which went up to heaven. Now the 



^rnr^B ^m=i^ .189 

Heaven has not two anns, nor the people two kings. 

A 
people dare not open the north gate lest the dead lama 
destroy the city with fire." 

These saffron-vested monks are quite an ingredient 
in the population here. Some people think that the 
Chinese encourage Buddhism among the dwellers in 
this desert land; for if the people largely turn lamas, 
and remain bachelors, the population must be kept 
down, below the danger point. 

Despite the optimist views of Black Dog, we pushed 
on past forsaken villages and deserted towns, one of 
which testified in its name to the progressive civiliza- 
tion in these parts, the "Dry Son of a Dyke." It was 
a relief when we sighted the city of Liangchow and 
entered its gateway. 

In a period of rest after this toilsome march, came 
an opportunity for clarifying ideas on the topic of the 
walls we had passed. On the map the Wall looks indeed 
like three great festoons, but there are some odd tassels 
as well; about these we made diligent inquiry. While 
our concern is chiefly with the original Wall of Chin, 
and with the final defenses of the Mings, yet we gath- 
ered up many fragments of story as to other walls, a 
trifle earlier or in between. From the official records 
we glean these translations: 

The beginnings of the Long Rampart were about 
the time of the contending states* when the well-and- 
fields method of dividing land had fallen into disuse, 

^The period of the contending states is variously given as 403 or 481- 
966 B.C. By others it is limited to the years immediately following, S55- 
S91 B.& 



190 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

and when chariots were abolished and cavalry substi- 
tuted. Ch*i Ming-wang constructed a defense in the 
form of a Long Rampart from north of the Tsi River 
(Kwoh Lu) to the eastern sea. 

Also the records of Mount T'ai state that from 
Mount T'ai west there was a Long Embankment along 
the Yellow River past Mount T'ai to Lang Ya (Ts*in- 
chow Fu) . This is the Long Rampart of Tsi. 

The state of Wei also built a Long Rampart from the 
Chen to the Loh, because of the large city on the north. 
Therefore Su Ch'in said to Wei Hsiang Wang, "on the 
west is the boundary of a Long Rampart." This is the 
Long Rampart of Wei. 

The annals of Han (continued) state that in Chuen 
Hsien, Honan, there was a Long Rampart passing Wu 
Yang to Mih. This is the Long Rampart of Han. 

The "Water Classic" says that from the east bound- 
ary there was an ancient Rampart on the south and 
north several hundred K, called by some the Square 
Rampart, by others the Long Rampart. The annals of 
the Prefectural State also say that Sheh Hsien has a 
Long Rampart and a Square Rampart. This is the 
Long Rampart of Ts*u. 

In the sixth year of Chao Chen Hou the people of 
Chung San constructed a Long Rampart. Shu Hou in 
the seventh year also did the same. These are the Long 
Ramparts of Chao and Chung San. From this it may 
be seen that the Long Ramparts of China were not con- 
fined to the northern frontier. 

That on the north from Tsao Yang to Siang Pmg 
was the Long Rampart of Yen. Hsiian, dowager of 



A near neighbour is better than a distant relative. 

Ch'in, commanded I Chu to seize Lung Hsi (Kansu), 
Shang Chiin and other places, and built a Long Rampart 
to keep out the Hu (Mongols) . This is the beginning 
of the Long Rampart of Ch*in. Afterwards The Only 
First (Chin) imited the Six States and sent Meng T'ien 
with a hundred thousand men to fight the northern 
Mongols; he took the country south of the Yellow 
River, making the river a boundary. Through more 
than forty Hsien (magistracies) from Kiu Yiien to 
Yiin Yang was this Rampart constructed by cutting 
through the streams and following along the hills from 
Ling Tiao to Liao Tung ''ten thousand U and a rem- 
nant." This is the Long Rampart of Chin, who united 
aU under heaven (China). 

Afterwards Han Wu-ti (140 B.c.) sent Wei Ch'ing 
and others to fight the Hsiimg-nu or Huns. He built 
on the north and put in repair the old-time Boundary 
of Chin along the river for security. Others there were 
like Wei Yiian ti who built a Long Rampart from 
Chang Chuen south to Chih Chen, east to Wu Yiien, 
more than five thousand U. 

Ch'i Hsiian-ti (550 a.d.) began to build a Long 
Rampart from Hwang Lu Pass north to Sie Ping, more 
than four hundred U. 

Chou Hsiian-ti (5.78 a.d.) sent people from all the 
Chou cities of Shantung to repair the Long Rampart, 
and erected towers west to Yen Men (Wild Goose 
Gate) , east to Hsieh Shih. 

Sui Wen-ti sent Tsui Chung-fang with thirty thou- 
sand men to the north. 



192 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Ling Wu ordered the board of farmers to make a 
Long Rampart east to the Yellow River, west to Sui 
Chow, south to Poh Chu Pass, winding seven hundred 
li^ built by "ten times ten thousand and a remnant men." 

Then under the Ming dynasty the process was re- 
peated. In the ninth year of Chang Wa, Yii governor 
of Yen Sui built an addition from Ts^ingshui Ying 
westward to Hwame Chih, one thousand seven hundred 
and seventy U, called the East Long Wall. In the 
seventh year of Chia Ching, Governor Wang Chiung, 
of the Three Borders, built a new Wall from Hwama 
Chih westward to Heng Chen to the river border, 
establishing custom-houses to regulate the trade in- 
side and outside; this was the New Long Wall. 
Twelve years later the governor of Tinghsia built a 
Wall from Hasan Shan to Ninwei Hsin, westward forty 
U; this was the West Long Wall. Another section to 
the north of Pinglo Hsien ten li to the mountain to 
Sand Lake, fifty U; called the North Long Wall, 

There is also the Rampart, now mostly in ruins, which 
leaves the southern arm northeast of the Wut*ai Shan 
and stretches southward on the boundary line between 
Chihli and Shansi. 

While, however, we gladly gather up and record all 
these fragments of information as to the repairs and 
the variations of line, we adhere to our determination 
to learn about the Great Wall of Chin, and to follow 
the Barrier Rampart of the Mings. 

So, then, it will be seen that every dynasty had its 
Long Rampart broadening out in the time of Chin, and 
added to by Han and Sui. At present in Kansu may 



The hairless lip in managing afiairs is apt to slip. 

be seen the old ruins of a frontier Wall (the Chinese 
character here differs from the one translated rampart 
in the original text). At Kaolan Fin, Fanku Lang 
bomidary, they use it as a protection against the Sung 
Shan (pine hill people) . In Kansu, Ninghai, it is for 
a defense against the Ho T^ao. It all was repaired in 
the Ming dynasty. Some building and repairs were 
completed in the beginning of this dynasty (Ch'ing). 
The Rampart separates the Mongol barbaroi from the 
sons of Han (Chinese). 

If one considers this to be the Long Rampart of Chin, 
he is very much mistaken, because the Long Rampart of 
Chin begins at Ling Tiao— now Ming Chow. Said an 
old man, ^'Many of these foundations bequeathed to us 
cannot now be identified (or distinguished).'' 

We may safely say that the Chinese people have 
built, during the last twenty-two centuries, more than 
a dozen Great Walls 1 And that the masonry exhibited 
almost as many varieties of construction. 



18 



CHAPTER XIV 

Chin Shih Hwangti: First Universal Emperor of China 

Historico-Economic Study of China^s 

Grreatest Ruler 

*^A colossal soul: he lies vast abroad on his times, 
uncomprehended by them, and requires a long focal 
distance to be seen: suggests, as Aristotle, Bacon, Sel- 
den, Humboldt, that a certain vastness of learning, or 
quasi omnipresence of the human soul and in nature 
are possible." This estimate, if drawn up for another 
man, aptly describes our hero. He created an empire, 
he protected it with a Wall, he destroyed the classics* 
Let these achievements be looked at separately. 

His great-grandfather was a chief with imperial blood 
in his veins a thousand years old. He fought his way to 
the head of a state which roughly covered the basin of 
the Yellow River, and established himself there in 
255 B.C., dethroning the last Chou ruler and dissolving 
his empire into seven independent states. Chin's grand- 
father became a "guest in heaven" after a reign of three 
days, and was joined by his father in three years. Our 
hero came to the throne at the age of thirteen, in the 
year 246 B.C. Alexander of Macedon had been dead 
about eighty years, and the Asiatic part of his empire 
was now ruled from Antioch. Parthia was just estab- 
lishing her independence; Asoka was patronizing 
Buddhism in India; far to the west the Romans and 

194 








The Oreat Wall of China Photo by Dr. Oeil 

"I asked at Liangchow and words replied: "In the year of the Moham- 
medan Rebellion the faces of the dead could not be recognized, so 
they collected the whitened Ix^nes and erected the White Bones 
Pagodas to remember them." — Black Dog's Diary 



A careless beginsing means a repentant ending 

Carthaginians were in their first grapple. That may 
help us to understand the time, but for all the influence 
they had on Chin, we might as well quote what the man 
in the moon was doing! 

His career was much like that of William the Nor- 
man, on a larger theater. He found himself in youth 
at the head of a rebellious feudal state, and his first care 
was to consolidate it. He did away with all the dukes, 
marquises, counts and barons so far as their titles 
implied any territorial jurisdiction, and reduced the 
whole of his inheritance to an absolute dependence on 
himself. Indeed, he was even more thorough than 
William, for the latter could not avoid vassals in some 
form or other, but Chin made an end of the whole sys- 
tem. He divided up the whole unified state into pre- 
fectures, and sent a royal commission to take charge of 
each for a term of years or at his own pleasure, with 
no right either to be promoted to a different prefecture 
or to hand on the prefecture to his son. It is worth 
noticing that in Persia the same thing had been done 
three centuries before, with the same effect, breaking 
the power of too formidable vassals and concentrating 
the power into the royal hands. But Chin's areas were 
much larger, for while Ahasuerus or Xerxes "reigned 
from India even unto Ethiopia, over one hundred and 
twenty-seven provinces,'* Chin, when his dominions had 
grown to their full extent, only had thirty-six prefec- 
tures, and each would compare with a European state 
of the second rank. 

For he not only reorganized his hereditary domain. 



196 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



he looked southward, and warred on one petty state 
after another, till about a score had been annexed. 
What happened to their rulers is not always known; 
perhaps some ran away, some were killed, some accepted 




Portrait of Chin shih Haanir Ti, procured by Lionel Giles, M. A. ft-om among 
illustrations in the Lung Chow Lieh Kuo, a well-known historical romance. 
Whether it conreys an accumte presentment of the Emperor *8 features we 
cannot say. There is some character in it. 

honorary titles and cash and rank in the civil service. 
But Chin's realm grew like Louis XIV's, swallowing 
up everything to the south until he reached the ocean; 
from being a ruler only of one river basin, like the 







« o 

O en 

o 



I 



V E 






He painted a tij^r, bnt it turned out a car. 

Chous before his great-grandfather, he became lord of 
all the east of Asia. The China of to-day is the crea- 
tion of Chin, and most deservedly has his name been 
given to it. He was thoroughly conscious of the novelty 
of his proceedings and in the spirit of the man who had 
no ancestors, but intended to be an ancestor, he assumed 
the title Shih Huang ti. The old title of king seemed 
too feeble now that he had dethroned all kings he could 
hear of, and abolished all duchies, marquisates, etc. ; he 
assumed a new title. The principles of his rule were 
not those of the obsolete Chous, and he expressly repudi- 
ated their titles. This new departure may be dated 
221 B.C. To mark his scorn for the Chous who had, like 
their predecessors, revered fire, seven, violet; he chose 
as his emblems water, six, and black. He was not their 
successor but a new beginning. 

To unify the empire he proceeded to abolish many 
local customs; thus one system of weights and measures 
was introduced over the whole area. Even to-day the 
traveler by the oriental express across Europe finds 
these varying most perplexingly; but Chin did away 
with the old standards. To ascertain the resources of 
his dominions he had JEin elaborate inventory made, a 
doomsday book; then to make trade easier he caused 
great roads to be built, with smooth stones laid parallel 
at fixed distances apart — ^a series of railways except 
that there were no flanges to the rails or to the wheels. 
The greatest of these radiated out for six hundred 
miles, a colossal enterprise even to-day; canals were 
laid out across country and everything was done 



198 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

to make the new provinces realize that they were bene- 
fiting by the loss of their independence. 

Such an empire demanded a new capital. Hebron 
was good enough for David, vassal of the Philistines 
over Judah, but when he governed all Israel he took 
Jerusalem and converted it into a federal capital. Chin 
chose what had been a petty capital of one of the north- 
em states before his great-grandfather had founded 
his dynasty and laid out a new capital, known to-day 
as Hsienyang, in the province of Shensi. It was in the 
hereditary dominions, but well to the south, was on a 
river, but not on the capricious Hwang ho itself. Many 
miles long did he build it, with magnificent fortifica- 
tions. Nothing like it had been seen in those parts, and 
it is very doubtful if he had heard of Nebuchadnezzar's 
plans for Babylon, which alone in Asia could compare. 
From the capital roads led out in every direction to link 
the most distant provinces direct with the emperor. 
Soon the palaces within the walls numbered over two 
hundred, while four hundred villas were in the suburbs. 
For such a capital a magnificent palace was inevitable, 
and it arose by the labor of half a million eunuchs. 
The entrance hall was five hundred paces by fifty and 
the upper story held ten thousand people and a rem- 
nant. This is clearly a round number. About the 
palace was a park, the gate of which was miles away on 
a mountain peak. Quite on the plan of Ahasuerus he 
sent out for all the most beautiful women of the empire 
and as they came provided each with a suite of rooms. 
These annexes were erected to form a map of the skies 
between the north star, Aquila and the milky way. 



Without sorrow none become saints. 

It is regrettable to say that Chin could not make up 
his mind to choose one Esther and keep to her; he 
never let it be known where he intended to spend the 
night, and so frustrated all plots that might build upon 
his hours of ease to take advantage of his being off 
guard. 

Put all these things together, and we can tell what an 
outstanding man was Chin. If nothing else stood to 
his credit, we see that he welded a group of vassal states 
into one realm, that he conquered others and trebled the 
size of his dominions, that he so organized the whole as 
to create one empire which has for two thousand years 
been acknowledged as a unity. What other man in the 
world has done as much? But there are two special 
points about his doings, constructive and destructive; 
he built a Wall, he burned the classics. 

For five hundred years before Chin the wild tribes 
of the desert had been a terror to the more settled peo- 
ple of the Yellow River basin. They were the Bedouin 
of the East, fierce and untamed, preying on the labors 
of the peaceable agriculturists. Such people are the 
despair of all civilized rulers abutting on deserts. They 
have compelled one ruler after another to embark on 
wars of self-defense which involved seeking out the 
marauders and punishing them in their own wide 
steppes, and which have led too often to annexation in 
spite of all wishes and promises to the contrary. The 
bounds of the Roman Empire thus widened, though 
ruler after ruler saw the risk of stretching too far; the 
Indian Empire has grown on every side in order to 



200 THE GREAT WALL OP CHINA 

control the border tribes who would raid, and could only 
be controlled by being annexed and disarmed ; Egyptian 
rulers have been obliged to go into the Sudan and ad- 
minister it; Russia has been compelled to flow steadily 
on into Asia; the United States have absorbed the 
Indian lands to keep the Indians quiet; it is the same 
story wherever civilization and thievery adjoin. Now 
the peculiarity of Chin is that he struck out a different 
line. Rather than flow out over all Asia, he decided 
how far he would go, and decided that the Tartars 
should not come this side of his line. On his line he 
built a Wall, and along the Wall he quartered an army 
in permanent garrison. He defineci a clear and explicit 
Monroe doctrine for eastern Asia, and marked the 
boundaries with a visible token that the most dull of 
visitors could not fail to understand; nor did he rest his 
case on a reserve of moral force, but backed it with a 
grand display of available physical force. To say 
"Thus far and no farther" is easy, but Canute found 
the sea paid no heed; to build masonry to dam out the 
tide shows that the fiat is no empty boast; but in the 
last resort it is the men behind the masonry that will 
tell. 

A Wall across half a continent! A wall from Phila- 
delphia to Kansas City! A wall from Constantinople 
to Marseilles! Talk about the "long walls" of Athens, 
talk about the Thermopylae — ^there is no comparison. 
ThermopylflB was a narrow pass with every advantage 
for its defenders, yet they were beaten in three days. 
Chin had to deal with a vast plain for hundreds of miles, 
yet he undertook to wall in a section and defend it; and 



In days of plenty, think of days of poverty ; don't 
wait till days of poverty to think of'^days of plenty. 

hid work was effectual for centuries, so long as there 
were men who felt the importance of making a stand. 
Nothing daunted Chin in carrying out this project; 
were the mountains a mile high, his engineers crowned 
them with his rampart; was the plain a mere dust heap, 
then a series of ha-has made an effectual harrier. Dis- 
appointment generally awaits the mortal who has 
heard much about some celebrated object, and dares 
visit it, as seldom does the reality come up to the expec- 
tation. But the Great Wall is not overrated. Behold 
it by starlight or moonlight, gaze on it in twilight or in 
sunlight; view it through the haze of a dust fog or the 
spindrift of a rain shower or between the flakes of a 
snow storm ; ever is the Wall one great, gray, gaunt, still 
specter of the past, cresting the moimtain peak or re- 
posing in the shady valley. So vast is it, that perhaps 
alone of all man's handiwork it could be discerned from 
the moon. So vast is it, that were its materials disposed 
aroimd the world at the equator they would provide a 
wall eight feet high and three thick. When we reflect 
on the labor needed to erect it, we slowly divine the toils 
exacted from countless thousands, the sweat and tears 
and blood that must have been shed; and we are pre- 
pared to hear that after two millenniums the name of 
Chin is cursed all along the Wall by the descendants of 
those who were driven to the hateful task, who labored 
in deathly fear lest when flesh and blood failed to re- 
spond to the task-master's scourge, that flesh and blood 
should be hurled into the mass of concrete to provide 



202 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

more material for the all-devouring monster. It is a 
wall of blood! 

Chin burned the books! What possessed him to do it? 
Did he object to penny dreadfuls corrupting the minds 
of the boys, and halfpenny yellow papers debauching 
his subjects? Was he a Henry VIII, afraid of the 
heretical notions of some Tyndale and Luther? Quite 
the contrary; he was very progressive, and the books 
were too conservative. Three centuries before Chin, 
Confucius had undertaken to sift over all the literature 
that was extant, and to produce classic editions of what 
was worth having. This generation has seen big syndi- 
cates at work on the same sort of selection; the best 
hundred books, the historian's history of the world, etc. 
Now, ever since Confucius put out a closed canon of 
classic literature, all production had been cramped. 
Boys were obliged to learn it by heart, and to compose 
essays in the same style. Men were obliged to behave 
in a certain way because a duke of Chou a thousand 
years earlier had recommended this way; and his Book 
of Rites prescribes what every person ought to do in 
every conceivable situation. Chin saw that his kingdom 
was stereotyped on a pattern already three hundred 
years old, and he wanted men to think for themselves 
and adapt their lives to the ever-changing problems of 
life. Of course he failed to convince the scholars of 
this; reverence for the past was ingrained too deeply. 

Now Chin had already fallen foul of the scholars on 
a personal matter. At the age of twenty-two he found 
that his mother had forgotten her royal rank and had 
contracted a marriage with a commoner, whom she had 



i»^m^R:^m-B zn 203 

Ice three feet thick is not frozen in a day. 

loved before his own birth. This aspiring husband was 
slain, the erring mother was banished. This was so 
against the ideas of filial duty inculcated by Confucius 
that several scholars expostulated. An edict forbade 
the matter to be referred to again, and when some of 
them ventured to plead for her, twenty-seven were exe- 
cuted for disobedience. Such is the story that their 
friends tell, but we may imagine that Chin could add a 
few highly relevant facts. 

Chin decided to have the question of policy openly 
settled, and he did it in a characteristic fashion. To a 
great feast he invited all the chief officers of his empire 
and all the leading scholars. After dinner he requested 
general criticism of his doings, and three typical 
speeches are reported. A civil servant gave his opinion, 
which was of imboimded satisfaction with the results of 
the new regime. A scholar took a very different view, 
contrasting the methods with those of earlier days; this 
was highly impolitic when Chin's pride in his originality 
and his antagonism to earlier methods were so notorious; 
Chin therefore interrupted him and called upon his 
chancellor Li-Ssu. This man had been trained, not by 
the scholars, but in a sort of seminary for ministers of 
state, conducted on novel principles by a private man; 
he had presented himself to Chin when an edict was 
issued for the expulsion of foreigners, professedly to 
take his leave; but in that interview persuaded Chin that 
the project was suicidal. He was requested to stay and 
soon became Chin's Bismarck, inspiring the policy of 
conquest, now so successful. The speech he now de- 



204 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

livered was a tremendous philippic against scholars; 
here are its chief points: 

"Beware these idling scholars. Bred on the past with 
senseless veneration of everything that is old, they can- 
not appreciate anything fresh. If you issue an edict, 
they criticize its language; if you order a new project, 
they declare it is unprecedented. Their one test is, has 
it heen done before? They go about sowing unrest and 
sedition among your subjects. Their influence must 
be broken if the empire is to prosper. It is founded on 
books; destroy then the books. Their occupation will 
be gone, and none can arise to succeed this generation 
of them. Some books of course there are which are of 
value. Preserve all that relate to medicine, husbandry 
and divination; preserve also the records of this illus- 
trious reign. Let all else be destroyed, break with the 
past. Especially let search be made for all books on 
manners, and for all the annals of history that deaden 
the mind to present needs; let them utterly perish. 
Law, too, there must be, but let it not be the dead hand 
of the past; gather the edicts of this reign and cause 
them to be codified as a guide for the future. Then 
with natural science, religion, medicine and law, be 
content, and let the mere literary classics cease to curse 
the landl" 

The speech of the chancellor fell upon willing ears, 
and the edict went forth as he advised. Drastic as the 
policy was, it well-nigh met with success. Printing was 
not yet invented, nor was till 600 a.d. Nor yet was 
writing in our sense; the literature was carved on bam- 
boo tablets, and this was evidently a slow process, while 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

A superb view of the Great Wall ascending from the lofty Huangho Lu 
Pass 



Obedience is better than reverence. 

the result was very combustible and very bulky, 
"Books," if we may call them so, were slow to produce, 
hard to conceal, easy to destroy; and he ordered a 
wholesale destruction. Thirty days of grace were 
given, and then any one owning a book should be 
branded and sent to work at the Wall for four years. 

In the thirty days great were the perturbations. A 
few copies were buried or hidden among rafters or sunk 
in rivers. The scholars feared personal violence, and 
a descendant of Confucius was advised to flee into con- 
cealment. With the bravery of innocence he replied 
that he should live a quiet and loyal life, awaiting a 
summons when Chin found out his mistake. His coun- 
sel did not persuade his brethren, and when Chin found 
that there was an organized resistance to his edict, he 
buried alive more than four hundred of the scholars as 
a warning that he intended to break with the past and 
to begin anew. He was the "Only First," and woe 
betide those who tried to go behind him and fetter his 
people with the dead hand. 

Out of all the classic literature he permitted only the 
medical, agricultural and divination books to be saved. 
Of course "religion" had been a very curious thing in 
China, especially since the agnostic reforms of Con- 
fucius; Buddhism had not penetrated roimd the Hima- 
layas as yet, and the religion was little better than magic 
and divination. But compare what Chin condemned 
and what he saved! The paralyzing Book of Rites was 
to go; the Book of Changes, which is an incomprehen- 
sible system of philosophy supplemented with some 



206 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

inexplicable chapters by Confucius; the Book of His- 
tory, which professes to begin two thousand two hundred 
years before Chin, but details chiefly imaginary conver- 
sations between kings and their viziers; the Book of 
Odes, which, indeed, are rather harmless and beautiful 
folk-songs ; and the dreariest Book of Annals conceiv- 
able, where every petty incident that happened to a 
miniature court for two hundred and fifty years is set 
down without comment. Add to these five classics the 
four books, whose refrain is "Walk in the trodden 
paths," and you see that Chin was not badly advised 
when he decided to warm up his people with the bimdles 
of bamboos that inculcated such teaching. On the other 
hand, he recognized the benefits of medicine, he wished 
to conserve the art of tillage, and he honored the best 
that he knew of religion. All praise to Chin for his 
discrimination! 

Unfortunately for the success of his measures, he 
had planned them rather too late in his career. He was 
but fifty years of age, and might have hoped for a time 
of rest and consolidation; but he had lived the strenu- 
ous life, and weakened his constitution. To the last, 
however, he was a busy and energetic ruler, and death 
overtook him as he was on a tour of inspection far from 
his capital, in the province of Shantung. His last mes- 
sage was to his eldest son, then at the Great Wall. In 
the seventh moon of the thirty-seventh year of his 
reign he joined his ancestors, ascending to the heavens 
from Sha Euan near Shuntehf u. 

Thus ended the career of the great hero. How did 
his project fare of ending the tyranny of the past, and 




The Great Wall of China Photos by Dr. Geil 

Two views of the same Tower at Shichingtsi, Province of Kansu. 
The pictures show how the Wall was joined on to the Towers 



$5icii5|fi:*!ll!*: 207 

A glaasfnl of water canaot qneoch a cartfnl of burn- 
ing grass. 

throwing China on its present resources? Much as it 
fared with the French revolution, when after Napoleon 
was untrue to its principles, the Bourbons came back, 
having forgotten nothing and learned nothing. The 
scholars had been put upon their mettle by Chin, and 
they circumvented him. Instead of bamboo they used 
silken fabric, instead of a sharp stylo they used a brush, 
invented by the very general who superintended the 
building of the Wall, and they painted copies of the 
classics on a material not hitherto suspected of connec- 
tion with literature, capable of being hidden in small 
compass. Thus the indirect result of Chin's fires was 
to make literature far more accessible and much more 
easily recorded. He very nearly rooted out some of 
the old rubbish, but one old man was found to have 
memorized twenty-eight per cent, of the Book of His- 
tory, and a girl contributed another section, while, when 
the house of Confucius was being restored a century 
later, a copy of the whole work came to light. To avert 
any further destruction, the Five Classics and the Four 
Books were carved on stone tablets, which yet adorn the 
court of the Hall of the Classics, Peking. By that time 
woven silk had been found too expensive, and had been 
replaced by a paste or thin felt of cheap fibers, made 
from twine, rags, bark — in a word, by paper. And so 
to Chin and his fight with the scholars we owe this 
material which is now used by all the civilized world for 
literature. 

It is bad for a man to quarrel with the students and 
writers of books. If he can destroy every book and 



208 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

every scholar, he has won; but if he leaves one scholar, 
that embittered man can slander him to all posterity. 
The wise man will subsidize the wishes and writers of 
books ; he will endow universities and hope that the pro- 
fessors will wink at his doings; he will build libraries, 
and give scholarships to students who will be naturally 
grateful and will honor his memory. The men who 
have been crushed out of business may curse him, the 
employees who have been ground down to starvation 
wage may rise in revolt and be slain outright; but if 
they have not the means to get into literature, the mat- 
ter will blow over. Then the scholars will write well of 
the good points in their benefactor, and the libraries 
will perpetuate his name. But let a man oppose the 
students and adopt a progressive policy; the monk stu- 
dents will distort his deeds in their chronicles, and the 
scribe students will plot his death; the scholar students 
will write down the great Chin as a tyranti 

But the spirit of Chin is awake to-day. The halls of 
tibe schools are once more swept of the classical rubbish, 
and the^people are being taught again to face the living 
present The defenses of the empire are being slet in 
order against the hordes from Siberia and Russia. 
Roads are being made of steel to bind together the 
provinces, and enable the empire to realize herself. 
Chin was the man of his age, and if another Chin arise 
to-day to attract the veneration of his people, China 
will be the first of the nations. Whatever nation diall 
dash itself against her will stumble; whatever nation 
China precipitates herself on, will be ground to powder. 



CHAPTER XV 

The Mound of Chin 

The mighty Chin had passed away far from the cen- 
ter of his realm. But before his death a site had been 
chosen for his body to rest in, ninety U from his capital 
in a lucky spot designated by those professors whose 
magic he had respected. Here great preparations had 
been made, and it devolved upon his son and heir only 
to finish the work and celebrate the obsequies in state. 
How legend has gathered about the tale we have al- 
ready noted, and from the lips of peasants on the spot 
shall recoimt again here. For who in studying the 
Great Wall of Chin can neglect paying respects at the 
great Mound of Chin? 

Feared he may have been rather than revered, slan- 
dered by the whole caste of effete students of the clas- 
ses, unable to comprehend how great a rule» had been 
in their midst. But at least filial piety reared in his 
honor this massive Moimd, which, after two millen- 
niums and more, attests the greatness of the man to 
whose honor is heaped this greatest of all monuments. 
Heaped of sand earth as it was, it could not tower at a 
sharp angle like the Egyptian pyramids, but each side 
of its base is half as large again as the largest of these. 

The Mound of Chin first becomes visible from high 
ground on the farther side of Sulphur City, Lintung, 
four miles away. From that distance it looks like a 

U 909 



210 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



foothill of the Black Horse Mountain, though it is, in 
reality, about a mile from the moimtain range. 

The height of the Mound, including its base, which 
varies from six to twelve feet, is estimated at one hun- 
dred and twenty feet. But it is not so much for its 
height that the Mound is noticeable, as for its size. 
Each of its four sides measures nearly three hundred 
and fifty yards in length, making a square of three hun- 
dred and fifty yards or something over twenty-five 
English acres. This is only the actual Moimd, the sides 
of which follow the four cardinal points. 

CHMN WANQ LINQ 

KINO CHIN6 MOUNO 




»M YARDS aire 

Chinese drawingr of the Mound of Chin. Bare earth edge all around . . . rock- 
stone here and there just above the edge Shown by the compass to have 

sides exactly North, East, South, West .... 8000 years ago the cardinal 
points were known. . . . Said to have contained, as all Imperial Mounds, a 
palace, and valuables. . . . The first attempt to break it open was soon after 
its making but was unsuccessfal. . . . LAter it was rifled. ... His power was 
suggested by his "Boots," "Magic Whip.'* "Measuring Rule," which were 

likely buried in this Mound and afterward stolen Chin has been regarded 

as the "Unprincipled Prince." 

Surrounding the Mound is a wall called the "inner 
encompassing wall," which contains about eighty acres. 
As the country is somewhat terraced, it is difficult to 



» 'W m ;ic ff # :?^ ^ RH S 211 

Learning is like rowing ap stream, not to advanCtt 
is to drop tMick. 

estimate the so-called boundaries (except perhaps the 
very pronounced hump to the south) , which do not in- 
close a perfect square, as in the case of the Mound 
proper. 

But still we have not viewed the whole area con- 
nected with the imperial tomb. There was said to have 
been an ''outer encompassing wall" which was supposed 
to contain over one hundred and ninety acres. No 
wonder the farmer, a third of a mile away in the direc- 
tion of the mountains, can point to a spot just below 
his house as the outer boundary. The legend says that 
from the outer boundary a connected cave runs into 
the mountain, and that at the end of this cave is a sea of 
quicksilver. 

To return to the actual Mound: there is no wall or 
monument to be seen. The outer edge, however, being 
slightly raised all around, shows there was once a wall. 
Then, again, the four "humps" on the lines from the 
top to the four comers, suggest that the Mound was 
once terraced, as seen in the surrounding country, and 
very pronouncedly in the mound of a certain general, 
Han, who lived a few tens of years later. There is a 
distinct elevation line visible across one side and is more 
or less distinct on the other sides. 

It is remarkable that there should be no monument, 
nor the usual stone tigers and stone men in pairs. The 
filial emperor Ch'ien Lung (1786-1796 a.d.) had monu- 
ments erected, if lacking, in the case of every other 
imperial tomb in the district. This absence of a stone 
was remarkable when we consider that other founders 



212 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

of dynasties, as the T'ang, have several. Eighteen 
miles away lies the stone in honor of the Han emperor 
who actually finished the Wall; prone and split, it yet 
remains. It is reported among the Chinese that the 
reputation of the king was so bad that no one would 
erect a monument to his memory. For the same reason, 
so it is said, there are no sacrifices ofi^ered at set periods 
in his honor, as is the usual custom. 

The Mound has not the regular surface so marked in 
the mound of the first Han eighteen miles away; not 
only is there the inward dip, or bay, in each side as con- 
trasted with the pronounced rise of the line to the cor- 
ners; there are also various minor humps. The Mound 
is constructed of sand brought by soldiers who stood in 
a line from the River Wei, sixteen miles north of this 
place, and passed it on from one to the other. 

The various grasses and flowering plants found on 
the Mound have very descriptive and graphic names. 
As they were plucked, the natives standing by readily 
called out "old woman's needle," "ox knee," "sow*s ear," 
"blacksmith's brush," "scorpion's sting," "rice flower 
jar," "weasel grass," "sheep's-fat bush," "parrot 
frame," "horse hoof," "tiger's claws," "hare flower," 
"cat's eyes," and so on ad infinitum. So even the deso- 
late Mound of Chin, in spite of the bits of rock scattered 
here and there, has its flowers and grasses suggestive 
of animal life. But the villagers say that no animal 
will eat the grass. 

On ascending the Mound, being careful to avoid the 
burrows which frequently occur, large enough to be 
the \Bxrs of the fox or the wolf, the summit will be 




The Great Wall of China 
A Picturesque View 



Photo hj L. N. Hayes 



»«^iiin#n:fffi A 213 

A teacher can lead na into fhe porch, but caltnre 
depends oa aelf. 

found to be a comparatively level rectangle, in size 
twenty-eight yards east and west by fourteen yards 
north and south. 

Situation of Mound of Chin: Standing on the top 
the view is rich in historical and legendary associations. 
On the north flows the Wei River, by which the abo- 
rigines, when hard pressed, went south in days of yore; 
and farther on are the Northern Mountains with the 
Camel's Hair Mountain standing out by itself to the 
northwest; south is the Black Horse Mountain Range 
stretching for miles and miles east and west. On the 
east is the guard station of Hsienf ung, called the Silver 
Treasury, six miles off on the great road; beyond it the 
city of Weinan, and at the extreme end of the pass of 
T'ungkwan, where the provinces of Shense, Shansi, and 
Honan meet at the Yellow River, ninety miles from the 
capital. 

To the west, two and a half miles, is the city of 
LintWg, noted for its sulphur springs over against 
the mountains where the water issues, hot to the hand. 
This was made more famous by the visits of the 
emperor and empress dowager when flying from the 
hated "outsider" in 1900. These visits meant hope of 
life to the famine-stricken inhabitants because of the 
grain distributed. Fifteen miles west of Lint'ung is 
famous Sian, said to have been longer the capital than 
any other city, and even now called the best governed 
dty in the empire, with its huge gate towers containing 
forty-eight eyes, or port-holes, above fourfold, two- 
leaved gates leading into a broad street three miles long. 



214 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

South of the Mound are two small temples erected to 
one of the Chinese Triplets, and so called the Three 
Kings' Temples. The nearer of these two temples is 
by a locust tree, and faces a comer of the Mound at a 
slight elevation above the general level. Within are 
the tawdry forms of the three mud-made gods, and one 
or two attendants. These gods are Yo Wang, the 
medicine king, who is interested in human ills; Ma 
Wang, the horse king, who looks after the ailments of 
horses, mules and donkeys; and Niu Wang, the cattle 
king, who attends to the diseases of cattle. 

Yo Wang was originally a certain Sun Ssu Miao, 
who was deified for healing the wife of Tai Tsung, of 
the T*ang dynasty, under whom Christianity was intro- 
duced, as recorded on the Nestorian tablet in the forest 
of monuments at Sian. Sun, as is recorded on the mon- 
ument near Yao Chow, forty odd miles away to the 
north, gave the empress four doses of medicine, and, to 
use the Chinese expression "saved the peril.'* The 
emperor offered him a bushel of gold and silver, which 
he declined with the request that the Son of Heaven 
would deify him as medicine king, in payment for his 
services. T'ai Tsung consented, and gave him a yellow 
gown and a winged hat, which Sun, thanking the king, 
put on and set off on his return to Yao Chow. But T*ai 
Tsung had an honored statesman, called Ching Tei,^ 
who was very jealous and displeased; riding a tiger, he 
took five thousand soldiers to pursue Sun and kill him. 
Sun, seeing from afar the soldiers pursuing him, quickly 
crushed down the wings of the hat and turned the yel- 

^ Cannot identify. 



=&«--^l8il«-«^Sk 215 

With money yon are a dragon, without it a gmb. 

low gown inside out to make it a red gown. When 
Ching came up and saw this he could say nothing, but 
simply asked Sun where he was going. Sun answered, 
to the mountains near Yao Chow to perfect holiness. 
"If you are entering on holiness/' said Ching Tei, "I 
will stand beside you and serve you." 

The name of the horse king was Huang Wentan.^ 
This man in descending from his horse was injured by 
the goblins possessing the horse. After death his spirit 
was not dissipated, but saw the Pearl Emperor, who 
pitied it and gave it a sword with which to behead the 
goblins, a seal to overturn the heavens, a looking-glass 
with which to daze the goblins, a map of the great 
extreme, and a fire calabash. Half of the map of the 
great extreme was Yang, the male principle, and the 
other half was Yin, the female principle. By holding 
this map face upwards it would conquer the most violent 
spirits. 

The fire gourd was full of fire and would send its 
light a great distance and destroy evil spirits. The 
Pig of the Eight Commandments has a sow's head and 
human form and takes its name from its observance of 
the eight commandments of the Buddhists. The Pearl 
Emperor helped Huang Wentan and deified him as 
Horse King. 

As to the cattle king: at the time of the feudal king- 
doms there was a man named Yao Hsieh whose master 
had an enemy named King Ching, upon whom Yao 
Hsieh wished to wreak vengeance. For this reason he 

^Cannot identify. 



216 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

deserted to King Ching, wishing, he averred, to serve 
him. The king, suspecting treason, refused his services, 
for he feared he was a spy. Yao Hsieh returned to his 
master saying, "Slay my wife, bum the corpse in the 
road where all may see it, and then cut off my right 
arm." The second time Yao Lee went to deliver him- 
self to King Ching the king had already heard how his 
master had slain his wife and cut off his arm, and forth- 
with received Yao Lee to eat and drink with him, wish- 
ing tp know his master's private affairs. King Ching 
and Yao seated themselves together in a boat, and when 
they reached deep water Yao with one thrust of his 
spear pierced King Ching through the heart. This is 
called "Yao's piercing of Ching." After Yao died the 
Pearl Emperor deified him as Cattle King to look after 
the cattle that plow the fields. 

South of this temple to the Three Kings are two vil- 
lages of the Ch'en clan, who are as prosperous as their 
persimmon, apricot and apple trees. They also have 
varnish, locust, and numerous elm trees. In the back- 
ground stretches the Black Horse Mountain Range, on 
a hump of which is the ''Old Mother" hall. It is said 
that in the beginning there was an opening in the heav- 
ens and the Old Mother smelted stone and filled up the 
gap. She afterward formed the world 1 

The natives have a tradition that in the first year of 
the Ming djmasty (1868-1644 a.d.) there appeared on 
the Moimd of Chin, every night after the third watch, 
midnight, an earthen lamp which became by the fifth 
watch bright beyond measure. And it is held that the 
golden fowl belonging to the Old Mother of the Black 



It is the good swimmer that gets drowned. 

Horse Mountain flew into this mound» and every night 
there was a long-continued cryl 

In the second year of the reign of Chia Ch*ing of 
this Great Pure Dynasty (1797 A.b.) , Yao Chi-Fu, head 
of the robbers of the White Lily sect, and a woman, Chi 
Wang^hsi, and others created a disturbance. Chou Chi- 
Shan, a member of another sect, hearing of their strange 
behavior, first buried a phoenix and two lamps in the 
Mound of Shih Huang and afterwards entered the 
robber's cave and suggested a stratagem. "The Great 
King wishes to take the capital of Shensi. My teacher 
says, *A great jar cannot be broken into without a rent, 
and celery cannot be cooked without fire/ ( Now Shensi's 
old name was 'the Jar Prefecture.' Shensi is also called 
Chin, Chou, and Chin, celery). If you wish to take 
Shensi's capital, first dig into Shih Huang's Mound 
from the southwest comer and .find a phoenix and a 
golden lamp." The soldiers were forthwith bidden to 
go with Taoist priests, and on opening the Mound they 
discovered the phoenix and I^rass lamp. The Taoist 
Chi Shan said "Feng (a phoenix) is the equivalent of 
Feng (a seam) . Lamp signifies Tiave a fire.' " There- 
upon Yao Chi-Fu and the widow Chi used fiire and 
burned all the villages of Shensi and the two pagodas 
south of Sianf u. 

In the third year of Hsien F6ng (1868) , the chief of 
the Long-haired Robbers, the small King Yen (a 
Chinese Pluto), named Chang Tsung-Yu, entered 
Shensi with eighty thousand soldiers. With him was a 
great general, Lao San-Shun, who inquired for a won- 



218 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

derf ul man — T'ien Chia Ching, of Chianwang, a village 
east of Sian. T'ien said, "I have received Liao Kung's 
Buddhist dictionary and am well versed in strange de- 
vices and can obtain Chin Shih Huang's T)rive the 
Mountains Whip/ *Ascend the Clouds Boots* and 
*Sword for Dividing the Ground' which the robber Hu- 
ang Tsao left in the grave/' Lao San Shun then ordered 
a powerful general to take all the soldiers under his com- 
mand and get these important historical articles. Just 
as they had finished digging a path into the southeast 
comer of the Mound of Chin, thirty-five feet or more 
in length, a violent storm of wind, rain, hail, thunder 
and lightning arose. All the frightened robbers quickly 
fled, seeing as they left only smoke rising like fog from 
the opening. Arising from this smoke was a yellow 
dragon holding in its mouth a string of fifteen large 
pearl cMh. On each cash face was written, "Thou must 
obey Heaven and leave this place. Those who forcibly 
open my grave will be visited by Heaven-sent calamity." 
On receiving this command from the Yellow Dragon, 
Lao San Shun thought that this language applied to 
himself, and became presumptuous, styling himself 
Shuh T'ien Wang — ^the King who obeys Heaven, and 
carved in the faces of his soldiers the three characters, 
Shgn Tien Ping, the Soldiers of Heaven. 

There was a palace in Chin's grave, and behind it and 
under the mountain a quicksilver river, about twelve 
feet in depth and a half a mile wide. Floating on this 
river was Chin's coffin within an outer case varnished 
yellow and shaped like a little boat. At its side a skilled 
artificer had made a powerful bow, and, as soon as any 



:rS«tti^ll4*A±A 219 

Without tasting the bitterest we never reach the 
highest. 

one reached the spot an arrow sprang out, thus killing 
many soldiers. The soldiers, desiring to obtain this 
coffin, thought of the device of putting on iron clothes. 
But as soon as the coffin was touched it floated eastward 
and on iron hooks being used to push it toward the 
east, it suddenly floated toward the west. As the sol- 
diers were about to seize it there was a mighty noise of 
thunder and they were frightened away. The robber, 
Huang Tsao, being unable to rifle the grave, gave the 
command to cover it up again. 

It is handed down that a woman, Yang Hu-hsi by 
name, who had been a vegetarian for many years, 
dreamed that the Old Mother of the Black Horse 
Mountain said to her, "Divest yourself quickly of your 
body and you may become a goddess." Early, there- 
fore, in the fifteenth day of the sixth moon she dashed 
herself down from the Clifi^ of Self-devotion. Falling 
in a great stone manger, her body was crushed and her 
blood dyed the stone crimson. Whenever rain falls in 
this hollow it becomes red like blood, for which reason 
the stone is called Blood Water Basin. 

The Basin of Valuables is on the Black Horse Moun- 
tain and is wonderful, for whatever is cast into the basin 
becomes multiplied indefinitely. The Temple of Hu- 
man Origin on Black Horse Mountain, some distance 
west of Chin's Mound, is interesting, as it contains a 
woman supposed to be the common world ancestor. 

On returning from Black Horse Mountain and go- 
ing toward the west one who has lived on the plain can- 
not but be at once struck by the number of rocks and 



220 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

stones on the road for the first six miles, and by the low 
stone walls around the fields. On the plains there are 
few stones or walls, and a mere boundary stone is con- 
sidered enough to distinguish one piece of land from 
another. Two and a half miles farther on the traveler 
comes to Lint'ung, so named from the two streams east 
and west of the city, which is peculiar in that it has 
only three gates instead of four as usual. It is noted 
for its sulphur springs, although these springs are 
not uncommon in China. There is one piece of west- 
emism introduced here — ^policemen, having as resting 
places little boxes painted red and green and containing 
a straw seat. At the top of the box is the name of the 
city, characters on one side meaning "patrol and in- 
spect" and on the other "take your turn without idle- 
ness/' One also sees an apology for street lamps which 
serve only to make the darkness visible. 

Near by is a tree worshiped for its curative proper- 
ties and on this tree is written, "The efficacious pill re- 
lieves the world.** On the lower road every ten it is a 
beacon. About 775 b.c. the Emperor Yu, of the Chou 
dynasty, lit fires on these beacons along the road be- 
cause his beautiful concubine, Fao Ssu, would not smUe, 
and he hoped that by raising an alarm so many persons 
would gather together, as if in defense of the empire, 
that his favorite, pleased with the excitement of the scene, 
would smile, as was indeed the case. The high nobles, 
resenting the false alarm, afterwards refused to answer 
to the beacon when it was lit on account of a real in- 
vasion. In consequence of this the emperor, being 
unaided, was slain, and the selfish Pao Ssu, being 




The Great Wall of China 



Photo by C. J. Anderson 

The Club House and Stock Exchange in Sianfu, where the exchange price 
of Silver is fixed every day 



Soldiezs may not be needed for a hundred years, but 
C^not be dispensed with a single day. 

taken captive, strangled herself. Of this story there 
are many versions. 

A few miles farther on is a prosperous village called 
Hokow, north of which was a palace on a piece of 
gromid about two acres in size and containing an 
octagonal well, famous for its curative properties. This 
palace King Yu built for Pao Ssu. North of Hokow 
King Yu was slain, and the spot is called Kill His 
Excellency Monastery. The conmion saying is that 
Pao Ssii's one smile lost the empire. 

West of Hokow is the Temple of the Serpent*s 
Egg. Near this place a girl picked up a serpent's egg 
on an old grave. She took it home, wrapped it in a 
warm cloth, and soon two serpents were hatched out. 
These she fed with hen's eggs until they became large 
serpents which devoured the village people, so that all 
complained of the maiden. Grctting angry, she tried to 
cut off the heads of the serpents, but they coiled about 
her sword and killed her. The Pearl Emperor pitied 
her and deified her as the Lady of the Serpent's Egg. 

Farther on is the Pa River, over which is a bridge of 
seventy-two arches nearly a quarter of a mile in length. 
Passing on through a region full of legends we find 
another bridge over which stands a stone monument set 
up in honor of the devoted widow, the Woman of Hsia, 
in remembrance of her determination to cast herself 
into her husband's tomb to be buried alive with him. 
Even mandarins worship at this tomb I 

Sian is now entered. The name signified "Western 
Peace." It is in the center of the fertile plain of Sian 



222 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

which is watered by the rivers Tsan, Pan Wei and 
Ching, all easy of access. South of Sian is the noted 
great pagoda containing two Buddhist monuments of 
658-654 A.D. which relate how a Buddhist Hsiian 
Tsang went to the Ganges in India in quest of sacred 
books. Northwest of Sian are two mounds, the larger 
one being terraced, and said to be the resting place of 
the general Han Hsin; the smaller one, with its sides 
embraced by nine roots of a tree that grows out of its 
top, containing his head. Of Han Hsin, who helped 
to secure the throne for Liu Pang, it is written that he 
went out to fight against Ch'en Yii of the kingdom of 
Chao. Leading ten thousand soldiers across the river, 
he destroyed all his boats, drew up his soldiers in battle 
array with their backs to the river and gave them bread 
to pass from hand to hand to eat while they were fight* 
ing, saying, "When you have destroyed the kingdom of 
Chao you may feast to your heart's content." 

In Chingcheng K*ow he routed two hundred thou- 
sand of Ch*en Yii's soldiers and the same day destroyed 
Chao Kwei and beheaded Ch'en Yu. North of the Wei 
River and near Hsienyang, Chin's capital, are the grave 
mounds of Wen and Wu, two of China's sages^ who 
lived about 1200 b.c. Somewhat to the east is the fine 
massive mound of the first of the Hans, Liu Pang, who 
put the finishing touches on the Great Wall. Just 
across the ferry is a moniunent so valuable that rubbings 
of it sell at a high price in Peking, ajs the writing was 
done by a Chinese stylus, Liu or Willow, who lived one 

^ This hardly describes them sufficiently. They were the founders of the 
Chou dynasty, father and son: ''King Literary" and ''King MartiaL" 



A single stnmd does not make thread, nor one tree 
a forest. 

thousand years ago. Thirty miles north of Sian is a 
plateau containing the mounds of three kings of the 
T*ang dynasty (618-907), also seventy grave mounds 
of the heroes who placed the T'angs on the throne. 
East of this place is the mound of the father of Liu 
Pang. 

Toward the northern mountains is an exceedingly 
large natural mound used ajs the grave of Chung 
Tsung, a T*ang emperor, who was imprisoned by the 
empress dowager of that dayl There are other places 
of note, but we cannot deal with this region fully. Our 
design is to show the environment of the great Chin's 
Mound as well as to describe it. 

As to the villages around the Mound of Chin, in the 
direction of the mountains there are two of the Ch'en 
Clan, Ling Nan Ch'en Chia, and Chen Chia Yao. East 
of the Mound is San Lieh Chiao Chia. From this place 
they say a young woman, called Chiao Chin Hua, went 
out and built a thatched house in front of the village, 
and sat within it in contemplation for ten years, then 
died! She was immortalized and her cottage is called 
Ts*ao T*ang Si, or Grass Hall Retreat. Yet another 
village in this vicinity is Yang Chia Chwang. 

West of Yiilin Fu, at Wu Chwang Tsun, there was 
a scholar, Tu Jang, who helped Chin to build the Great 
Wall. Chin, seeing that he had but little strength, 
buried him in the earth. His wife, Meng Chiang, see- 
ing her husband's pitiful end, wept bitterly until her 
tears became blood. As she reviled Chin Shih Huang for 



224 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

his cruelty, she struck her head on a stone near the Wall, 
killing herself. 

The western Han emperor in whose reign Christ was 
bom, had a statesman, Wang Mang, who poisoned him 
and became emperor in his stead, under the name of 
Hsin Wang. The daughter of Wang Mang was given 
to Wu Han, a great general, in marriage. Wu Han 
led twenty thousand soldiers to T'ungkuan to hold it 
for Wang Mang. At this time Liu Hsin, emperor of 
the eastern Hans, wished to pass from Honan to 
Ch*ang-An, planning to slay Wang Mang. When Liu 
Hsin reached T'ungkuan he was seen by Wu Han, 
who arrested him, intending to take him before Wang 
Mang to show his own prowess. Wu Han was a dutiful 
son and took leave of his mother. She said to him, 
"Your father's name was Chao, a censor of P*eng Ti, 
and was slain by Wang Mang twenty-three years ago. 
I rescued you from danger and changed your name to 
Wu. Wang Mang is the enemy who slew your father. 
You now capture Liu Hsin, wishing to show your coiu'- 
age to an enemy. Truly you are not the equal of the 
birds and beasts." So saying, she grasped a sword and 
killed herself. After bewailing his mother Wu Han 
biu'ied her, and then killed his wife, the king's daughter. 
He next slew Wang Mang and became a general in the 
army of Liu Hsin in Honan. The T'ang Empress Wu 
bore a son with the head of an ass and the body of a 
man, called the Ass-Headed Heir Apparent, who was 
very courageous and could overcome ten thousand men. 

Our resolution to interview at least one thousand dif- 
ferent persons during the study of the Great Wall has 



^^:^mf' 225 

The fiercest tiger does not eat its own yoang. 

never been suffered to fall into abeyance. As this is 
one of a half dozen most important burial mounds on 
earth we held it worth the time and effort to discuss the 
Mound of Chin with some fifteen or twenty natives liv- 
ing near the famous tomb. The original chronology 
of the conversations is preserved, as well as the abrupt- 
ness. The fact that for the most part the natives are 
superstitious when many questions are asked concern- 
ing graves and precious things accounts for the appar- 
ent failure of the interviews to reach a natural climax. 
For the following interesting items, as well as for the 
measurements of the Mound, we are under great obliga- 
tion to that brilliant scholar and successful educator, 
Frank Madeley, Esquire, M.A., of Birmingham, Eng- 
land, who, when the author was taken ill of fever, con- 
sented to continue the investigations. 

The interviewer spent two nights with the farmer 
who owns the farm lying between the Mound of Chin 
and the Black Horse Mountain. What all sorts of peo- 
ple said when asked about the Chin Shih Huang Ti (the 
Great Chin) and his grave, will now find record here. 

The landowner, Ch'en Ming, who has his hundred 
acres of land, when asked about the mound said, "It 
is Shih Huang Ti's (the First Emperor's). "Is his 
reputation great?" "Yes. Who doesn't know the 
Mound of Chin Shih Huang? He has a bad reputation. 
There is no monument." Mr. Ch*en said the outer en- 
compassing wall of the Mound passed just below his 
place, and the cave thence into the mountains runs 
under his farm, and according to the vulgar saying, 

15 



226 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

valuables are beneath the house. When Mr. Ch*^n 
was further inquired of valuables under his house he 
skilfully evaded the question, saying, "I can't see." 
Mr. Ch*en continued, "The Mound is only the mouth 
of the grave. Chin is buried in the mountain earth." 
Another Mr. Ch*en, a scholar, interposed, "He was 
buried beneath the Mound. How could he be buried 
in the Black Horse Mountain?" 

A sweet seller of "horse candy," a kind of spiral 
bread fried in oil and made brittle, said that the Ch*ens 
of the Mound South Ch'en family are descendants of 
Emperor Chin. Their family name was like his, Ying, 
but it was altered to Ch'en because his reputation was 
bad. Several persons in the district, when asked their 
name, replied "Ch'en." 

Women were surprised and highly complimented by 
being inquired of by the foreigner. One woman when 
asked about the Mound said, "I don't know" ; another, 
80 years of age, which fact points out that the bad 
reputation of the Mound owner has not interfered with 
folks' longevity, said, "It's Chin Shih Huang's Mound." 
Still another, "It is King Ch'en's Mound." A man 
standing by corrected her, saying, "It is not King 
Ch^gn's but King Chin's Mound." And he added, 
"Women don't read." The old woman went off^ 
chuckling. Why? At the very idea of expecting a 
woman to know anything. Women's life in China 
reminds the Bible student of John 4:27 — "His disci- 
ples marveled that He talked with a (not the) woman.'* 
But the significant fact about the old lady's reply is 
that it confirms the saying that the village ancestors 



%^7r-nn 227 

An image maker neyer woxshipa idola* 

changed the family name to Ch'en, for if the old woman 
understood herself to be a descendant of the great king, 
while remaining in ignorance of the change of name, 
she would naturally suppose the king's name was 
Ch'en. 

Farmers almost to a man could not imagine it possi«* 
ble for a man to know anything outside of their usual 
lives. One, a youth, when questioned, said, "I have not 
seen him — ^years many" (i.e., since Chin's time). An- 
other youth, "Can't remember, years many." A man 
said, "It's Chin Shih Huang's Mound. It's a good 
many thousands of years, I can't guess it." Another^ 
when asked how it was possible for soldiers to f etcU 
enough sand from many miles away to build the huge 
Mound, replied, "If Chin could get the Myriad Mile 
Wall built, then to bring sand from the Wei River was 
easy." 

A furrier with ear caps on, showing he knew how to 
take advantage of his own trade to keep himself warm 
in winter, said, "I don't know him (Chin). It is the 
First King's Mound; he built the Boundary Wall, ten 
thousand li long, running outside the mouth." The peo- 
ple who live adjoining the Wall at certain points call it 
the Great Boundary Wall). When asked, "Was Chin 
bad or good?" he replied, "How can I know? You read 
the books and know about the sacred worthies." When 
asked how old the Mound is, "It's a thousand years 
up. Chin was king of man and lord of land." He com- 
pared him unfavorably with the first king of the 
Twangs. 



228 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



A carter said, "It is the First Emperor's Mound/* 
But the marks of opium on his face furnished the 
reason why he knew little ahout the dead or the living, 
except so far as nature compelled him to work to live. 

A general dealer who is a Christian was well in- 

t mm 



m 



^#1 








^ 






Plan of the Mound of Chin. Drawn by a local Chinese for Dr. Geil. It adjoins 
the Mount Li. 

formed. Chin lived when the country was divided into 
thirty-six provinces, at the time he destroyed K'ung 
the holy man (a conunon designation of Confucius). 
He burned all his books, the Four Books and the Five 
Classics. The place where he burned the books is near 



mA^mmAm 229 

There is always a rogne to rub a rogae. 

the Wooden Pagoda (a well-known spot twenty-five 
miles from Sian) . The earth there is black because he 
burned the books. Asked if the soil is now black, he 
replied that it is. The reputation of Chin is that of one 
of the very bad men of the Central Kingdom. He 
burned the books and buried the scholars, leaving their 
heads projecting, and then yoked animals to a harrow, 
pointing to a farmer's iron-toothed harrow, and ran it 
back and forth over them. He also said that the great 
Mound is only the great gate of the grave; that the 
grave is in the mountains, that it is a quicksilver sea, on 
which the body moves, so that if you want to grasp it 
you can't. Those who made the Mound were buried 
alive in it, as were also Chin's wives and concubines. 
A coolie said, "I don't know anything." 
A bread seller: "It is the true Mound, but what can 
you know about him? He is in the ground and the 
Mound is on top of him. What can you know about 
himl" Another coolie, carrying a load, let pathos into 
the conversation. He said the load weighed one hun- 
dred and twenty pounds of cotton. When asked if he'd 
seen Chin's Mound he replied, "I don't lift my head; I 
don't see." And no wonder, poor fellow; his burden 
was great. 

A cake-shop man submitted to being interviewed 
with good grace. He had read in a book that inside the 
Mound were great iron gates, a north gate and a south 
gate; the locks are dragons' tongues. Inside the gate 
you tread on a machine, and a knife comes forth and 
pierces you to death. 



230 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

A pawnbroker when asked about Chin said, "I can't 
go; I keep the gate/' That is an expression often 
heard in China, "I keep the gate"— it is important. 
"I eat other's bread; I keep the gate; I cannot go." 

A barber replied only by saying, "I am a Wa Wa," — 
achildl 

A banker declared, "It is only an earth pile and some 
grass. I've passed it by many times, but never gave it 
a thought. The actors," continued the banker, "say 
Chin's reputation was bad. He burned books 1" 

An old scholar: "Bum book bury scholar" — ^a four- 
character phrase with much meaning. He further 
made reference to the Wo Fang palace, which was some 
thirty miles long, that is the various buildings and 
yards spread along that distance to enable Chin to sleep 
in a different room each night and thereby avoid evil 
spirits finding him. The old scholar said the palace 
stretched from Hsienyang, Chin's capital, to Lint'ung, 
and from Lint'ung to Chung Nan San, forming a 
triangle. .He also called attention to the hole on top 
of Chin's Mound where one can drop in a small stone 
and in a few moments hear it strike the bottom. The 
position of the Mound, the old scholar says, was fixed 
by the professors of Timg Shui as being auspicious. 
The dragon pulse, meaning that the magnetic currents 
with which the dragon is supposed to be connected, is 
good. The mountain south is a dragon at rest! The 
river north is a dragon in motion! Then west is Lin- 
t'ung, called the Golden Granary, and east is Hsinf eng, 
the Silver Treasury. In all four directions the emperor 




-s 



c 

Hi 



a 



be 



c 
eS 

bD 

C 

I 






s * 



mm^m 231 

Destroying the bridge that carried us over. 

had something to rest on and so might hope to go on 
reigning thousands of years I 

"The farmers say/' says the old scholar, "that inside 
the Mound are huried Chin's 'Ascend the Clouds Boots/ 
which enabled him to go up to heaven; his 'Move the 
Mountains Whip/ with which he could exchange moun- 
tains; also 'Measure the Fields Rod/ which when he 
waved it in the air caused his enemies to suffer defeat. 
It is said that the soil or sand which composes the Mound 
was all burned before being placed in permanent posi- 
tion/' This sets one wondering where caldrons of suffi- 
cient size were obtained, else the work required many 
years of time. 

And so the common people, the business men, and the 
scholars have their folk-lore about the man and the 
Mound, Chin. A spot well worth the visiting. What 
other mound marks the resting-place of a more remark- 
able character? This then is the Mound of Chin, the 
builder of the Great Wall, and the maker of the vastest 
empire of mortals! 

Before we quit the Mound of Chin we think of the 
splendid tombs we have seen in honor of the Mings, the 
other builders of the Wall, and in honor of the present 
Ch'ings. They incorporate mounds, but the mounds 
are girt about with walls within which are temples. 
Was it so with Chin? Here are traces of walls encom- 
passing his Mound. Did they once inclose gates and 
furnaces and temples, prototypes of those which the 
tourist from Peking regularly visits? 

Chin was The Only First in death ajs m life. Before, 



232 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

other kings had died, and had been laid to rest under 
mere mounds; but he was the first to prescribe a custom 
of sacrificing at his tomb; and this fell in so easily with 
the feeling of reverence for ancestors that it was taken 
up by the next dynasty and rooted itself permanently. 
The importance of this new departure has not been 
generally recognized, but when we look for earlier royal 
tombs we find none; when we search the classics for 
records of temples to preceding kings, there are none. 
What we do find in the records of the Han dynasty are 
these two sentences, which pay unwilling tribute to 
Chin: "Anciently there was no sacrificing on the tombs, 
but during the dynasty of Han* a park with a temple 
was added as an appendage to each of the imperial 
mausolea in imitation of the house of Chin." Or in the 
Rules for Ofiicial Dignitaries: "In ancient times there 
was no sacrificing on the tombs, but Shih Huang Ti of 
the house of Chin erected a temple at the side of his 
tomb, and this was imitated by the Han dynasty, and 
has not since been abolished." 

Thus Chin inaugurated imperial tombs with temples 
annexed. Chin the innovator may not be worshiped 
to-day, but every succeeding emperor pays tribute to 
him in adopting his pattern. 

*■ On the Hsienyang plateau, where are visible at least seven royal mounds 
and among them an enormous one to a Han, a portion of the grave area is 
being cultivated, whereas none of Chin's Mound has been wrested away to be 
cultivated, as if to say ''such ground is accursed, we will not take any of 
the unlucky, ill-omened soil of the Mound of him who burned the books and 
buried the scholars.*' 



CHAPTER XVI 

The Why of the Wall 

To comprehend the scheme and extent of the Great 
Wall requires no light effort. To realize the lives that 
were jeopardized, the severity exercised, the demons 
exorcised, the sorcerers subsidized, in planning and 
promoting this stupendous enterprise, baffles the imagi- 
nation; the mysterious mounting of the mountains, the 
dangerous dives into deep ravines, the twining and 
winding of the endless edifice, raise unsolvable questions 
as to the why of the Great WaU. 

Consider the sheer mass of the vast construction. 
Here are cubic miles of material. The weight of this 
enormous bulk far surpasses any other human construc- 
tion. Monster battleships are planned to displace 
twenty thousand tons of water; but what are they be- 
side the uncounted myriads of tons that oppress the 
earth here? Just to move the stones and bricks into 
position is a task that appalls the imagination — ^unless 
indeed there were some Chinese Amphion to charm the 
very rocks by his lyre, and make them dance into posi- 
tion. But if so, it exhausted the national music, for 
the ordinary Chinaman has not even a whistle left in 
him.* No, the size of this Great WaU raises a grave 
problem. Then too, its marvelous contortions, as it 

^ One of the signs of the times is that Chinese young men are beginning 
to whistie, — something unlieard-of in China. 

S33 



234 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



sweeps in daring curves, drops into yawning abysses, 
leaps across streams, as though the gray masonry were 
not the work of human hands but the idle fancy of wil- 
ful nature; these things compel us to ask whether this 
is fantastic art, or equally fantastic science. 







jS^ 



Ifan-eating Monster. Man*8 Ikce and dragon*8 body. Lives in the north. 

Was the Wall undertaken simply to employ men who 
might otherwise be dangerous? Such a simple, pur- 
poseless purpose has often operated, Pharaoh was 
dangerously near this when he put the Children of 
Israel to forced labor; plenty of prisons in America and 
in England have seen men treading a mill or grinding 
at cranks or breaking stones or teasing oakum, just to 
keep them busy, without any special object being aimed 
at as a result of their business. Every now and again 
when there is some spasmodic cry about the unemployed, 
some stupid piece of work is hastily improvised to serve 



mmmm 

Diligence can make up for doltishness. 



235 



as an excuse for paying men who are set to do it. It 
is but lately that Indian engineer officers have planned 
out great relief works such as canals and tanks, so that 
men who are put to excavate these in famine times, are 
thereby doing something to prevent famines in future. 




The LAUghing Lower Lipper. When he sees a man he laughs until his lower 
lip coTers his eyes, else he'd laugh himself to death. 

The usual relief work too often testifies to the unpre- 
paredness of the authorities, who waste good labor and 
produce something barely ornamental and barely use- 
ful. If the Great Wall were simply a relief work, it 
would be a colossal blunder, but one of a common type. 
Was it more than this, — a boundary? From early 



236 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

ages we have heard of landmarks, and know what im- 
portance was attached to these, so that the Hebrews 
imprecated curses on any one who moved them, and the 
Romans put them under the protection of a special god 
Terminus, Was the Wall, then, simply erected to define 
the Chinese Holy Land, so that all within it should be 
blossoms of the Flowery Kingdom, while beyond were 
mere weeds and thistles of the wilderness? It is awk- 
ward to have no limits, to see a gradual shading off of 
town into country, of useful land into desert, of king- 
dom into kingdom. Perhaps this Wall was just put up 
as a clear definition where China ended, as nature gave 
no hint in this direction. All sorts of curious artificial 
boundaries have been known for this purpose. Hedges, 
stone walls, piles of logs, — all mark the limits of farms 
or fields. Children at play will scratch a line on the 
ground to mark the base; footballers put up lines of 
flags, baseball teams throw down bags to mark off their 
diamond. Prisoners of war have seen a boundary of 
mere wires to show the line beyond which they may not 
pass, unless they are prepared to risk being shot with- 
out further notice. There some moral force came to 
restrain ; the boundary itself was but a slight thing. 
Was the Wall just to show where the desert was to be 
left behind, with desert manners, while civilization was 
to begin? 

That is viewing it from the north, looking at the hint 
it gave to the barbarians outside. But walls have two 
sides and this Wall may be a boundary to remind the 
Chinaman of his privileges and to promote his patriot- 
ism. "Within this ring is your home, the abode of art 



^f^:^m^^f^m^m 237 

When times are easy we don't bom incense ; bnt 
when stress comes we embrace the feet of Bnddha. 

and learning: beyond is the outer darkness with which 
no son of the Flowery Kingdom has aught to do!" 
Was that the suggestion of the Wall? Japan would not 
suffer her sons to wander over seas till of late. Britain 
would not let her scanty population trickle away in the 
Stuart times; licenses were needed before any one might 
take ship. Possibly, then, the Wall had the message to 
those beyond the boundary, "Keep outl" and to those 
within, "Stay here 1" 

At least we can see that within this line there has been 
a growth of character that is unique; southward of the 
Wall we find one type of civilization; northward is little 
but barbarism, till of late other waves have flowed in 
from west to east. The Wall has served as a clear line 
of demarcation that all could understand. For the 
United States, the Atlantic was such an obvious boun- 
dary, while westward the settled land shaded off into 
the wilds of nature. Beyond the AUeghanies lay other 
settlements; beyond the western desert lay yet others; 
France and Spain had sent in their driblets of colonists; 
but from the firm base of the Atlantic, the wave of 
Anglo-Saxons swelled and surged across, submerging 
all others as it came. So from the solid background of 
the Wall, the wave of true Chinese rolled southward, 
engulfing others met by the way, till another boundary 
was foimd at the ocean, and all from Wall to water 
owned the sway of the sons of Ch*in. 

Perhaps from the first the Wall was meant as more 
than boundary, — was meant as rampart. "Have no fear 
of the tiger from the south; beware the rooster from 



238 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



the north." How old is that proverb we cannot say, but 
older than the Mings. The feeble folk on the Yangtze 
were no danger to the dwellers by the Hwang ho, but 
the wild riders of the noriliem steppes were not mere 










Man*s body, dragon's head— goeB roimd the abyaa. When he ffoes oat or in 
there is a hmricane or worse. Ltyea north of the Great WaU. 

crowing cocks, they were fighting cocks too. Ramparts 
of this description have often been erected. If a 
Roman legion halted for the night, it cast up some kind 
of an earthen bank with a ditch, which may remain 
after centuries to show what mighty builders were these 
people. When the limits of the empire seemed toler- 



X 




A crow is black the world over. 

ably fixed, pennanent traces were made, and along 
them arose in a few cases defensive works. Thus in 
Germany the emperors of the second century dug a 
slight ditch and drew a low wall along to indicate the 
mere boundary of the territory where Roman law held. 
And the same device was adopted in Britain; where 




Tliree-fiKed nation— man*s head, three fEuses, one Bhoulder— dangerous. LiTes 
In the Great WildemesB. Enemy of men. 

the Solway suggests a boundary, a ditch was hollowed 
out, and the clods of earth were piled neatly into a turf 
wall. But the barbarians of the north did not respect 
this, and it became necessary to erect a real fortification 
which should actually bar the passage. The same dis- 



240 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

tinction may be recx>gnized at Gibraltar, where the civil 
boundary is marked only by a row of sentry boxes, but 
behind them is a real defensive wall. And so from 
Wall's End on the Tyne, along the moors to the north, 
along the edge of the steep cliffs of basalt, not always 
following the line of the earlier boundary, arose a sub- 
stantial stone wall protected by a dry ditch in front; 







^^ 






Ox tail— rabbit fiice— borka like a dog, eats men. Lives in the northern 
mountains. 

behind it ran a good road for the movement of troops, 
fenced by the earthen mounds on either side. About 
every five miles there was a stone walled fort covering a 
few acres. From several of these, southern roads con- 
centrated at three or four garrison towns whence rein- 
forcements could be poured to any threatened point. 

Now these arrangements are strikingly parallel to 
those along the Chinese Wall. This also does not follow 



:?^ pT « «l W ^ 241 

Don't ask your guest if yon may kill a fowl for him. 

any line obvious as a mere boundary, nor as a probable 
route for traders. It has towers along it at frequent 
intervals, while in the rear are larger camps. The con- 
clusion is obvious, that this present Chinese Wall, like 
the wall of Severus in Britain, was intended for actual 
defense by real soldiers against very genuine invaders or 
border raiders. 

But this is only one point gained: we are sure now 
that the British stone wall of Severus came only after 
a turf boundary wall. The Chinese Wall during the 
time of the Mings was imdoubtedly a barrier, but does 
that settle what it was used for at a previous stage? 
There is to-day in Peru a splendid monastery of mas- 
sive stone, where for centuries the Dominicans have 
dwelt and worshiped ; but for centuries before they went 
there the Inca priests ministered there in what was then 
the Temple of the Sun. There is to-day in Paris a fine 
block of government offices where ministers of state 
and their clerks manage the business of a department; 
but till a few months ago it was the official residence of 
an archbishop. On a Devon moor is a forbidding ring 
of granite walls, behind which dwell for definite periods 
the worst of English criminals; but the walls were 
erected to guard safely the prisoners taken in the wars 
of Napoleon. So when we are certain that the last use 
of the Great Wall was as a frontier fortification, it still 
invites inquiry whether we have probed the purpose of 
its builders. Were they guarding against two-legged 
invaders or four-legged? Was this, at first, simply a 
glorified sheepfold, to keep out bears and wolves that 

16 



242 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

behind its shelter the domestic cattle might browse in 
peace, and the crops might be safe from the wild cattle 
in search of succulent pasture? 

Or was the original purpose still less material? Was 
it to guard not against seen foes, but against unseen? 
not against the creatures of this world, but against the 
powers of the air? Was the Wall originally a spiritual 
defense, a religious nlonument, a landmark of super- 
stition? 

Such a thought may seem amazing till we reflect a 
little on the great buildings that rise in other lands in 
the name of religion, till we recollect that the Chinese 
had practically no temples till Buddhism made its foot- 
ing good, till we see how superstition dictates even at 
the present day many of the Chinese buildings. 

In any city to-day are not some of the most conspicu- 
ous buildings consecrated to religion? Westminster 
Abbey, Westminster Cathedral, and St. Paul's are 
among the most obvious features of London. The 
glory of Cologne is the *T3om" and in Strasburg also 
it is the minster which dominates the city. Far more 
was this the case in antiquity, when Karnak and Mem- 
non and the obelisks were all dedicated to religion in 
Egypt; when the tower of Babel was devoted to the 
service of the Seven Gods of Babylonia. In the plains 
of the Ganges are such modem structures as the Junma 
Musjid at Delhi or the Pearl Mosque at Agra, or the 
countless temples of Benares. In the south of the 
Deccan are miles of colonnades and halls given over to 
worship, in some cases with covered ways moiuiting the 
hillsides up to some high place on the peak. In the 



Qi^im^iiisii^m^^mum-' 243 



In prosperity strangers claim kin ; in adversity 
kindredf become strangers. 

islands of fhe sea, Ceylon and Java, are rambling piles 
of stone carved into myriads of statues, all for assisting 
the devotions of the Buddhists. In the ancient world 
we have abundant tokens that religion was a potent 
factor in creating vast buildings. 







Nine-headed 



tremendous strength. 



When we turn to China and seek for the correspond- 
ing buildings, we put aside the late edifices due to Islam, 
to Taoism, to the Indian art of Buddhism, and we find 
simply the Confucian halls and the antique Temple of 



244 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Heaven. This last is indeed a splendid testimony to the 
inspiration of religion, but the halls due to the teachings 
of the Chinese sage are mere plain empty buildings, 
with tablets in memory of one hundred and sixty illus- 
trious men. It is difficult to think that these simple 
edifices are all that the ancient religion of China ever 
erected. 

Once we think of this, and remember how fine is the 
line between religion and superstition in early days, we 
have abundant evidence of the power of superstition. 
Louis XI of France has been immortalized by Walter 
Scott with a row of leaden images in his hatband, and 
an astrologer in his train. Now the Chinese, even to 
the present day, are steeped in all manner of belief in 
charms and good luck, which have been interwoven into 
Taoism, but have also a hold on many who disclaim that 
form of religion, f Whoever has watched a Chinese pro- 
cession, knows the fine figure cut by the dragon, which 
may wind its lengthy way through one or two streets 
at once; yet this is but one specimen of their mytho- 
logical menagerie. Scaly creatures, uncanny beasts, 
magic mammals, flying fiends — ^such is an unscientific 
catalogue of the fauna familiar to the imagination. It 
is too evident that these are not seen every day nor in 
ordinary places, and as to the Chinese mind it is axio- 
matic that they exist, their habitat must be away in the 
desert. \\Tiat then more obvious than to erect a magic 
boundary against them, and to endow it with spells 
which would arrest their progress?} 

Let us make sure how deeply these notions possess 
the average Chinaman. A visitor at Kiating was awak- 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

A binary granite base resting on igneous rocks partially supports a Wall 
making an almost perpendicular ascent 



Yon caa't get ivoxy out of a dog's mouUh 



245 



ened one night by a banging of doors and windows; 
it turned out that this was to frighten away a nine- 
headed monster flying overhead, which dropped blood 
as it passed, the blood causing the death of any one on 
whose house it fell. The western visitor quite failed to 
convince the people that what they saw was but a flock 
of wild geese at some height: the legend was well- 




**Doab1e-I>oable**->-The monster has three heads, green or black color, body 
red. Lives on the edge of the desert. 

known and a nine-headed monster there must be I De- 
mons pervade the air, and have to be guarded against 
at all turns; as the western horseshoe is unknown, a 
roaring trade is driven in a picture of the Taoist chief- 
priest framed in vignettes of caterpillars, snakes, in- 
sects, flies, with a verse describing the center figure: 



246 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

At noon on the fifth of the fif thy 

The Pope astride of his Tiger; 

His mouth all red. 

Clear sky overhead, 

To the land of the shades all the demons have fled. 

Then certain localities are labeled by the demon- 
managers as malignant. If a house must face one of 
these, special precautions must be taken, and a design 
of a sunrise must be painted on a large board over the 
door. Many houses hang a mirror above m hopes that 
the ugly demons will see themselves as others see them, 
and turn away in disgust. If a house acquires the 
reputation of being demon-haunted, a demon-trap 
of plaited bamboo will be hung up to intercept the 
visitants. 

Now modem instances of this abound; but it is very 
important to know that Chin was deeply permeated 
with these beliefs. He heard of a man who could make 
himself invisible, and sent an embassy to get hold of 
him.* He heard of a foimtain of youth and sent an 
expedition to discover it. He desired his physicians to 
compound a pill of life, and was so much in earnest 
about it that he was ready to slay a thousand boys and 
a thousand girls that their blood might concentrate all 
its essence of vitality for his benefit. Was not this 
the sort of man to conceive the idea of a gigantic 
demon-barrier? He destroyed much literature that 
had come down to his age, but preserved one book 

»Au ch*i Sheng was a legendary magidan. He possessed the power 
of making himself visible or invisible at wilL Chin sent to And him as did 
also the Han emperor Wn Ti. 



Wealth adonis the house, virtae the person. 



247 



that dealt in all this demon-lore with its preservatives 
against demon influences. 

What a splendid idea for an emperor to do for his 
whole realm what each man was laboriously doing for 
his tiny house! To shut out of the whole empire the 




Dangerous baldheaded nation, 
a. deadly peck. 



F!ace of man, wings of bird. Can fly and has 



whole tribe of desert jinns with their baleful powers; 
to guard the land entire from the ravages of the devils 
— ^this would be a task worthy of an emperor. No work 
could be esteemed too hard for such an end, no toil 
too difficult, no wall too long or too lofty. Did it 



248 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

need scores of feet of stone piled up, did it need towers 
to rise far above the mere wall? Yet if these could ren- 
der it impossible for any hideous bearer of evil to cross 
the line, if it confined the moral pestilence to the dreary 
desert, no price would be too high to pay. May we not 
find in this train of thought the primary reason why the 
superstitious Chin caused the Wall to arise? 

This may account in some measure for its existence, 
but then there remains the problem of its shape. This 
is not to be accounted for merely by the recollection 
that he used a few previous walls and linked them up; 
he was not the sort of man to be influenced only by 
utilitarian motives. To make one decent pair of trou- 
sers out of three or four worn-out knickerbockers will 
be a tedious and expensive job. If Chin simply wanted 
to cut off the sweet influences of the south and confine 
them to his own domain, why not run a screen right 
along a line of latitude and save time? That was the 
plan of the Russian Czar who ruled a straight line 
from St. Petersburg to Moscow to save the time of 
engineers in laying out the railroad. But the Wall 
twines and coils and winds its length up and down, 
round and round, till on the map it resembles nothing 
in heaven or earth — except the serpentine band in the 
heavens or the mythical dragon of the East. Have we 
hit it? 

Chin was given to symbolical building. His vast 
Imperial Forest Park was dotted over with his wives' 
palaces so disposed as to give a map of the heavens 
bounded by the Milky Way. Was the Wall meant to 
depict this same strange band in the skies? A man 



Bliss does not come alone, nor does woe walk 
single file. 



249 



who was capable of building in a park of two hundred 
miles a map of the heavens, might perhaps have con- 
ceived a yet more colossal representation of the most 
striking celestial phenomenon. 




Lonnrleff nation— one arm is long and the legs mearare 80 feet. Lire in the 
North wilderness. 

But rather perhaps was he thinking of the great ter- 
restrial emblem of the empire, a dragon, and seeking 
to portray across himdreds of miles a vast monster 
fraught with magical protective influences. 






250 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Remember that Chin became a Taoist. He definitely 
broke with the Confucian agnostics, and proclaimed 
himself an adherent of that system which seems to have 
gathered up all the folk-lore and magic and superstition 
of the people. Now nothing is more closely entwined 
with the popular imagination than the dragon, even at 
the present day, when the national flag displays it. 
When did this association begin? Peer back into the 
hoary records, those which Chin spared from destruc- 
tion just because of their superstition, and we find 
that centuries before his time the dragon was one of a 
set of twelve symbolic animals. The fact that the other 
eleven are real genuine creatures of those days have 
set some naturalists inquiring whether the dragon of 
those days was not a genuine creature too; whether it 
was not perhaps a crocodile. If popular fancy can 
evolve for Britons a unicorn like a graceful horse with 
a sword-fish's snout, out of a genuine rhinoceros, pop- 
ular fancy in China was surely equal to evolving a 
mythical dragon out of a genuine serpent.^ 

We need not however linger over that question. Real 
or imaginary, the dragon bulked largely in the minds 
of the people as possessed of magical power. Was 
there a drought, then the Ying dragon must be made, 
and as soon as the heavenly dragon sees this image 
of himself acknowledging his power, and imploring 
his help, so soon will he cause the- rains to come and 
bless the land. Now in the ancestral home of Chin 
droughts are not infrequent and are terrible. The na- 

* The serpent is a likely prototype. The Chinese themselves say: "It Is 
hard to distinguish a drag(Hi from a serpent." 



» n w « ^ 251 

A brave father breeds brave sons 

tore of the loose soil causes it soon to dry and pulverize 
again into dust. Suppose that instead of a dragon of 
wicker and tinsel, made for a special occasion, destined 
soon to perish, there be a permanent dragon of brick 
and stone ever to appeal to the heavenly original. Sup- 
pose that instead of one petty dragon for this town, 
and another for that town, the whole population unite 
to manifest their unity, and construct one vast dragon 
on behalf of the whole land. Such reasoning would 
appeal to Chin, the first emperor of China, the Taoist 
devotee. Such reasoning would appeal to the profes- 
sors of Feng-Shui, who would see their principles hon- 
\ored, and would gladly aid by making out the Lucky 
Line along which the mystic-dragon-image should wind 
his interminable length. Such reasoning would appeal 
to the myriad peasants who suffered from the drought, 
and were accustomed to mold a protective dragon in 
appeal to the mercy of the monster above. 

But such reasoning would not appeal to the Con- 
fucian scholars, who viewed with contempt the super- 
stitions of the populace, and would not deign to record 
any such motive, though the accomplished result might 
compel notice. A Masonic Temple may be built to-day 
and the fact receive attention, but the meaning of all 
the parts wiU not be expounded by or for outsiders. A 
Christian cathedral may slowly arise, with symbolism 
in its every part; but the newspaper wiU not explain to 
its readers what is typified. The rustic celebrations 
of St. John's Eve may be witnessed or described by 
many who never take the trouble to find out that they 



252 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



are survivals of ancient superstition. So then, although 
the Confucians have dropped no hint as to any religious 
purpose in this building, we see ample reason why they 
would refuse so to do, even though they knew it. 

We are inclined to assert positively that Chin had 
such an idea dominant in his mind, for when we think 
over the possible reasons for his undertaking so colossal 
a structure, we can see no other that is as worthy, no 







s> 



Hole-in-the-BreaBt Nation. These men have a hole in the breast and live east 
of Russia. It is a very common thingr for missionaries in China goinr to new 
districts to be aslccd if they belong to these particular peoples, and the 
bolder of interested parties will actually feel at the missionary's breast 
expecting to find a hole there. This very hoary tradition shows vitality 
eren in these latter matter-of-fact days. What then must have been the 
force of them in the time of Chin. The modern coolie carries a load on his 
shoulder but these barbarians put the pole through the chest. 

other that so fully explains his action. Nor do we 
claim that one purpose only swayed him; few are the 
people whose lives are so simple that a single motive 
suffices. But if he had at his disposal a vast amount of 
labor; if he wished to show clearly how far his author- 




The GixnX laick Pailo which stands two li east of Kiayiikwan, which city 
is seen in the distance 




The Great Wall of China 



Photos by Dr. Geil 



The Last Gate of the doomed city of Ku Chang Tsi, situated 65 li west 
of Shan Tan, Kansu 



*r ffil ^ ± A 253 

In beating a dog have regard to its master 

iiy should extend, to treat outsiders as of a lower rank 
and to assert himself over those within; if he approved 
the previous attempts to build a Rampart against in- 
vasion; yet all these purposes might blend and be 
crowned by the claims of religion. This might be the 
quickening impulse, that brought all else to fruition. 
And this, in an age when the misinterpreted teachings 
of Confucius were deadening all sense of mystery and 
of a Power outside men, may be the supreme rec- 
ognition of a Ruler in the heavens, who will respond to 
the appeal of a people, and will be merciful to those 
who call upon him. 



CHAPTER XVII 

The "9 by f" City lAangchowfu 

"Liangchow produces three precious things: 
Mutabilis, Rhubarb, and Licorice Stems." 

— Old Saying. 

Liangchowfu, the "9 by 8" city, lingers in our mem- 
ory, because of Buddhist nuns, frog medicine. Chris- 
tian missionaries, and legends, for which four it is 
noted. The Chinese speak of it as "9 by 8" for this 
reason, which is after the approved oriental fashion — 
north and south the dimension is 4^ It, and east and 
west 1% li. The "9" signifies the combined measure- 
ments of the north and south walls, and the "8" the 
length of the two east and west walls. Although "9 by 
8" has a reputation for opium (whose acreage we are 
glad to say is being restricted) , stirrups and scissors, yet 
the nuns and frog medicine stand out as distinctly in 
the memory as the ant hills on the landscape of 
Yakusu-on-the-Congo. 

The Great Wall, when approaching Liangchowfu, 
takes a turn to the north and west, for which eccentric- 
ity is abundant legendary explanation. The line of the 
Barrier is crooked and the ruins lack picturesqueness, 
but what is lost to the eye is made up to the ear. The 
legends are many. We are now in the second city of 
importance along the Great Wall, counting from east 

354 



Right makes one bold, 

to west, which is the course of this exploration. Liang- 
chowfu boasts seventeen modern schools, and one hun- 
dred old style; several tens of temples, and an intel- 
ligent magistrate, who told us, "We do not worship 
idols. We worship Confucius as you do Jesus." That 
is likely true of the educated, who are already ashamed 
of the senseless images, but the common people regard 
with superstitious awe the old mud gods of hideous 
aspect. Men of clear mental vision see the handwriting 
on the wall; idolatry is doomed I 

Crafty arts and active ^aves are among the curi- 
osities of this important business center. Seven mon- 
asteries, eight large temples, and seven active graves^ 
constitute the sights of the city. The Eight Wonders 
of Liangchowfu include a suspended sword which 
points toward a pass in the South Mountains, whence 
issue waters from the melting snow. As long as the 
sword points in that direction, those waters cannot enter 
and submerge the metropolis! 

Liangchowfu has "patent" remedies in variety and 
quantity. It also has one hundred and ten doctors who 
practise on the twenty thousand families who live inside 
the strong walls. The physicians treat disease according 
to the medicine book which was written long ago by a 
medicine man who became the medicine god after his 
death. He is worshiped on his birthday, the nineteenth 
sun, fourth moon. The doctors report many "cures of 
the sickness." They cure the sickness and not the pa- 
tient. The Chinese are ignorant of surgery, hence we 
have seen but two one-armed men in all our travels and 



256 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

those lost the member by foreign surgery. When an 
arm goes wrong they bury the whole man. Speaking of 
surgery, reminds us of barbers. Of these there are 
two hundred, who pay their devotions to a god of their 
own, a distinguished alchemist who in 1700 attained 
immortality at the age of fifty. The tonsorial artists 
are prosperous and popular, and are organized in a 
guild, but they occupy a low social position. Indeed, 
so degraded are they socially, that only after several 
generations may they hope to obtain public office. The 
Chinese barber carries a pole as he goes about serving 
his clients. Not unlikely the modem barber's pole 
originated in China. 

When we suggested to the good missionary. Belcher, 
a visit to the nuns, he was evidently surprised at our 
audacity. Insistency won. The residence of the nuns 
adjoins a frog pond. Beside this miasmatic incubator 
stood a young native who showed us to the door of the 
sacred sisterhood. After rapping and receiving no re- 
ply, we ventured to give the door a gentle push. When 
it yielded we entered. The superior nun thereupon 
became visible. We explained that we were on an ex- 
ploring expedition and accustomed ourselves to first- 
hand information. We further specified that, having 
heard things good and not good concerning the holy 
order, we had come to the source of information and 
begged to be shown through, and to be told about the 
aims and ambitions of the society. This speech modified 
her facial expression and she proceeded to show us about 
the place. She represented the two thousand nuns of 
Liangchowf u. She also represents the nuns of China. 



«^:f«ii[*i»« 257 

Bringing up a aon without teaching is just like 
bringing up a mule. 

The number she did not know. In 845 a.d. there were 
nearly forty-five thousand temples and monasteries 
destroyed and forty-two thousand monks, nuns and 
minors thrown out of employment, or rather into em- 
ployment. She became pleasant, but a certain pro- 
nounced reticence continuing, we apportioned to her 
some of our supply of silver, whereupon like magic 
the doors flew open and we had the run of the nun- 
nery 1 . From that moment there was volubility. Par- 
ticularly now, when all China rubs its eyes, yawns, 
and prepares to awake out of a sleep of centuries, 
it is of interest to know just how much house cleaning 
will be necessary before the supreme change can come. 
Religion is all-important. Hence we took time to see 
and hear at this mmnery, center and adjunct of 
Buddhism, the religion largely responsible for China's 
backward state. 

The favorite temple of the nuns is kept locked to 
prevent a competing body of nuns worshiping there. 
A quarrel taking place, certain females moved upstairs 
and started a goddery of their own. The first-floor 
deities consisted of two goddesses with a god between. 
The felt prayer dial was located in front of the male 
deity, the sisters evidently having more confidence in 
one of the stronger sex. They worship twice a day. 
"We have no clock. When the spirit of worship is 
on us we come." So said nun number one. She told 
us the nuns perform no works of mercy. "We do not 
nurse the sick, care for the insane, or conduct a school 
for girls. We only pray, bum incense and beg." The 

17 




258 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

oculist goddess was hung about the neck with painted 
eyes, "She likes to have people whose eyes she has 
healed bring eyes of their color and hang them on her 
neck." On the fifteenth sun of the eleventh moon they 
offer sacrifices. 

Nun number one bade us enter the Ten Princes of 
Hell Temple. We asked, "What advantage to worship 
the ten princes of hell?" She laughed, "Everybody 
does it and we do it. Don*t know any good that comes 
from it." She explained that the cow-faced and horse- 
faced figures bmn incense in the bottomless pit to 
the ten princes of hell. The ten princesses next 
obtained our attention. These are sometimes called 
Heavenly Holy Mothers! Here were many stolen idols 
indicating that vows for sons were answered. When 
children have measles their cure is effected by carry- 
ing them through a dark passage behind tiie idols. 
This is known as the "tube for curing measles." Al- 
though not so qualified we decided to take the journey 
through the tube. It was enough to give a body some 
sort of sickness. In that abode of darkness we noticed 
twelve arches under which we had to stoop to pass. 
These represented twelve children cured by the jour- 
ney. At each end of the tube is a god named "The 
Controller of Measles." . . . 

About two thousand short-haired nuns live in "9 
by 8." The stock of nuns is replenished in divers 
ways. The wife of a mandarin recently ran away and 
joined the sisterhood because her husband had taken 
on an additional wife; he came and took her home. 
In competition with these two thousand nuns, ignorant 



-mz^-^^mm 259 

A single spark con bum a whole prairie. 

and unclean, are two Christian ladies, who are doing 
a satisfactory work for the women and girls of the 
city. The girls of China have need of higher truth 
than nature has gifted them with. A new day dawns 
in the minds of the women on the Hills of T*ang. 
That the new desires are separate, disordered, and il- 
logical is nothing strange. The conception of deity 
which has for centuries held in bondage the females 
of China has been a physical rather than a spiritual idea. 
What a distance of difference between the two thou- 
sand nuns, individually and collectively, and the two 
cultured Christian English ladies I When the whole 
environment is considered, the success the English 
ladies have attained is little short of the miraculous I 
Outside the city the Roman Catholic mission with a 
resident bishop is working hard, and a good measure of 
success attends their efforts to bring the Chinese into 
the church. 

Among the many legends, historical and otherwise, 
abounding in this region, we have selected one that 
tells of the finding of a large quantity of gold in the 
Great Wall. It would be possible to write it into bet- 
ter English and indeed a recast of the plot might 
better please the reader, but our aim is to display as 
much of the idiom of the native as possible, and at 
the same time carry the sense to the mind of the 
foreigner, simply omitting tedious tautology. 

"When the Mings were kings the village of Hong 
Water lay a few U from Liangchow with the Great 
Wall on one side and the quicksands of the Red River 




260 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

on the other. Indeed the whole region was unsafe. 
One thousand families occupied caves and caverns in 
the ample sides of the Great Barrier. This appro- 
priated fifty U of the Rampart. Among these cave- 
dwellers was a sturdy, well-meaning man named Wang, 
who had a sister Kin, and a widowed mother. The 
mother, a woman of lofty motives, steadily refused to 
marry again. She devoted her whole time and thought 
to her son. She had a brother who was worthless, be- 
ing a drinking man. He was a gambler and squan- 
dered much of his nephew's estate. He it was who 
urged his sister to marry, hoping thereby to obtain 
money to continue the evil habit of gambling. She de- 
clined. Her husband had left her one hundred acres of 
land, oxen and carts, and a faithful servant. Ma Er 
Ma. Ma Er Ma engaged suitable servants for the house 
and also men to watch the sheep and cattle and perform 
agricultural duties. Ma Er Ma was a success; every- 
thing he touched prospered, and eight years passed like 
a weaver's shuttle. 

"Constantly schemes were applied to persuade by 
craft or argument the widow to marry. It was hinted 
that Ma Er Ma was too polite to the widow. He retired 
to his own farm, just what the enemies of the woman 
wished. From that time the farm began to fail, and the 
poor widow's poverty was consummated by the wild 
Tibetans, who swept over the border on a foraging 
expedition and stole everything she had left. 

"The Mings had ordered that the soldiers guarding 
the Great Wall should also do farming, but the Tibetan 
attacks becoming frequent the land was neglected, and 



A good bearer is better tban a good speaker. 

the whole strength of the garrisons kept on duty. Now 
it fell to the lot of the son of the widow to be stationed 
on the fort Tsh Tsen, on the Wall. The wicked uncle 
and another worthless fellow were detailed with him 
to hold the northeast comer. When the Tibetans 
charged the fortifications the two threw the son into 
their midst, hoping thus to get rid of the hindrance to 
their diabolical plans. But High Heaven was watchful. 
Instead of being killed he fell into an old well, but the 
two conspirators were cut to pieces by the wild horse- 
men, who dismounted and carried the fort by storm. 
A large Tibetan seized the two women, threw them 
across his horse, and was riding off when the animal 
stumbled and threw the living load into the dark bush. 
The warrior, not seeing them, concluded they were 
killed and rode off. The two women recovering from 
the stun of the fall found themselves in a well, empty 
save that one other person was in there. What joy 
when they discovered the whole family safe and to- 
gether! 

"Hearing loyal troops passing they cried aloud; the 
three were rescued and returned to their place only to 
see the smoke-seared ruins. They sought a cave in the 
Great Wall and settled down to live by gathering roots 
and desert cabbage, desert onions, and cereals resem- 
bling bird's eyes, good for flour. 

"In a few days sufficient had been garnered to last the 
winter through. To store this valuable harvest it was 
necessary to dig a cave in the Great Wall. They 
worked long and hard, until striking some substance 



262 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

a resonant sound reached their ears and gave them 
pause; it was wooden, and thinking it a coffin the son 
ceased his work, but the mother dug on until it was 
plainly a door. On it was an inscription. Treasure 
had been hid there long before. It was a cavern of 
gold! The dutiful son reported the matter to the high 
magistrate, who in turn notified the viceroy, who in- 
formed the Son of Heaven. The emperor was de- 
lighted, not because of the find of treasure, but because 
Wang was a dutiful son and loyal subject. The throne 
ordered Wang a general, the mother a peeress, the 
daughter, wife of a great man, and an edict directed 
the erection of a temple to Goodness and Virtue, where- 
on was inscribed the widow's name with great honor. 
The descendants of Wang Euang are innumerable!" 
Thus endeth the tale of gold in the Great Wall, 
quite possibly founded on fact. We have seen many 
caves in the structure which are now being used as 
residences. Of these the Chinese say: "Those who live 
in earthen dugouts have three things which cannot hap- 
pen; in the summer they cannot be hot, in the winter 
they cannot be cold, and when the cave falls in they 
cannot be found." We have hesitated to mention the 
products of the fields about Liangchowfu, and the 
various articles of merchandise from foreign countries 
ofi^ered in the public streets, because others have trav- 
eled this way, and have given considerable space cata- 
loguing the commercial articles and fabrics of "9 by 
8." There are, however, three brought from beyond 
the Wall, — sableskins, ginseng, and Wula grasses, — ^the 
drug roots. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

Tung Lo, Who ''Moved the Urns of Empire"^ 

When Yung Lo, the great Ming, ascended the "Di- 
vine Utensil," ancient throne of the Chins, with a saga- 
city worthy of the Greatest Huang Ti he arbitrarily 
decreed the shifting of the center of empire from the 
comfortable south to the windy north. Kublai Khan 
had built his capital, Kambaluc, inside the Great Wall, 
that, if necessary, he might promptly defend that struc- 
ture from its friends. Yung Lo constructed Peking 
hard by the Mongol site to facilitate his personal de- 
fense of the Great Wall from its ancient foes. We 
may safely assert that the modem capital of this vast 
empire is now in the north because the Great Wall 
dictated a policy necessitating the permanent presence 
there of the sovereign. To alter the center of empire, 
or, as the Chinese would say, "move the urns of empire," 
is only less important than to interfere with the original 
distribution of the races of men. 

After the dynasty that founded the Great Wall, 
that whose history is most closely associated with the 
enormous structure, is the dynasty of Ming, some fif- 
teen centuries later. Of its sixteen emperors, those 
who had most to do with the mighty defense were 
Yung Lo, Ch^eng Hua, Lung Ch*ing and Wan Li.* 

^ These are only their niei^hao or ''year-titles.*' Their dynastic titles 
are» respectively, Ch*6ng Tsu, Hsien Tsung, Mu Tsnng and Stitu Tsung. 

90S 



264 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Here we speak of the first, the creator of Peking, the 
first Chinese to rule the empire thence. 

The Mongol Tartars under Genghis Khan had bro- 
ken through the Wall and placed their yoke on the 
Chinese — first foreigners so to subdue the proud race, 
Kublai Khan had organized his empire, and left his 
mark in two vast structures: the Great Canal, and the 
capital of Khan baligh, Kambaluc, whence he ruled 
as far as Moscow and the Levant Of the capital, 
Longfellow has told how 

Into the city of Kambulu 
By the road that leadeth to Ispahan, . 
At the head of his dusty caravan, 
Laden with treasure from realms afar, 
Baldacca and Kelat and Kandahar, 
Rode the great captain Alau. 

But this capital was superseded by Yung Lo and 
his father, as will presently appear. 

The excavation of the Grand Canal may be compared 
with the Great Wall in magnitude. Under the Mon- 
gols the Wall had ceased to be useful. They were 
constantly at war with the Japanese. An attempt to 
conquer the Islands of the Rising Sun had turned out 
a disastrous failure. Their Armada had been shattered 
by a storm, their naval forces drowned or slain by the 
enemy, and the whole seaboard was left exposed to the 
raids of men who were fighting on their native element. 
For these the nomads of the north were no match. 

The powers at Xandu felt the necessity for inland 
transportation for the tribute of South China which was 







s 



§ 

i 

.8 



c 



E 



c/2 



* 13 
o ^ 



' ^ 



E 



|f|i|Iti!lf:f^fl^H0B# 265 

When the mantis catches the cicada he does not 
know that the oriole is jnst behind. 

paid in the produce of its fertile fields. Already were 
those fields covered with a network of canals whose prin- 
cipal use was the irrigation of crops. For local trans- 
port these channels were universally employed. Why 
not connect them together by cutting through the hills 
or ridges by which the different river systems were 
separated? The idea had everything to recommend it. 
It offered not merely a safe route for supplies, but 
additional facilities for the movement of troops. 

It was at once an economic and military necessity — 
destined to link north and south together as a unit, as 
never before, by the bonds of mutual advantage. From 
the Dragon Throne went forth the fiat, "Let a canal be 
built to connect the northern capital with Nanking, 
Hangchow and Canton." 

It was to be one thousand six hundred miles in length, 
almost exactly as long as the Great Wall, measured by 
longitude, but I dare not assert that the hydraulic en- 
gineers charged with its construction ever thought of 
taking the Wall as standard of measurement. 

Passing through great provinces, the gems of the 
empire, it was to reach almost to the borders of Tonquin. 
By means of the Hwang ho, the Yangtze Kiang and 
the West River, all coming from the west, it was to 
afford access by water to the whole of the other 
provinces. What more magnificent scheme could 
spring in the brain of a mighty potentate? What more 
beneficent enterprise could he undertake for the good 
of a great people? Unhappily the ruler undertook to 
build the Grand Canal much as Chin built the Wall or 




LL OF CHINA 



as the Pharaohs buUt the pyramids, by the forced labor 
of his subjects. The people who in the end were in- 
tended to be greatest gainers, unable to endure the 
miseries of an unpaid, ill-fed corvSe, would gladly 
have fled their country like the Hebrews of old, had it 
been possible to do so. Debarred from that recourse, 
they hailed the standard of revolt, resolved to die as 
soldiers rather than perish as ignominious navvies. The 
Grand Canal was thus the ruin of one generation and 
the salvation of thousands, more truly than the Great 
Wall, of which that is so often asserted. Like the latter 
it proved the destruction of the tyrannical power which 
had undertaken to carry it through by unwise and in- 
human methods. For the scepter of Kublai fell into 
weak hands, and the Chinese lost the sole advantage 
they had received from foreign rule. 

Revolts occurred in many places, and at last a Bud- 
dhist priest named Hung Wu* commanded enough con- 
fidence to be accepted as a national leader. From a 
robber chief he developed into an emancipator, protect- 
ing the people from robbery and extortion. Then, 
secured by general good-will, he marched boldly on 
Kambaluc to destroy the waning prestige of the Mon- 
gol emperors. The craven tyrant abandoned his palace 
and fled beyond the Wall, which once again regained 
importance as a boundary between China and the hated 
barbarians. 

Vengeance was wreaked on the foreign city which 
had enthralled the realm — ^like Alexandria holding 

^Chu Yttan-chang, who afterwards assumed the '^ear-title.** (Here of 
course the year-title cannot be used). Hung Wu is tlie year-title of the 
Emperor Tai Tsu. 



The ten fingers cannot be all one length. 

down Egypt. But when Kambaluc had f alien, it was 
still felt that the district had been wisely chosen, and 
that since the Great Wall had revived in importance as 
a barrier against the expelled Mongols, there should be 
a strong Chinese center not far from it, to serve as a 
fortress and base of supplies for the defenders. And 
so about nine U south of the ruined site of Kambaluc 
there arose a first-class city which has been famous ever 
since as Peking. 

Here the conqueror left his second son, Chu Ti, with 
the title of Yen Wang (i.e.. Prince of Yen), a revival 
of an old style in the local kingdom before the days of 
Chin. Chu Ti had the special duty of guarding the 
frontier against the late Mongol tyrants, while Hung 
Wu returned to his native district in the Yangtze 
basin, and chose the city of Nanking, which had al- 
ready been a capital more than once, as the seat of his 
restored Chinese Empire, now to be reorganized after 
the long foreign tyranny. 

Chu Ti from his vantage in the north would quickly 
recognize the importance of the old Great Wall, and 
could not but avail himself of its strength to exclude 
the foe who had trespassed over its boundary. But he 
had not long exercised his functions as viceroy, and 
strengthened his defenses, ere a swift courier brought 
the tidings that the mighty conqueror, his father, had 
yielded to a Mightier than he. 

For his father he grieved no doubt sincerely, but to 
his proud spirit it was gall and wormwood to be called 
on to bend the knee and knock the head before an infant 



268 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

son of his elder brother. To his brother he might have 
rendered willing fealty; but the brother was dead, 
and he persuaded himself that his own merits had been 
cruelly ignored, while the throne which he had aided to 
establish was put in jeopardy by leaving the scepter in 
the feeble grasp of a child. 

Disguising his intentions under the cloak of homage 
he repaired to Nanking with an immense retinue, throw- 
ing the court off its guard by a show of loyalty. Se- 
cretly abetted by many of the grandees as well as by 
his own soldiers, he succeeded in getting possession of 
the palace, which he set on fire, and the hapless boy 
perished in the flames. 

Not even then did he throw off the mask, but finding 
a charred corpse which he asserted to be that of the 
unfortunate Chien Wen, he gave it a sumptuous funeral 
and immediately "Ascended the Summit,'* proclaiming 
himself Emperor of China under the title of Ch^eng 
Tsu, with the year-title Yung Lo, which expressed a 
hope of a "long and joyous reign."^ 

The reign was signalized by great monuments, such 

* There is considerable doubt about the fate of Chien Wfin. When Chu 
Yttn-wen (Chien W^n) succeeded to the throne in 1398, he at once took 
measures to deprive of power his uncles, who were princes of various parts 
of the empire. But Ti, prince of Yen, who ruled modern Chihli, rebelled 
in 1399, marched southwards, and in spite of several earlier reverses in 
Shantung crossed the Yangtze in 1402 and entered Nanking in triumph. 
The young emperor disappeared in the confusion which followed upon the 
entry of the troops into his palace and was never seen again. It Is sup- 
posed that he fled to Yunnan in the garb of a monk, left to him, so the 
story runs, with full directions by his grandfather. After nearly forty 
years' wandering, he is said to have gone to Peking and lived in secludon 
in the palace until his death. He was recognized by an eunuch from a mole 
on his left foot, but the eunuch was afraid to reveal his identity. 

(See Giles* Chine9e Biographical Dictionary,) 



Murder may be condoned, but discourtesy never. 

as the city of Peking, which he now proceeded to en- 
large till it became beyond compare the most formidable 
fortress China knew. The massive walls, sixteen miles 
in circuit, remain after these centuries, fit memorials 
of a mighty monarch. An inner line of fortification 
inclosed a triple hill now known as Kingshan, a finer 
ornament for a city than Rome possessed in her far- 
famed Mons Capitolinus. 

And then Yung Lo determined on the striking pol- 
icy of making his new fortress into the capital of the 
whole realm. It is a dangerous experiment to "move 
the urns of empire," as his father had done, away 
from the Kambaluc district. Turin, Milan and Flor- 
ence have grudged their reduction to mere provincial 
towns, even though sentiment spoke for Rome. There 
was no modem sentiment yet engendered for Nanking; 
it lay a waste, as it still is. But also there was none at 
all for Peking, a new creation. His proceedings can 
only be compared with Constantine, who was com- 
pletely remodeling the old empire, consolidating under 
one head, and strengthening with the sanctions of a 
new religion. Constantine felt that the old capital 
was permeated with traditions which he intended to 
break with, so he built a new city in the Christian 
provinces and made that the new capital. There were 
other motives too; the external enemy to Constantine 
lay in the east, and he felt it wise to have his center 
nearer to the dangerous frontier, at an impregnable site. 

Yung Lo was breaking with the tradition of the 
Mongols, and with their religion — they were leaning 



270 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

to Christianity — and he wished to be in person near 
the frontier over which they had fled. So it was ex- 
pressly proclaimed in 1408 that the main forces, under 
the direct conmiand of His Majesty, were to be can- 
toned near the northern boundary in order to repel 
possible invasion; Peking therefore would become the 
capital, and Nanking would revert to its previous im- 
portance OS the mere seat of a provincial governor. 

If this is the chief monument to Yung Lo, yet his 
sepulcher also claims admiration. It is the most mag- 
nificent of the thirteen tombs of the Mings. His tumu- 
lus is like a pyramid for height; its wall incloses an 
amphitheater so vast that its grove of funereal pines 
presents the appearance of a forest. Its weather- 
beaten halls are supported on huge pillars of Siamese 
teak wood which seem to defy the tooth of time, and to 
suggest a doubt whether columns of marble would be 
equally adapted to sustain the seismic convulsions 
which are frequent in this region. There are bridges 
of granite and tablets of marble whose carved wreaths, 
I blush to say, are frequently defaced by occidental 
tourists who, like the Greek fool in our school books, 
desired to carry away a piece of stone as a specimen of 
the house. 

Beside these tangible repositories of Yung Lo's sa- 
cred dust there are two monuments which do him great 
honor, the Grand Encyclopedia, and a Collection of 
Laws. As for "the Grand^Encyclopedia — ^the Yung 
Lo Ta Tien — ^it is — or, alas I was — the greatest literary 
marvel in the history of the world," says the brilliant 
orientalist, Mr. Lionel Giles, M.A. (of the British 



)ll«2|CilllJ|J^lrg@ 271 

Generals and ministen are not ready-bom but self 
made. 

Museum). "I say this without the least fear of con- 
tradiction. Here are a few authentic figures. For a 
fuller account I must refer you to my father's article 
on the subject in the Nineteenth Century, April, 1901 
(vol. 49, pp. 659). This gigantic collection of litera- 
ture on every conceivable subject was originally pro- 
duced (in MS.) at Nanking in 1408 a.d.^ by an 
imperial commission consisting of five chief directors, 
twenty sub-directors and no fewer than 2,169 subordi- 
nates. It comprised 22,877 separate parts and an in- 
dex of 60 parts in 11,100 bound volumes, each half an 
inch thick, 1 foot 8 inches long and 1 foot broad. Laid 
flat one on top of another, the volmnes would make a 
column over 460 feet in height, or considerably higher 
than St. PauFs Cathedral. There were, roughly, 917,- 
480 pages in the whole work. Each page contains 16 
colmnns averaging 25 characters to each, or a total of 
866,992,000 characters. In 1421, the encyclopedia was 
transferred to Peking. The work of printing was 
found to be too costly, but in 1567 two complete copies 
were made, and the original, together with one of the 
copies, sent back to Nanking, where they perished by 
fire in 1644, at the downfall of the Ming dynasty. The 
other copy was housed in the Hanlin College at Pe- 
king, where it was destroyed by the Boxers in 1900. A 
few odd volumes were saved by foreigners. One of 
these was sent home and presented to the British Mu- 
seum by my brother, and two others have recently been 
acquired by the same institution. They are in an 
excellent state of preservation." 



272 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

In the records of his reign there are constant ref- 
erences to the guard posts on the line of the Great 
Wall. He repaired its breaches and it is highly prob- 
able that many of the Martello, or spy towers, still to 
be seen were constructed by the Emperor Yung Lo. 



CHAPTER XIX 

The Southern Loop of the Great Wall 

^^The tongue is soft and constantly remains in; 
The teeth are hard, and fall out/' 

— Lanchow Proverb. 

The highest altitude reached by the Great Wall is 
on a pass between Liangchow and Lanchow, where 
ten thousand feet^ above the tide runs the line of the 
Barrier. This southern loop along which we are now 
traveling is a deep festoon attached to the main line 
of the Great Barrier at Chungwei and Liangchow. 
The whole fabric is in ruins, considerable, and grass 
covered. 

The generation living in the day of Chin the First 
is called in history "The Generation of War," because 
fighting was constantly proceeding. When Chin as- 
sumed the imperial title, the employment of cavalry 
instead of war chariots greatly enlarged the scope of 
active operations. Chariots limited battles to flat and 
unobstructed stretches, but with cavalry fewer places 
were free from attack. Thus the difficulty of guard- 
ing the country having increased, it was suggested that 
walls be erected or connected to facilitate the movement 
of troops and to prevent surprise, as well as for the 
purpose of marking clearly the northern boundary of 
the empire. 

^In round numbers. 
18 273 



274 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

It is a question how much of the present work is 
due to Chin. Emerson reminds us "that whenever we 
find a man higher by a whole head than any of his 
contemporaries, it is sure to come into doubt what are 
his real works." There were walls to three feudal states 
before his day, which he linked up and covered the 
ground from Minchow to the Gulf of Liaotung. And 
the many foundations traceable point to the conclu- 
sion that every pure Chinese dynasty has had a wall of 
its own against the northern foes. What we are on here 
is certainly not of earlier date than the Great Wall of 
the Mings, which follows more or less the lines traced 
by Chin. 

Between the two Chows, Liangchow and Lanchow, 
there is little worthy of attention, unless the traveler 
is seeking copper, or other valuable minerals, which 
abound in this rough region. Otherwise, aside from the 
superb scenery, there remain in the mind prominently 
but three objects of a special interest, the lofty pass, 
Wushi Ling, the medical meteor, and the Big Bar- 
rier, about all of which cling ancient traditions. As to 
the lofty pass, a temple occupies a strategic spot be- 
side the Great Boundary. Gods guard the Great Wall 
at its highest elevation above the sea. Although our 
visit was early in the eighth moon the winds were already 
cold. The old priest informed us that formerly the 
winds were still colder. That was a few years ago, 
when five ice dragons lived in tlie Nanshan cathedral 
spires, and breathed their frigid breath on the passers- 
by. It was a male fairy that reduced the niunber to 
two. Surely an original character in mythology 1 In 



l5*T>PrBI'lfc . 275 

Rotten wood cannot be carved. 

the temple on the altar are jars containing bamboo 
sticks, on which are cut Chinese characters. Their use 
is twofold — ^to gather money and to fool the people. 
Drop ten cash in the box, pray to the mud image, pull 
out a stick. We did not cast cash into the box, we of- 
fered no petition to the hideous mud figure, but we did 
purchase of the keeper four of the magic pieces of 
wood. On two were the words "Outside the skin,'* and 
on two, "If the baby has trouble consult No. 25 and Na 
21." Not having any baby we did not stop to examine 
the book to find what ailed it. 

But the Wushi Ling deserves notice in addition to 
its holding the Great Wall up toward the stars. It is 
the watershed that separates the drainage areas of the 
Hei Ho and the Yellow River. 

Black Dog evolved the following wise sajdng while 
shivering in the breath of the ice dragons: "When it 
is cold every person feels his own cold; but when it 
is hot the great family is hot." Plainly spoken the 
statement intended by Black Dog would read, when the 
weather is cold some have on warm clothing and feel 
it not, but when the atmosphere is hot the rich and poor 
are equal. 

We were proceeding along the great northwest road 
which reaches from Lan to Kashgar. Two other im- 
portant roads enter Lanchow, one from Ninghia, the 
other from Sining and the Koko Nor. The population 
from Liangchow had been sparse, but as we approached 
the capital it was denser. But the country would be 
better for pastoralists than for agriculturalists like the 



276 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Chinese. At last we came upon the white meteor, 
which in reality is a large white boulder, say fifteen feet 
in diameter, and imlike other stones or rocks above 
ground. The surface is worn smooth by people rubbing 
against it. A man was taking off chips, and we asked 
him questions, to which he replied, "It is a god-stone. 
This stone came from Kanchow, not flying, but by 
stages, traveling only at night. It is very precious. 
These chips will cure dyspepsia." We asked the rustic 
worshiper of the white stone if it cured dyspepsia by 
falling on the patient. "Grind up the chip and swal- 
low it with hot water." We did not do it. This so- 
called meteor when approached from the southeast 
strongly resembles a white elephant. The Great Wall 
following the crest of the hills comes down to Kulang 
and then returns to the summits for thirty U until well 
past this white elephant. Superstition played a big 
part when the Great Wall was built and not unlikely 
this magic boulder sent the masonry on detour. 

High above the white elephant, perched in an almost 
inaccessible cleft of the rocks, is a temple to twelve 
widows. One of Chin's great generals was in the 
region to repel an attack by the Tibetans through a 
near-by pass, and was about to be captured by the enemy 
when a dozen widows came to his rescue and led him 
away. Even they lost their direction till an antelope 
arriving on the scene offered to be their guide. The 
dozen widows, after this was all over, went and died, 
and the temple commemorates their efforts to get a 
man. 

On arrival in Lanchow, one of the important cities 




I 






=3 

X 

I 



c 
^ .S 



m^^^M^m^'f' 277 

Like fiather like son. 

of the "Empire of the Center," our caravan was ex- 
tended a cordial greeting by Messrs, Andrew and 
Preedy and their households of the English mission. 
And here we met once again, after six years, Detective 
Moore, a man of genius who possesses a real scent for 
criminals and who had before him a still more brilliant 
career than his past, although it was his skill and integ- 
rity that caught the arch criminals of Shanghai and un- 
earthed and abolished one of the most successful and 
dangerous gangs of robbers in the whole history of the 
coast of China. Moore has left his fine career and 
good pay to become a missionary at a salary far less 
than he was receiving, and infinitely less than he would 
by this time have had at his command. This fearless, 
heroic son of Anak will do vigorous work as a propa- 
gandist and will have at least one great advantage of 
not being fooled by the oriental duplicity which sur- 
rounds every missionary worker in the Far East. An 
honest and exceptionally brilliant detective like Moore 
might have served his generation and his Master in 
that capacity. And yet, who can name the future? 
Clough, the gifted engineer, resigned his profession for 
missionary work in India, and when a famine came sug- 
gested its arrest. His canal scheme was adopted by 
the government, and saved thousands of lives. Clough's 
friends called him a fool for quitting engineering for 
heathen-converting efi^orts, but the last proved the first. 
The decision to follow conscience was right. 

But the great detective was not the only old friend 
met here, for John Gwadey, as lively as ever, turned 



278 THE GREAT WALL OF CfflNA 

up with a dog and a tale. The latter was a story of a 
grave in the Great Wall. "Sixty U toward sunrise is 
the Pointing shan, where Shu Fan Wang and his an- 
cestors of many generations lie buried in lucky spots. 
The old men say that in the reign of Tao Kuang» of 
this present dynasty, no rain fell in all this region, 
and because of the failure of the wheat and vegetable 
harvests people were starving. Clods of earth turned 
into rats, men ate men, and parents exchanged their 
children and ate them. 

"In the seventh moon, man and wife, living in the 
P^ingting Mountains, were busy, in their native village, 
catching rats for food. While thus engaged a large 
snake appeared. Li, the husband, seized a shovel and 
made after the tasty morsel, but it escaped into a hole. 
When the sun was nearly even with the west, wearied 
by the labors of the day, they rested before starting 
new work. Bemoaning the escape of the snake, they 
were overjoyed to see its head show up in the scorched 
grass. With fresh vigor the two dug hard and fast 
to unearth the reptile, but after digging down six feet, 
a stone door confronted them. It was night, and they 
rested. 

"Early in the morning, with the assistance of neigh- 
bors, and after further excavations, the mysterious door 
was wrenched open; it disclosed a long arched passage 
along which the party passed cautiously. After five 
hundred paces they were stopped by another and a 
stronger stone door, on the lintel and door posts of 
which were inscriptions, saying that it opened into the 
grave of Fan Ching Wang. Having forced an en- 



'^ik^tkmi^ 279 

An opprcflsive government is wane than a fierce tiger. 

trance they found themselves in a connected cave a U 
long. When once well in this gallery a dread fell on the 
party, their bodies became cold and a hasty retreat to 
open air resulted. On deliberation they decided to 
take lamps and reenter. 

"After proceeding over a mile underground through 
a carefully cut tunnel, a well was reached; down this 
the party descended to the bottom by stone stairs and 
entered another uncanny tunnel, which they followed 
for two miles, till a third stone door impeded farther 
progress. On either side of the portal were ancient 
characters. This door also was forced and admitted the 
workmen into a cave excavated in the solid rock, meas- 
uring ten feet wide, seven feet high and extending for 
more than fifty tens of feet. This was a palace consist- 
ing of five rooms, without doors or windows. In the 
midst stood a table of solid gold on which were costly 
articles of design. Behind the table stood a bedstead 
built of precious stones, and on either side of the golden 
table were three cofiins. 

"Afraid to molest the caskets of the dead, the party 
entered still another cavern to the left of the golden 
table, wherein stood two iron carts curiously engraved. 
These also they left as the roadway would hardly let 
them out. But on the other side a door led into another 
cavern which contained a trough of gold and silver 
ingots. With a triumphant shout of joy that sounded 
strange in that erstwhile silent chamber of the dead, 
each greedily helped himself to the treasure that glit- 
tered in the light of their torches. 



280 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

"When the superior magistrate learned of the find 
he weighed the precious metal that was left, and re- 
ported two hundred thousand ounces of gold, a great 
amount of silver, and bushels of precious stones. All 
of this by order of the emperor was distributed in grain 
to the starving multitudes." 

Gwadey paused of ter this tale, meditated, and instead 
of a mere hope that such wonders would recur, deliv- 
ered himself of the surprising opinion: "The snake 
led the way, but was not Heaven directing it? Strange, 
strange, this grave connected with a stone gallery that 
opened into the Great Wall." Poor old John Gwadey 
held firmly to the belief in a kind Providence. In his 
darkened mind was this ray of light. May other rays 
soon penetrate there. The closing words of "Helen" 
spring to mind: 

The gods perform what least we could expect, 
And oft the things for which we fondly hoped 
Come not to pass; but Heaven still finds a clue 
To guide our steps through life's perplexing maze. 
And thus does this important business end. 

Fifteen thousand families reside in lofty Lanchow, 
the capital of Kansu, which has a varying elevation 
of four thousand to twenty thousand feet. An excep- 
tionally large shifting population furnishes a difficulty 
for the missionaries who are laboring zealously. Fort 
Ticonderoga was taken because the assailants directed 
many impacts at the same spot and addressed their iron 
to a limited circle, but with men here to-day and away 
to-morrow the perpetual hammering on one conscience 



One does not lose by asking his way. 

which is advisable, cannot obtain. Nevertheless the 
Christianizing of the Chinese proceeds without 
abatement. 

Here the ancient and modem are mixed, the supersti- 
tions of the past and the progress of the present. We 
felt inclined to take a census of the public idols of the 
city, and to that end employed an educated and reliable 
gentleman, who, after weeks of work, furnished these 
interesting figures: Temples and ancestral halls number 
one hundred and seventy-four, idol shrines ninety-three, 
and public idols two thousand four hundred and twenty. 
Out of ten parts of land six parts are given to raising 
tobacco 1 There are twenty- four government schools 
and a real effort is making to modernize the education. 
Along the forty-two streets are found letter-boxes, a 
new dozen just going up as we passed by, and four 
banks do the exchange business of the city. Two thou- 
sand four hundred and twenty public idols! There is 
also a sacred tree worthy of mention, over eight hundred 
years old, and associated with Genghis Khan. It is on 
the Tsangmen Kwan and has a god living inside it. 
Beside the tree is an altar, on which incense is constantly 
burning. The old man opened a secret door and showed 
the heart of the tree; in the hollow was a vile-smelling 
liquid. "This is the life juice or essence of the tree; 
this tree will cure any kind of a disease." All you have 
to do is to go there, bum incense, knock your head on 
the ground, drink some of the tree juice, pay a few 
cashf and you are a new man. Smell the juice and the 
most incredulous will admit a kill or a cure. Pasted 



282 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

over the tree and for yards at the side are eight hundred 
red placards of silk and satin covered with characters, 
hung there by the cured. 

From the old tree we went along a main street to the 
new bridge, joining Golden Hill to Lanchow. The 
American engineer, Coltman,^ who is in charge of the 
three hundred Chinese, building a steel truss bridge 
across the Yellow River to take the place of the world- 
renowned bridge of boats, is doing an epoch-marking 
piece of work. He well knows how to use a padded 
crowbar when dealing with the Chinese. For instance, 
while putting down one of the steel pneumatic caissons, 
it got under the dragon's tail and that was the reason 
why a drought occurred. This superstition did not, 
however, impede the work, for the viceroy bade Colt- 
man and Dello proceed and he himself would undertake 
to look after the dragon^s tail. The bridge contract calls 
for one hundred and sixty-five thousand taels and the 
government will also transport the materials from the 
railroad to Lanchow. The machine shop is in the tem- 
ple of the river god, and the big city temple is used for 
storing the superstructure. At first it was suggested 
that a blacksmith's shop in the City Grod Temple showed 
irreverence to the spirits of the temple, but a diplomatic 
arrangement provided for the spirits and the work has 
proceeded with remarkable agility. 

Here the old and new are side by side. The old 
bridge is composed of twenty-four wooden boats lashed 
to piles by twelve straw cables six inches in diameter, 
and two iron chains fastened to iron posts. The bridge 

>Bofaert Coltman, Sid, B. A., C £. 



The stoat only bites the dck duck. 

of boats is sixty years old and must be removed in the 
winter and replaced in the spring. Dm'ing the winter 
the ice is crossed, but when a break-up occurs a danger- 
ous ferry is used. The piers of the new steel bridge go 
down to sandstone and the contract calls for the bridge 
to be kept there by the bridge company for a hundred 
years, unless the dragon destroys it, when the company 
shall not be held responsible! 

Here at Lanchow are two of the wonders of the land, 
the Yellow River and the Great Wall. The one is a 
marvel of nature — ^a river thousands of miles long, not 
fit for navigation, hardly for irrigation, always flooding 
the land, China's Sorrow. The other is a marvel of 
science — ^a Wall hundreds of miles long, not meant for 
decoration, hardly for renovation, always defending 
the land, China's Bulwark. Here they meet — ^the Wall 
at its most southerly point — and intersect one another. 
Half the river lies within, and half without the massive 
Rampart. For centuries the incompetence of engineers 
or the carelessness of the people or the corruption of 
contractors, has allowed the river to be a scourge to the 
land; for centuries the Wall has stood as a token that a 
far-seeing ruler can command competent engineers and 
faithful workers. When shall the skill that built the 
Wall be applied to control the river? Here at Lanchow 
the two compel a contrast; when shall the lesson from 
the one be applied to the other, that the river may de- 
velop as the Wall has protected? 



CHAPTER XX 

China before the Great Wall 

Here we stand at the southern point of intersection 
of the Great Wall and the Great River of the North. 

On one side stretch the plains of Mongolia, on the 
other the fertile fields of the laborious Chinese. We 
imagine ourselves transferred to the epoch of the Builder 
where we can look backward and forward. Looking 
backward with our eyes turned to the south we behold 
the rise of the Chinese Empire and the development of 
its culture. Twenty centuries in the past loom up 
before us and through their dim perspective we seem to 
perceive a growing multitude moving forward under 
four different banners. The first bears on its ample 
folds the name Republic; the second, the Theone; and 
the other two likewise have the Theone emblazoned as 
the chief object that strikes the vision, but each with in- 
signia of its own. What signifies the marvelous device 
of a Republic 1 Does it mean that the people have a 
share in their own government or what peculiar oriental 
signification can it possess? A voice comes out of the 
past and answers the question. It is that of the vener- 
able Yao, "I live for my people ; the state exists for their 
benefit." Such was the theory during the period of one 
hundred and sixty years over which extend the three 
reigns of Yao, Shun and Yii.* 

^Yao's rdgn lasted one hundred and two years, Shun's fifty, but Yfl's 
only eight. 

984 




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Kain and dew axe mercies, so are ice and frost. 

Yao was the father of his people. When he heard 
them singing and boasting of their independence be- 
cause they lived by their own labor he rejoiced to be 
forgotten! But so far from forgetting them, he early 
chose for his successor a man who would continue his 
policy; and set aside his own son, who was imbecile or 
worthless. He did not accept the new candidate with- 
out careful inquiry into his antecedents. "What has he 
to recommend him?" was the question addressed to his 
ministers. Their unanimous reply was, "This young 
man has had a hard experience in his own family, con- 
stantly persecuted by a cruel stepmother {tristis no- 
verca), a jealous brother, and a father not only blind 
of eye but still more blinded in his heart, who made 
himself an instrument of perpetual persecution. Yet 
Shun bore it all with unresisting patience. Often was 
he heard while at work in the fields to lift his voice in 
solemn appeal to Heaven, but never did he utter a miu*- 
mur in the hearing of father or mother. Gradually both 
parents and his brother, touched by his affection and 
dutiful forbearance, ceased from annojring him, and 
soon after stood up for him and eventually they all be- 
came united in one common bond of affection." 
"Glorious victory," exclaimed the old monarch. "If he 
can do that for all the families of my people he shall be 
my successor. But he has no wife and children him- 
self ; he has shown his qualities as a son and a brother, 
he has yet to be proved as a husband and a father. 
Here are my two daughters." To increase the severity 
of the trial he was given both of them at once. So the 



286 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

young man was taken, like Cincinnatus, from the plow^ 
as an apprentice to an emperor. Enough to say he 
stood the trial to the perfect satisfaction of the old 
monarch, and after an apprenticeship of twenty-eight 
years, he was adopted as the heir to the throne. 

A great flood occurred in the reign of Yao, B.C. 2297, 
unprecedented in the history of China. The YeUow 
River had become obstructed in its course. And the 
waters rose threatening over the plains, and in the lan- 
guage of the ancient book, "They climbed the sides of 
the mountains and seemed to threaten heaven itself.*' 
Who shall deal with these unruly streams? The answer 
was, "Here is Kuan, a man of skill and ability." Kuan 
made the trial without success, and he was set aside. 
Again the question came, "Who shall take his place and 
bear the biu*dens of so huge a task?" The ministers 
replied, "Who but his son, the energetic youth?" Yii's 
efforts proved more successful. He spent nine years 
in the great task, during which in his voyages from 
north to south, he three times passed his own door with- 
out entering. "That," said Shun, "is the man for me. 
My son has no such talents. The throne shall descend 
to the man who saved the people from the flood." 

Thus Yii became the successor in the monarchical 
Republic, and nobly did he exercise his high oflice. Al- 
ways holding himself accessible to his people, he sus- 
pended a bell at the door of his palace, or hut if you 
choose to call it so, and any one who wished to see him 
could obtain an instant interview. Whilst partaking 

^ Yet his father is said to have been a descendant of the Emperor Oman 
Hsit Shun is one of tlie twenty-four examples of filial piety. 



Old ginger is the most pangent 

of one meal, says the Chinese writer, he "would three 
times leave the table to answer the questions of his peo- 
ple, and sometimes rush out of the house with his long 
locks grasped in his hands without taking time to comb 
or braid them." 

Yii, the great engineer, the model of diligence, the 
third in the series of self -forgetting monarchs who lived 
only for their people, became the first who established 
a new type of monarchy. He transmitted his throne to 
a worthy son, laying thus the foundation of a dynasty 
which lasted over five hundred years, but with many 
unworthy successors. Its general character, though not 
one of cruel despotism, was that of a master towards a 
nation of slaves. Things went from bad to worse until, 
the condition of the people becoming unendurable, an 
avenger appeared on the scene in the person of Ch'feng 
T'ang;^ a new dynasty was the result which lasted for 
a longer period. During this period something like a 
feudal system began to manifest itself, great barons 
exercising more or less sway within their own prin- 
cipalities. 

It was not, however, until 1120 B.c. that the feudal 
idea took shape in its fullest and most perfect form. 
This was under the famous dynasty of Chou. It began 
with a Regent^ in whom appeared an unselfish ruler who 
has become the ideal of succeeding regencies, Chou 

* "Tang the Completer" or "the Successf uL" 

'The founders of the dynasty were W6n Wang and his son Wu Wang. 
It waa during the minority of the latter*8 son, Ch*^ng Wan& that Choa 
Kung (his ancle) acted as Regent. 



288 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Kung the famous Duke of Chou, regarded as amongst 
the sages of the Empire. 

The tenure of the land during this period was an 
emblem of the state. The fields were square, inter- 
sected by two lines east and west and two lines north 
and south, thus making nine divisions; the central sec- 
tion belonged to the state and taxes were paid by cul- 
tivating that portion for the pubUc treasury. So loyal 
were the people that they lifted their heads to the rising 
clouds and prayed to Heaven, "Send your first showers 
down on our central plot, and then let a few drops fall 
on our own." The Kingdom was laid out on the same 
plan, the royal domain occupjring the central position 
surrounded by the fiefs of feudal barons. As Con- 
fucius describes it, "Just as the north star sits on his 
throne while all the other stars revolve around it." The 
well-known name of Middle Kingdom for the empire 
of China, which should be Central Kingdom, is derived 
from this source. In this designation there is no allu- 
sion to the supposed map of the earth but only to the 
distribution of the feudal states with reference to the 
central throne. Another early name for China is Chung- 
yiian, "Central Plain," which apparently refers to the 
great fertile plain of Honan. 

Confucius, on another occasion, expressed his enrap- 
tured admiration for the feudal system in language no 
less emphatic. Speaking of the development of the 
previous dynasties, when asked what will be the form of 
government in coming generations he replied, "For a 
hundred generations to come the form can be no other 
than the present." Yet this was one of the wise man's 



Men do not live a handled yean, yet harbour the 
griela of a thonaand. 

limitations. For to our wider view it is apparent that 
a feudal government is necessarily unstable. During 
the latter part of the long teniu*e of the Chous, the 
Central Monarch lost control of his unruly princes^ be- 
coming merely a figurehead clothed with priestly f unc- 
tionSy and loudly complaining that the barons had 
ceased to consult him except when a sacrifice to heaven 
became necessary. Under these circumstances wars 
and conflicts between the several states became inevit- 
able, and for two centuries internecine strife was the 
prevailing characteristic of the times, which were hap- 
pily terminated by the system of consolidation intro- 
duced by the builder of the Great Wall. 

It was during the third dynasty that the Chinese 
mind began to exhibit its greatest intellectual activity. 
As we look back again through the mist of ages three 
venerable figures emerge from the darkness, those of 
Lao Tzu, Confucius, and Mencius. The first was 
founder of the Taoist system which has exerted an 
immense influence on the condition of China past and 
present. The second was author of China's ethical sys- 
tem, embracing the individual, the family, and the state. 
The third was renovator and apostle of the teachings of 
his great master Confucius. 

Lao Tzu signifies "the Old Master," so called because 
he was the senior of Confucius and because Confucius 
sought light and knowledge from him.^ His specula- 

'When Lao Tva died, Confucius was still a young and practically 
unknown man. The alleged meeting of the two philosophers, as told in 
the Hiitarieal Record, carries no conyiction and is almost certainly a later 
invention. 
19 



290 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

tions were, however, too wild and fanciful to suit the 
taste of a practical mind like that of Confucius, and 
seemed to have had no influence whatever in giving 
shape to the doctrines of the latter. The doctrines of 
the Tao TS Ching which go by his name are higher, 
purer and more idealistic than the so-called Taoist re- 
ligion. The central idea of later Taoism is the acqui- 
sition of such a power over material nature as to enable 
man to transform the elements at will, and to become 
transformed himself into an immortal; it soon degen- 
erated into a mass of jugglery and fraud. Perhaps the 
noble conceptions of Lao Tzu may be grasped and 
resuscitated under the influence of Christianity and true 
science. Among the followers of the Taoist sect the 
control of the elements was directed toward alchemy, 
the literal making of gold I In these researches their 
aspirations for personal immortality led them to turn 
their backs on human society, and resort to ascetic dis- 
cipline as weU as to occult artiflces and jugglery. A 
Chinese poet well describes their spirit and aim in words 
like these: 

^A prince the draught immortal went to seek 
And finding it he soared above the spheres. 

In mountain caverns he had spent a week : 
Of human time it was a thousand years.'' 

Sorcery and witchcraft naturally became engrafted in 
a stock so congenial to their spirits. The Taoist sect 
have consequently had through all these ages a mo- 
nopoly in the way of incantations and theurgy. The 
demon world is regarded as subject to their control 



Where no money is spent there no grace ia gained. 

They have a high priest who dwells in a kingly palace 
on the top of a mountain in Kiangsi; he professes to be 
able on any complaint from any part of the empire, 
even though it should come from the extremity of the 
Great Wall, to capture an unruly demon and hold him 
prisoner. All this, be it understood, for a fee, which 
realizes the Taoist idea of making gold! 

Less imaginative and more thoroughly constructive^ 
in the cast of his mind, Confucius from his early years 
set his heart on the regeneration of human society. This 
he sought to effect by securing the patronage of the 
feudal princes of his day. The Duke of Lu, his own 
native state, employed the wise man to recast his admin- 
istration. Things ran smoothly for three months when 
a neighboring prince, as Chinese authors say, for the 
very purpose of counteracting his influence sent to the 
prince a bevy of dancing girls. The philosopher was 
thrown into the shade and in disgust he threw up his 
commission and sought the patronage of other princes. 
Happily for posterity not one among the princes of 
the empire was willing to listen to him. Under these 
circumstances he gave himself up to the work of teach- 
ing, editing and composing those text-books' which 

^Not 80 in one sense. Confucius truly said of himself: **Mj function 
is to indicate rather than to originate." And again s "I am but one who 
loves antiquity and is earnest hi the study of it" 

'His sayings, Imown as tiie Confucian Analects, in which his etiiical 
system is set fortii, were not written down until a generation or two after 
his death. He edited some of the classics—the Book of Changes, the Book 
of Poetry, and perhaps the Book of History,— hut the only work actually 
composed by him is the Ch'un ck'im, Spring and Autumn AnmdU of tlie 
Lu states a very dry record of the barest facts. 



292 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

have rendered his name immortal and his influence pro- 
fomid. The purest system of non-Christian ethics that 
the world has seen, they exhibit no feature of striking 
originality. Human relations are set forth generally 
in their true character with the advantage of combin- 
ing the conciseness of proverbial philosophy with the 
literary finish of an elegant writer. The doctrines have 
accordingly been treasured in the memories of the youth 
in schools for seventy generations. Confucius showed 
himself deeply conscious of responsibility to God, whom 
he called Heaven. But he inculcated no system of re- 
ligion. It is an error to speak of ''the Confucian 
religion," as he confined his teachings solely to the duties 
of the present life. It was in consequence of the 
vacancy left by the omission of any religious element, 
that Buddhism succeeded so easily in finding a footing 
in China. 

Mencius, more fortunate than his great master who 
had lived nearly two hundred years earlier, was wel- 
come at the courts of princes. He propagated his 
doctrine with courage and with eloquence, upholding 
everywhere the principle that "honesty is the best 
policy" and that unselfish virtue has its own reward. 
One cannot refrain from heaving a sigh that the thou- 
sands of scholars who repeat his words by rote have no 
conception of his spirit. Among the mandarins of China 
some have learned his great lesson that "honesty is the 
best policy." 

Appreciating the excellence of the teachings of the 
Confucian school, we regret that they have never been 
able to penetrate the mind of China thoroughly, or to 



&%?f^im^-^mwm!^^n 293 

Do no wrong by day and you will fear no demon 
knocking at your door by night« 

effect the regeneration of which their authors dreamed. 
The builder of the Great Wall and his masterly minister 
looked upon them as positively mischievous. Did they 
not consecrate feudal misgovemment as the ne plus ultra 
of human wisdom and would it not be impossible to wipe 
out that objectionable system as long as these books 
maintained their supremacy in the schools of China? 
Hence the burning of the books and the slaughter of the 
scholars. And never since have those teachings regained 
their influence. Chin performed a service for his nation 
which in the age of modem scholarship, now just dawn- 
ing, will be appreciated. 



CHAPTER XXI 

The Three Chins 

Don't adjust your shoes in a melon patch, 
Or straighten your hat under a plum tree. 

Chineie protftth* 

Our design to visit Chinchow was prospered beyond 
the expectation of the most hopef uL The journey from 
Lanchow ran through a brigand-infested region, but 
we saw none; the days were rainy, but we were not 
l^ogged ; the loess landscapes were lively, but except for 
a muleteer falling and several mules slipping, no acci- 
dent occurred. 

The muleteers were of exceptional merit, or were in 
an exceptionally good mood owing to a vigorous lec- 
ture. As a rule, missionaries are worse treated here 
than other travelers. On the principle that "a gentle 
horse is easy to ride; an honest man easy to cheat," the 
very kindness and long-suffering of the missionary 
causes him to be imposed upon. But as true kindness 
does not consist in letting every man do as he likes, the 
wise Preedy of Lanchow gave these men a manly talk; 
then there was no need for correction, nor even of a 
word of punishment from me all the way. 

Mules appear to be reverenced here. We passed 
a temple where a Golden Mule used to be on exhibit; but 
a foreigner visited it, and no one since has beheld the 

SM 



tft X ttt 3^ g 295 

Slow work makes a skilled workman. 



Grolden Mule, while the good luck of the valleys dis- 
appeared also. 

Three places bear the name of the Great Emperor: 
Chinan, Chinchia Tsui, Chinchow; two of these we 
visited.^ We hunted for the ancestral home of the 
Chins, and also for any surviving relations of the hero* 
This expedition led us over seven mountains where, 
despite some ''starved ignoble nature," most things 
seemed to have no hard struggle for life. Trees might 
be scarce and stunted, but the farms indicated industry, 
thrift and bounteous harvests. The peculiar landscape 
of the loess suggested a land of amphitheaters, one be- 
ing large enough to seat the whole ten millions of 
Kansu. 

At Chinchia Tsui, some twenty 2j north of Chinan, 
dwell many families named Chin; some ''make the 
fields," some are scholars. Within the four square 
waUs of Chinan dwell one thousand families and nearly 
as many more in the suburbs. Some are descendants of 
Chin. A leading clothier of this kin was invited to call 
on us at the Inn of Perpetual Peace, but he hesitated 
and finally stayed away. 

The conduct of Adam, as reported in the region 
where we are now writing, is worthy of loud and long 
applause. 

The ancestors of Chin were rich and his descendants 
are prosperous. That they have held their position in 
the social and political world so weU speaks for the 
ability transmitted to them and by them improved for 

'The imperial post spelling is Tbinan, Tsinkia Tsui, Tftinchow, Kan. 



296 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

''the descendants of an emperor sink a degree in the 
social scale in every generation, until they reach the 
rank of the common people/' 

Black Dog has described the journey to Chinan and 
to my surprise has made exceptional advancement in 
exact and valuable observation as the following extract 
will testify: 

'^This day was truly bitter. The heavens fell rain one 
day and did not cease. A cold wind blew until our bones 
were numb and sour! The road was muddy and the hills 
steep. Once, not watch feet, it meant a summersault, 
enough to make one laugh. 

*^When we reached Chinan I walked in the street. Speak- 
ing of men they were not dirty, speaking of houses they 
were clean. 

*^The five grains that were being cultivated in the fields 
were all complete. The fruit-wood was all very liberal. 
The men were correct and the land rich. This is the kind 
of place of which it might be said, Hhe country is peaceful 
and the people at rest.' 

^^On the new books of Chinan from the eighteenth year 
of Tab Kuang to the present there were doors, i.e. families, 
1,S96. There were mouths, 18,523. Inc. public and pri- 
vate land, 88,532 acres. Paid Siunmer taxes each year, 
26,016 bushels; paid Fall taxes, 28,182 and more bushels; 
straw, 4,766 bundles; mulberry trees, 2,679. Duties on 
iron, 2,000 catties ; on copper, 67 catties ; tin, 46 catties ; 
lead, 60 catties ; beeswax, 80 catties ; madder, 40 catties ; 
white powder, 5 catties ; red coloring, 3 catties ; 2 oz. red 
tassels, 70 catties; goatskins, 40 pieces; goat horns, 70 
catties ; deer skins, 90 pieces ; cow horns, 6^ catties ; glue, 
130 catties; sheep, 36; silver, 130 ounces. All these were 
sent to the Board of Revenue and Ceremonies, Peking. But 
there were 6 fur garments sent to the Provincial Treasurer. 



^^ — Wtfe^ — 18 297 

A word is enough for a wise man, and a flick of the 
vhip for a fleet horse. 

^he productions are com, nuDet, wheat, hemp, buck- 
wheat, mustard, celery and other cereals and vegetables. 
Near the city watermelons grow. Flowers — ^tulip, peony, 
cinnamon, solid bamboo, chrysanthemum, many grasses 
and medicines, ten and more fruits, many birds and animals, 
panthers, wolf, deer, fox, hare, etc." 

That the first man made his first appearance near 
Chinchow in the Valley of Red Peppers is strongly 
held by the populace. Now it fortunately fell to the 
lot of our caravan to pass through the Hot Valley en 



ts£<i 




Dngoo body, man*fl head. Dram in the Stomach. Thtmder strikes eztmTBcaat 
persoDB, hence a coc^e will not step on a grain of rice. 

route from Chinan to Chinchow. Located thirty li 
from the latter city, and known locally as the Valley of 
the Three Lights, by us remembered as the Vale of Red 



298 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Peppers, is the celebrated temple bmlt in honor of Fu 
Hsi, "the first ruler of Chinese legendary history. The 
period commonly assigned to the beginning of his reign 
is B.C. 2852. He instructed the people in the arts of 
hunting, fishing and pasturage. He invented the eight 
diagrams, established the laws of marriage, and con- 
structed musical instruments.'' Let this be fiction, 
nevertheless the story is here unconsciously told of the 
secret of China's everlasting life. 

The Great Wall was built by an endless race. But 
why endless? The black-robed Chin "established the 
laws of marriage." And then made organs. The 
establishing of the family life was the beginning of the 
nation's eternal life! The history goes on to say: "In 
that golden age the rulers needed but to be expert in 
the use of the instruments to assure peace and perfect 
harmony in every part." Crime was then unknown, 
locks and bars were unnecessary, travelers slept by the 
wayside as securely as at heme, not even taking the pre- 
caution of covering their purses. Such is the power of 
harmony I The exalting of the family idea must ac- 
count largely for the continued existence of this vast 
empire. It is easily seen that present peoples who 
slight the family life are fast becoming extinct! 

The local name of Fu Hsi is "Ancestor of Mankind." 
His image is attired in a skirt of fig leaves. His wife 
is believed to be hiding in a cave near by, dissatisfied 
with the fig-leaf skirt! This temple is held to contain 
the original of the Eight Diagrams. No one has ever 
fully explained them and the persons who have tried to 
do so get as far as saying : "The explanation of the whole 



^:^Ji^a5eji5 299 

The biggest hand cannot hide the hearent. 

thing is," when the words freeze on their lips and they 
sink down dead I 

Through the Valley of the Three Lights flow two 
rivers. On the soft mud hetween these rivers the first 
man is said to have experimented in making the com* 
plicated ideographs of the Chinese. This is where the 
puzzling characters hegan and since that no one man 
has ever learned all about them. 

A "rain of grain" occurred when the characters were 
traced in the mud of Red Pepper VaDey and the demons 
ran away. It does not stand alone in the royal records 
of the celestials. But this was no doubt responsible for 
the sarcastic promise of The Only First when in speak- 
ing to Tah, son of Prince Hsi, detained as hostage in 
the state of Ch*in, the First Emperor promised to 
release him when it rained grain, when crows had white 
heads, and when horses had horns • • • aU of which the 
historian says came to pass; according to the royal word 
he was released. Later there is a rain of cash reported. 
One Hsiung Kun, censor, lost his wealth; reduced to 
poverty, he prayed for rain of cash, which fell for three 
days and enabled him to provide decent burial for his 
father. More credible is the rain of hail in the days of 
Fei Tsz, the horse breeder of Chin, when cattle and 
horses were slain and the Yangtze was frozen. 

Near the bank of the larger river in whose mud were 
the characters, and at the foot of Temple Hill, is a 
smooth stone with two grooves made by the Chinese Eve 
when washing her husband's clothes. This shows that fig 
leaves were not the only attire; and indeed one legend 



300 THE GREAT WALL OF CfflNA 

tells that the Chinese Adam confined himself to them 
in order that others might have the right to wear clothes 
— ^a sort of vicarious suffering. There is, however, an 
alternative reason assigned for this scant attire, that he 
lost all his clothes in the flood! What an historical lo- 
cality! the first organ factory; the first writing; the first 
Eight Diagrams; the first farming; the first marriage; 
The Only First! This is astonishingly romantic and 
ancient. 

At the foot of the Hill of Eight Diagrams stands a 
small native Christian church built and supported 
wholly by native money. The leader of this Christian 
community is a well-to-do doctor who is plotting to di- 
vert the funds expended on a theater in honor of Adam 
to the opening of a public school for the benefit of the 
villagers. 

From the ddys of the First Chin this region has been 
a hotbed of superstition. Strange tales are told of 
demon possession. One of these is vouched for by the 
English missionaries at Chinchow, who assert that this 
sort of demoniacal display came only after the arrival 
of gospel teachers. The whole affair is so uncanny and 
unusual that we venture to put one instance thus on 
record, all the information coming from unquestioned 
sources, and no comment of our own being added. 

"One moon ago the doctor was called to see an old 
man of seventy-five, who developed signs of demon 
possession during the night. For a long period the 
patient stood on his head on the kong, with his feet up 
the wall, stretched to their utmost length. He had al- 
ways been a respectable gentleman. The doctor arrived 



When the flight is not high the fall is not heavy. 

and preached to the bystanders and then told the old 
man's son that if he would kneel down he would pray 
for the patient. This done, the demon was commanded 
to leave the patient. The victim now lay on the brick 
bed with arms tossing and eyes rolling wildly and said: 
''I am going to fight a battle with you to-day I" This 
excited Dr. Footstep, who shouted: "Fight with me if 
you dare. The Lord conquered you on the cross, and 
will now." Then placing the patient in a sitting pos- 
ture, a great fear came over the physician, who called: 
"Lord, help! Help I" Whereupon the fear left him 
and the old man turned and said: "When is Jesus com- 
ing?" The doctor replied: "I do not know, but when 
He does He will bind you and fling you into the bottom- 
less pit." The reply was, "I know it." But the old 
man did not know it. He knew nothing about the 
Lord Jesus coming to earth again. The doctor then 
oonmianded the demons in the name of Him who died 
on the cross to be gone. And they went, leaving the 
patient frightfully weak." 

We reluctantly left the Valley of Red Peppers and 
went into the city of Chinchow, whose origin was on 
this wise. People condenmed for picking turnips that 
did not belong to them were sent there from Nanking 
to repeople the region which had lost its population and 
in the meantime had become a vast forest. In remote 
ages a dense population seems to have inhabited this 
country, and many great battles have been fought in 
the neighborhood. It seems certain that western China 
had a highly developed civilization when there was in- 



302 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

tellectual darkness farther east in Asia. The dty has 
been variously named by the different ages. It was 
known as "Heavenly Water" and then in the Han 
dynasty, as "The Imperial City/' when it was the capital 
of the Duke of Wei, the Little Duke. The original 
name of Chin was dropped by the influence of the lit- 
erati after Chin burned the books and buried alive 
the scholars. 

Like many eastern cities, this has been rebuilt more 
than once on rather different sites. To begin with, the 
prognosticator fixed on a lucky spot thirty 2j from the 
present town. A sheep was sacrificed, its head placed 
on a flag-staff to mark the site, and building operations 
were begun. But perhaps some one was disappointed 
at finding no unearned increment accrue to his lord; 
anyhow, one morning the flag-staff was not to be seen. 
On search it was discovered ten miles up the valley, and 
the omen was accepted that they must follow the flag. 

The ancient site, or village of Ch*en, is supposed to 
be the ancestral home of the Chins. But one night a 
flying hill came on a visit, and effectually blotted out 
the whole village. This tale may be a vivid account of 
a real earthquake; but the old village is as effectually 
obsolete as Sodom. 

The Imperial City would give more trouble to get rid 
of in this way; it was on a hill, northeast of the present 
town. The modems still quarry in the ruins and dig up 
pottery or old iron; one old Christian excavated a bar of 
iron which he threw under a com bin, but noticing a 
glow he hauled it out and scraped it; it proved to be 
gold. 



- A If i|i> H ± |» ^ 303 

When two men's minds shall agree, common earth 
will golden be. 

The present city is an agglomeration of five, each 
complete with its walls and gates, so that the general 
ground plan is of a boat with a rowlock projecting on 
either side. Ten U to the west dwell the descendants of 
the miller who gromid flour for the founders; by im- 
perial decree they pay no taxes. This is fortunate, as 
the children here have a strange appetite for other food, 
the Po hsi or white earth from the flying hill or the 
sliding mountain. The Chinchow children nibble the 
window-sills on which they lean, and the beds on which 
they sleep. As one young lady says : "I cannot stop eat- 
ing it." Some develop a taste for ashes or charcoal; the 
indulgence in or the craving for the earth turns them 
an earthy color, till they die. If the children have one 
morbid custom, the parents have another. They con- 
sider it an insult to Mother Earth to bury a child under 
two years of age; so the frail little body is consigned 
to the fire in the kong, and serves to warm the brick bed 
on which the family sleeps. 

Black Dog's diary on Chinchow says: 

^^I read a day (i.e. kept the Sabbath) then on the eigh- 
teenth sun of the ninth moon we took up our bodies, arose 
on the road, and arrived at Chinchow before the sun was 
even with the west. Chinchow may be considered a place 
with an ancient name. It was said that this place has 
six sights. In the ancient times it was a place with a name ; 
to-day it also is a place with a name. We saw the land-earth 
wealthy and thick, the inhabitants careful, the mountain 
water nourishing the land, perpetually having power. On 
the day of our arrival this place was repairing the Wall 
and erecting the T^ai Shan Temple ; truly a beauty of oil 



304 THE GREAT WALL OF CfflNA 

painting, a sight worth seeing. The head of the managers 
had in his bosom the subscription book ! Every door and 
every shop must subscribe. On it was written ^en thousand 
good deeds gather together here.' 

^'We see that the men who worship the idol-gods do not 
offer money to repair temples out of a good intention. It 
is not more than asking by force and carelessly giving. 
Alas ! contributing money and erecting temples is no more 
than wasting substance and in vain occupying a piece of 
good ground. 

''Again strolling at the Gemmy Fountain Temjde I saw 
above it a large writing saying 'The Gate of Heaven.' On 
the street there were many persimmons, walnuts, cotton 
goods, pears and such things." 

Many legends declaring emphatically that large 
numbers of men were buried in the Great Wall have 
led us here in the ancestral home of the builder to make 
inquiries. That a wide-spread custom of the sort pre- 
vailed at certain periods in remote ages is unquestioned. 
The FijianSy Dyaks, Indians, Aztecs, and Africans 
practise similar sacrificial rites. The reason was never 
far to find, to propitiate evil spirits and to attract good 
luck, as well as to inaugurate the victim into the mys- 
teries of a spirit policeman! ''In his days did Hiel the 
Bethelite build Jericho: he laid the foundation thereof 
in (on or upon) his first-born." "In the Grcrman exca- 
vation at Megiddo there was found under a tower the 
skeleton of a young girl deposited in such a way as to 
leave no dotibt that it was essentially connected with the 
foundation of the building. We cannot take seriously, 
however, the Chinchow legend, which relates with every 
horror of detail the story of how the taskmasters put 



Water may nm in a thonsaad chaxinels, bnt all tttarm 
to the sea. 

lime into the food of the workmen to induce less eat- 
ing and finally, death, in order that their bodies might 
be thrown into the WaD to appease the general and local 
gods, including the whole host of evil spirits which 
might be expected to attend in unheard-of numbers 
when a fabric so vast was being erected, to prevent their 
coming out of the north to feed and fatten their un- 
earthly presences on the souls south of the boundary 
line. Superstition played a great part in the making of 
the Northern Rampart, for the Wall mysteriously 
mounts to the loftiest summits, dives into the deepest 
ravines, twists and squirms in such an altogether unnec- 
essary fashion, that we have been put to our wits* end 
to explain the performance. 

Had the military engineers of that warlike day alone 
designed a stable and effective fortification in the north 
to resist assaults of hardy horsemen, then certainly 
many towers and connecting walls on wholly inacces- 
sible precipices would have been omitted, — ^unless those 
ancient warriors were familiar with the fall of Sardis 
and similar military feats. We must seek beyond the 
plans of army experts for the reasons that brought this 
strange, stalwart "titanic fence" into evidence in a 
fenceless land. We have confirmed our opinion that 
"Wise Men" ordered the curves and contortions of the 
Wall of Chin. They doubtless consulted constellations, 
skulls, and a score of uncanny divining devices. Indeed, 
should the history of the devil be written it would likely 
contain a highly surprising and interesting chapter on 
the Great Wall. 

20 



CHAPTER XXII 

Medieval China: rinde Chin's Great Wall to the 
Present Dynasty 

By medieval we mean the period extending from the 
dynasty of Chin, who created China, to the accession of 
the Manchus who conquered it. From a Chinese point 
of view it is all comprehended in "modem history," the 
Great Wall being the dividing line in chronology as it 
is in geography. A marked change took place in the 
leading aspects of Chinese life, no less than in the sys- 
tem of government. The scepter fell from the nerve- 
less hand of Chin Erh Shih, the son of the tyrant; 
even had he possessed the talents of his father, they 
would not have served to prolong his reign. An irri- 
tated and vengeful populace rose in all the provinces to 
expel a government under which they had suffered 
untold miseries. Many chiefs fought for power, no 
one distinctly aiming at the throne. At length Liu Pang 
of P'ei (in modern Kiangsu) made himself conspicuous 
and sought the reins of empire. He was almost wholly 
illiterate, but a man of native genius, capable of broad 
views, possessed of indomitable perseverance, heroic 
courage, and withal, a great share of himian kindness. 
After more than ten years of conflict, he became ac- 
knowledged as the founder of a new dynasty and was 
canonized by the title of Han Kao Tsu, "the High An- 
cestor of the House of Han," as the name signified. He 

306 




Irrigating wheels in the Yellow River. Hoisting the water slightly higher 
than the fields, it is led to the desired points by shallow trenches 




The Great Wall of China Photos by Dr. Geil 

An Evangelist of the China Inland Mission who labors near the Great Wall 



#-«m=t-||l»*J*£ 307 

Bach blade of grass has its own dew drop. 

originated on the banks of the riyer of that name, and 
his dynasty became so conspicuous that it has become 
the native name for the whole empire, which to outsiders 
recalls his predecessor, Chin. Even at the present day, 
when Manchus and Chinese are spoken of in contra- 
distinction to each other, they are described as "Man 
and Han,'' and the people are known as the sons of 
Han. A strong man is described by them as Hao Han 
Tzu, "a good son of Han." 

One of his ministers suggested to the emperor that 
now was the time to re-open the schools and to give a 
stimulus to education. "What do I want with schools?" 
replied the emperor, "I got the empire on horseback." 
Said the minister, "True, through your own valor, but 
can you govern the empire on horseback, and by your 
sword alone?" Not much, however, was accomplished 
in the way of culture until the next reign, when a dili- 
gent search was made for the books which had been 
destroyed. Some were found hidden away in the cran- 
nies of old walls, and others were reproduced from the 
memory of old scholars. But after all that could be 
done, there were great gaps in the continuity of the 
Confucian classics, so much so that when the western 
scholar speaks of far-reaching discovery as unknown to 
China, the Chinese scholar replies, "Ah, but that must 
have been well known in ancient times, and the books 
that treated of it were burned up." Such is the explana- 
tion which they are prone to give for China's failure to 
keep pace with the world in scientific progress. So 
pathetic was their reliance on books until lately, that 



308 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

even when Confucius says, "The progress of knowl- 
edge depends on the study of nature," we find a note 
by the commentator, "the treatise on the Study of Na- 
ture was lost." 

The books were restored, but the Confucian ideal of 
government never reappeared. It was obliterated as 
completely as if his chapters in praise of feudal govern- 
ment had never risen from their ashes. The wise 
founders of the new dynasty appreciated the wisdom 
of the great conqueror in welding the provinces to- 
gether as a unit, and binding them, as by a chain of 
iron, with the Great Wall itself. Yet beyond that 
Barrier the hostile power of the north had also made 
progress. The Tartars had made innumerable forays 
on the peaceful principalities prior to the building of the 
Wall. And now they still were a perpetual menace to 
the peace of China. Something like unity had taken 
place among their scattered tribes. They had a com- 
mon sovereign who called himself Shan Yii, and who 
claimed to be the equal of the Son of Heaven. Em- 
bassies came and went between the Tartar north and 
the Chinese south, this incipient diplomatic intercourse 
being varied by the frequent detention, imprisonment 
and occasionally decapitation of the ambassador. One 
of those ambassadors best known was Su Wu, man of 
fame for his literary genius. He has left a touching 
little poem, his farewell to his wife, on his setting out 
for the court of the barbarous Tartar monarch, which 
Dr. Martin thus renders: 

Twin trees whose boughs together twine 
Two birds that guard one nest. 



»JB^iamWi 309 

Better be alive and poor than rich and dead. 

We'll soon be far asunder torn. 
As sunrise from the West. 

Hearts knit in childhood's innocence. 
Long bound in Hymen's ties: 
One goes to distant battlefields ; 
One sits at home and sighs. 

Like carrier bird, the seas divide, 
I'll seek my lonely mate: 
But if afar I find a grave 
You'll mourn my hapless fate. 

100 B. C. 

Another illustration of the relations subsisting be- 
tween Tartar and Chinese at that epoch may often be 
seen exhibited on the boards of a Chinese theater, in 
the shape of an affecting drama called "The Princess 
Chao crossing the Border/' The princess was a court 
beauty, the favorite of one of the Han emperors. The 
Tartar monarch, hearing of her fame, demanded her 
hand as a condition of peace. The emperor unvrill- 
ingly consented and the story represents the grief of 
the court beauty, the humiliation of the Chinese which 
that implied and the exultation of the Tartars at this 
splendid evidence of something like a military triumph. 
It may well be asked. Where was the Great Wall all this 
time? A sufficient force might always maintain the 
peace of China, but the surprise or destruction of a 
single garrison might at any time open the way to an 
enemy, and the Chinese declined to pass beyond the 



310 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

frontier so clearly marked out» to ravage their foe in 
his own steppes. 

The ancient dynasties were all of long duration; the 
modem dynasties ran a shorter career. Those like the 
Han, the T'ang, the Smig, the Ming and the Ch'ing, 
the present house, had in general a tenure of from two 
hundred and fifty to three himdred years. The reason 
of this difference is not apparent, though we may sup- 
pose that feudal chiefs when left to their own inde- 
pendent action are content to recognize a nominal 
suzerainty, whereas a centralized government which has 
put but one power on the throne always presents a 
temptation to usurpation or revolution. There is, of 
course, another explanation, that the earlier history is 
false. Admittedly the earlier records were destroyed 
by Chin, and the Book of History which has been re- 
stored only deals with the fortunes of part of the Yel- 
low River basin. How far can we rely on the correct 
restoration of the text? How far can we trust the 
chronology of the annalists? The certain history since 
Chin shows short-lived dynasties; does not this suggest 
that the earlier history, which may perhaps be correct 
in fact, is yet out of perspective — ^like so much that is 
Chinese — ^and has been not foreshortened, but hind- 
lengthened? 

Short and partial dynasties limited to different por- 
tions of the empire are reckoned in the succession, but 
they are mostly to be regarded as occupying a transi- 
tion period. Of these there were five, two of whom 
were of Tartar origin. After one of these intervals, 
occurs what is called the Minor Han, which was itself 



^^i»m:^jimni^^ 311 

God does not fltarre the blind spairow 

only partial and temporary. The sphere which it occu- 
pied, for two reigns only, was the modem province of 
Szechwan ; the rest of the empire being divided between 
two other rival houses. The wars between these houses 
form an heroic age for China immortalized by the 
greatest of their historical fiction, the so-caUed "History 
of the Three Kingdoms." Of the three heroes of the 
later Han, one was Kuan Yii, subsequently canonized 
and deified as Kuan Ti the god of war, special pro- 
tector of the present dynasty. Not to speak of the 
uncertainty of his origin, in an historic romance, the fact 
that the present dynasty has been beaten in most of 
its foreign wars, ought, perhaps, to shake their confi- 
dence in their redoubtable protector!* Of the great 
dynasties each one may be said to have a distinctively 
literary character. The Hans were marked by the 
restoration of letters, the T'angs by the most perfect 
development of poetic culture, the Sungs by the most 
subtle philosophic speculation and literary criticism, the 
Ming by elegance in prose composition, and the Ch'ing 
by the incipient influence of western science. 

A great event which marks the period of the Hans 
and colors that of all succeeding history was the intro- 
duction of Buddhism. The Emperor Mingti dreamed 
that he saw a golden man holding in his hand a bow and 
two arrows. The Daniels of his court were summoned 

'Tliis applies only to recent wars with European powers and Japan. 
The present dynasQr has suppressed numerous rebellions, some of them 
among the most formidable ever known in history. It has conducted 
marvelously successful campaigns in the heart of Central Asia, and added 
vast territories to the empire. The expedition against the Gurkhas in 1790 
was one of the most eactraordinary enterprises ever carried out by man. 



312 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

to explain the dream. One of them replied, "It ex- 
plains itself; is not the man with a bow and two arrows 
obviously the hieroglyphic *foh/ i.e. Man-Bow-Buddha» 
which consists of these elements?" The emperor joy- 
fully accepted the interpretation, and despatched an 
embassy to India in quest of Buddhist priests and 
Buddhist books. To some extent both had found their 
way already to China, but the favor of imperial sun- 
shine gave an immense impulse to their missionary 
enterprise, and the omission of a religious element in 
the Confucian culture left a vacancy to be occupied. 
This was in the year 66 a.d. Fancy strives in vain to 
picture the condition of things which might have taken 
place if the Chinese embassy, instead of stopping at 
India, had, like the other wise men from the East, made 
its way to Palestine and obtained one or more of the 
apostles, along with the Old and New Testaments of 
the Christian faith. The Buddhist books suggested the 
dream, and the missionary effort of the Buddhist priests 
had brought India into prominence as a source of wis- 
dom and culture by which China has since been influ- 
enced far more than the world generally supposes. 

Under the T'ang dynasty about five centuries later. 
Christian missionaries also made their way to China. 
Though not summoned by an imperial embassy they 
were welcomed at the imperial court, built churches by 
imperial command in the capital itself, and won con- 
verts by hundreds of thousands in many of the prov- 
inces. But sad to say, a solitary stone in the capital of 
the T*ang near the northwest portion of the Great 
Wall remains as the only evidence of their early inva- 



® « ^ T ill8 :^ 313 

▲ good general has no bod soldiers. 

sion, which failed to issue in a permanent conquest* 
Traces, indeed, of the Syrians or "Nestorians" and their 
faith, continue to show themselves in later periods, but 
they disappear with the last of the Mongols at the 
beginning of the fourteenth century. 

In looking towards the period of T*ang, when the 
whole of Chin's empire was reunited after nearly four 
hundred years, we discover two bright poetic stars 
which blend their luster, and throw into the shade the 
genius and achievements of later poets. They are Li 
T*ai-Po* and Tu Fu. The name of the first signifies 
"The Morning Star," a title bestowed by an emperor 
who declared that that luminary must have been incor- 
porated in his person. The legendary history of China 
is full of stories of his genius and his eccentric habits. 

His great rival, if less brilliant, is scarcely less es- 
teemed, and was more profound and learned. His 
merits being recognized late in life, he indulged in a 
review of his fortunes beginning with the comical con- 
fession, "For thirty years IVe ridden on a donkey, and 
now I find myself mounted in a chariot." He might 
have said on Pegasus, but Chinese poets seem to know 
but little of the flying steed. 

The T'ang period, roughly 600-900 a.d., was the 
brightest in the Chinese annals, and shows China incon- 
testably the foremost nation then on earth. The empire 
had been newly surveyed and districted on the system 
that still holds, the south coast was permanently incor- 
porated, an oversea traffic was developed by the enter- 

'His name was Li Po; Tai-po was bis ''style^ or familar appellation. 



314 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

prise of the Arabs and the wild tribes to the west were 
subdued. Literature and history were fostered, print- 
ing was invented, education was promoted throughout 
the land, the laws were codified and the judicial system 
improved. 

Fifty-three years of chaos succeeded before a strong 
leader reunited the petty kingdoms and founded the 
Sung dynasty. In their days the scholars and the 
administrators had much dissension as to the benefit of 
Confucian principles in actual affairs, and this diverted 
literary taste away from sterile classics to more practical 
subjects or to deeper problems. Hence the sky of the 
Sungs was lit up by a constellation of philosophers, five 
of whom shine as stars of the first magnitude. Their 
names are Chou, Chang, Ch'eng, Ch*Sng, Chu.* The 
most eminent was the last, Chu Hsi, a prodigy of learn- 
ing, who escaped the danger of mere erudition, and 
retained to the last a broad and free spirit of specula- 
tion. He is now the authorized expositor of the classical 
learning of China, and from his opinions it is heresy to 
dissent. He has, indeed, in our estimation, somewhat 
perverted the teachings of earlier sages and we at least 
feel at liberty to differ from him in his interpretation 
of the word T'ien, i.e. heaven. This, he says, is a prin- 
ciple, thus denying virtually the existence of a conscious 
God, a doctrine which pervades the ancient literature 
of China, and without which it becomes unintelligible. 
As, for example: 

Emperors have been entlironed with advertisement 
that they accept the appointment by the will of Heaven*. 

' Cbou Tun-i, Chang Ttai, Oi'^ng I, Ch*6ng Hao, Om HsL 



^mjsmtsmnnm^ 315 

Carters, boatmen, innkeepers, carrieis and jam^n 
mnners thongh crimeless shoold be killed. 

Rulers have ascended the altar of Heaven, prayed, made 
sacrifice, and in the flame burned paper containing the 
names of criminals condemned to death, that the smoke 
and flame might ascend to Heaven as an appeal to the 
supreme power to ratify the act. 

From the beginning, this great dynasty was harassed 
by invasions of semi-barbarous tribes from beyond the 
Great Wall. Gradually driven back, the northern prov- 
inces were left in the hands of the invaders, and the 
native capital was again fixed at Nanking.^ After a 
lapse of time they were compelled to retire farther 
south to Hangchow, and not long after, the last of the 
Sung disappeared from the arena, leaving the empire 
to the Chin Tartars and their Mongol rivals. The Wall 
had ceased to avail the Chinese. 

* It had previously been at Kaif eng in Honan. 



316 



THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 



MONGOLIA 




Sketch liap by Henry French Ridley 

TIBETAN LOOP OF THE GREAT WALL 



CHAPTER XXIII 

Tlie Tibetan Loop of the Great Wall 
Fast Horse Caravan into Tibet 

The discovery of a Y in the Great Wall near the 
Lofty Pass, decided us to journey into Tibet, both to 
search for more Great Wall, and to study the descend- 
ants of those foes against whom the Great Wall was 
constructed. The journeys into the higher lands lying 
toward the west were taken on fast horses. 

Two routes are open to the traveler from Lanchow to 
Sining. We selected the shorter, more beautiful, and 
more dangerous; and accomplished the six days' jour- 
ney in three and one-half days going; but returning, 
broke every record by doing the distance in three days ! 
The ancient city of Sining acted as a base from which 
various expeditions were made in search of the Tibetan 
arm of the Great Wall of Chin Shih Huang Ti. The 
first excursion was to Gumbum. 

Gumbum, "the seat of ten thousand images," is the 
most important lamasery on earth next to Lhasa, the 
home of the founder of the present system of Bud- 
dhism: and the loimging place of thirty-six hundred 
lamas. 

Leaving Sining by the West Gate we passed under 
the lee of the Funghwang Mountain, named in honor of 
the legendary bird of China, and rode up the pictur- 
esque Southern Valley, passing pilgrims who, like out- 
sit 



318 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

selves, were on their way to Gumbum. There was, 
however, this difference: they were actuated by reli- 
gious zeal which helped them to tramp along the dusty 
road, whereas we were incited to action merely by curi- 
osity and science. Indeed, had it not been for the hope 
of finding remains of the Great Wall, important as 
Gumbum is, we must have desisted. 

Our well-mounted caravan trotted on to Shangsin 
Chwang, the Upper New Village, where we came upon 
the reputed remains of the Great Wall. These were 
measured and photographed and studied. At this 
point the Wall is known by the following names: Pien 
Ch'iang, the Boundary Wall, Ch'ang Ch'iang, the Long 
Wall and Wu Ling Ch'iang, the Five Ranges Wall; 
this latter signified that it passes over five ranges of 
moimtains or hills. The Long Wall follows the foot- 
hills from the Pass to Kia Ya, where it ascends and fol- 
lows the crest of the mountain in a northwesterly direc- 
tion behind the lamasery of Gumbum, thence to Tsa 
Ma Lang, where we purpose to examine it en route to 
Tibet. At a point ten U southeast of Gumbum the ruins 
measured ten feet at the base and twenty feet in height. 
Five U from Gimibum are remains of a moat, which 
paralleled the Long Wall on the Tibetan side. 'As the 
Tibetans cannot walk, the combination of moat and 
wall was effectual in preventing a charge by the fierce 
horsemen. 

This ruin does not date back to remote times, but is 
not improbably on the line of an ancient structure. 
Strangely enough the history of Sining District makes 
no mention of the Long Wall in its own writing, but 




The Great Wall of China Photos by Dr. Geil 

Two views of the ruins of the Tibetan or Sining Loop of the Great Wall, 
lliis stretch does not appear on the present maps 



We wed a wile lor her virtne, a concabine for har 
looks. 



319 



refers to books no longer extant I Scholars are of opin- 
ion that these ruins represent a structure of the Chin 
Dynasty.* The brick and stone veneering have disap- 
peared, leaving it naked and exposed to atmospheric 
changes. We take pleasure in calling the attention of 
chartographers to the Tibetan loop, and possibly some 
pride in adding two hundred miles of Great Wall to 
the map of China. 

Our first view of Gumbum was disappointing, so we 
pushed on into the town itself. The first object visited 
was the famous tree of healing. The lamas carefully 
gather up all the fallen leaves and sell them to all and 
sundry who desire healing. One poor cripple bent dou- 
ble was hoping that the leaves would straighten him 
out. How dastardly to deceive the poverty-stricken 
cripple I One pilgrim was measuring his body on the 
ground as he made a pilgrimage about the palace. 
Merely as a matter of exercise it was admirable. A 
visit here at this center of Buddhism will disgust a 
thinking person with the whole exhibition of the re- 
ligion. The deception practised by the leaders is beyond 
belief, and the sincerity of the "common herd'' corres- 
pondingly pitiable and pathetic. The ignorance of 
the lamas is dense. We asked the simplest questions, 
but they did not know the answers. How would a visit 
to London or to St Anne de Beaupr^ strike a Bud- 
dhist, we wonder. 

» In the Ashley collection of ToytkgcB mention is made of a foreign trav- 
eler who passed into Sining a.d. 1661 and who saw ''a vast wail** on«the 
top ot idiich people 'Hraveled from the gate of Sining to the next at 
Sochow, which is 18 days' Journey I" 



320 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

On scrutinizing a group of fifteen lamas, we felt 
the faces could be duplicated in any large American 
prison. Those faces indicated either that they were 
actual criminals or at least capable of criminality! One 
lama indeed was executed in the YamSn at Kweite for 
murder and robbery. Another sent to a missionary for 
medicine to commit race suicide. The opportunity 
presented to the Christian for teaching wholesome 
truth was seized with avidity. But not all lamas are 
criminals though the lamaseries are sanctuaries for such; 
we did see one face that really suggested the religious 
recluse or esthetic. Those who are inclined to favor 
Buddhism, should visit their headquarters in Gumbum 
during the Butter Festival and see the revelry of men 
and women. Was ever a Turkish harem worse? Bud- 
dhism has not only failed to arrest the descent of its 
priests into immorality, but has utterly failed to supply 
China with moral growth. China needs Christianity. 

One point is commendable, that after a service those 
present tell the absentee what has been taught. Other- 
wise there was no trace of schools, hospitals, or anything 
else of advantage to the human race. Thirty-six hun- 
dred lazy lamas, ignorant and unclean, constitute the 
religious inhabitants of the second most important cen- 
ter of Buddhism on the surface of the globe! 

The Kalkhas affirm that their Kantouktou has al- 
ready seen sixteen generations, and that his physiog- 
nomy changes with the phases of the moon* At new 
moon, he has the appearance of a youth, at the full, of a 
man in the prime of life, and appears quite old in ihe 
last quarter. 



Soldiering depends on training not on nnrnbets. 

Again we passed out of the historic Wert Gate of 
Sining, and stopped at Ta Ha Lteg to measure the 
remains of the selfsame Barrier we met on the road to 
Gumbum. This done, the caravan i^nrted for Tibet. 
Just what emotions close in upon the mind of one who 
for years had longed to visit on the Roof of the World 
the mysterious men who even before the days of Chin 
were not to be trifled with, eludes descripticm. We had 
looked upon "Sweet Galilee/' fairest sea in aQ the worlds 
Lake Lucerne* Victoria Nyanza, Albert Edward Ny- 
anza, Windermere, Michigan, Loch Katrine, and a mul- 
titude of "waters" more or less prominent in the popular 
mind ; Imt in Tibet is a lake nine thousand feet above the 
tide, and reflecting the sky that arches the wonder ]and» 
the danger land, the lama land of Tibet. We went to 
see the blue-green Koko Norl 

From the Yellow Sea to the lofty heights containing 
the highest point on the earth's surface is a gradual 
slope upward. On this vast ascent lies the whole length 
of the Great Wall. And between the Great Wall 
and Mount Everest, whose summit cuts the sky at twen- 
ty-eight thousand feet, is the closed land, and hence the 
mysterious land, of wild horsemen. Closed lands have 
an attractiveness bom of uncertainty. 

Although it was but early in September, we took 
precautions of dress, carrying a wardrobe well stocked 
with heavy woolens and furs. The ascent was gradual 
until an altitude of ten thousand feet was reached. 
Hour followed hour in rapid succession as our horses 
carried us toward the water-shed of Central Asia. And 

91 



322 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

when at last we stood on Ta Obo Shan and saw before us 
vast latitudes of white, brown and green^ amidst which 
lay the beautiful Koko Nor, the entire caravan was 
silenced with admiration. Behind us was oceanic drain- 
age and before us the beginnings of the drainage of 
Central Asia. Behind us the valleys and rivers of 
the vast slope toward the Pacific Ocean; before us the 
descent into the inland lakes of the heart of Asia. 
The three great rivers of China flow eastward, hence 
China constitutes the Pacific slope of the Anan conti- 
nent. Standing on Ta Obo Shan a marvelous view 
greeted the eyes at every turn. To the right stretched 
the massive northern mountain range, snow-capped and 
superb; behind us the Sun and Moon Mountains, on 
the foothills of which lay quaint, quiet, fortified Ha 
Lah Ku Tu; to the left the Yao Mo Shan; to the south 
Koko Nor. 

A cloudless sky looked down on a houseless, fenceless 
scene of white and green and blue and black. Over the 
undulating landscape roamed flocks of sheep and herds 
of yak, the latter of exceptional size. They pastured 
on sweet grasses amidst which grew the bluest flowers 
the eyes had ever beheld. 

The whole country is gay with color. To match 
nature, the Tibetans clothe themselves in materials of 
rich tint, yellow and red and orange; and gaudy flags 
flutter from many lofty points. 

They are fiercely patriotic. Their Monroe doctrine 
has long been announced with fervor and enforced with 
vigor. Few foreigners may penetrate into their country; 
some have risked their lives and come out again to 



^Jlt^l^:*^:^ll»tt 323 

The grief of age orer the n^lect of youth is vain. 

give us glimpses of the forbidden land; but our knowl- 
edge of it is less until the Younghusband expedition 
than our knowledge of Japan before its seclusion was 
invaded. These fierce horsemen are a lofty line of 
proud ancestry. 

Their food is good, their location admirable, their 
muscles strong. They can ride and that right nobly, 
realizing almost the ancient fable of the Centaurs. It 
is an exaggeration to say they cannot walk; their heavy, 
clumsy foot-gear prevents comfortable progress on the 
feet; but then they are naturally cavalrymen, and per- 
haps will become as good artillerymen. Chin exercised 
wisdom when he erected a Great Wall between these 
hardy, daring, mounted warriors, and the quiet, home- 
loving, plodding peasants of his own fertile kingdom. 
But they pondered over his policy, and reversed it. 
They have drawn an impalpable barrier around their 
own land, and now there are roads leading out of 
Tibet, but none leading in. Where else in the world 
do we find single-action roads of such a kind? Look 
at this sample face I Quickly does it change; passions 
powerful and precipitate dwell behind that bright red 
scarf. Always handy is the sword, ever loaded is the 
gun. No bells herald the approach of these horsemen, 
as in China; silently they sweep through the night, or 
rush through the day. Ready are they to meet a foe, 
or rob a friend, with the utmost jollity of demeanor. 

But patriotism is excelled by one other sentiment, 
religion; and all the bright coloring we rejoice in is 
symbolic of this also. The various tints tell of the 



324 THE GREAT WALL Of CBXSA 

various orders of monks, just as in medieval Europe, 
but instead of black, white and gray friars, they have 
red, orange and yellow monks. Strange has been the 
connection between these Buddhists and Christians. It 
was the Buddha who first worked up hermits into an 
order of monks, whence the idea spread westward and 
was acclimatized in Syria and Egjrpt, in Asia Minor 
and Italy, and at last over all European Christendom. 
But the Syrian missionaries to China a thousand years 
later brought a western wave of influence, which deeply 
modified the Buddhist customs in Tibet, so that they 
adopted many rites of worship from the Christians. 
And when the Abb6 Hue found the full-blown ritual 
in these highlands, he could but wonder how the devil 
had inspired these idolaters to parody Christianity. 

Deeply religious are these Tibetans; gladly they give 
their sons to the lamasery, and thousands pass at least 
a part of their lives, if not the greater part, as celibates 
busy at prayer, or are ingenious enough to harness wind 
and water to grind their prayer-mills, while they idle 
in "mystic contemplation." With such a capacity for 
religion, do they not deserve the best to be had? They 
are of such quality that many heroic souls have for 
years been living on the border, waiting for the oppor- 
tunity to ascend into this Asiatic Switzerland, and 
cause a purer light to irradiate its uplands. 

Infested as this region is with robbers, we were loath 
to leave the superb scenery, the invigorating atmos- 
phere, and the heroic-looking mountaineers. Probably 
we shall have more to say about Tibet at some future 
time. Meantime we signalized our departure by a fight 



One cadi may averthxow a heio. 

with some fierce Tibetan dogs, and retired in good order 
down to the great frontier which was the base of our 
exploration. 

Inside the recently re-discovered Tibetan loop of the 
Great Wall the dty of Sining occupies an important 
position, and its antiquity is sufficient to warrant it 
having had six different names. It began as Hwang 
Chung, which signifies, "In the Midst of Cold Water." 
The aborigines who founded the city so called it be- 
cause of the snow-drainage flowing in divers channels 
hard by the site. This ancient name is perpetuated by 
the local cavalry regiment. But the Chinese of the 
Han dynasty changed the name to Kin Chen Kuin, 
"The Golden City"; the reason remains remote. There 
being much non-mountainous land near about, it was 
next named Sip'ing or "The Western Plain." The 
reason for these frequent changes was not given in the 
history consulted. Shanchow was followed by Ts'ing 
Tan Chen, "The Clear Boasting City"— most prosper- 
ous places possess that undesirable quality. The sixth 
name was Sining, "The Peaceful West." A name less 
appropriate could hardly have been invented, for in the 
province of Kansu each generation has a rebellion of its 
own. The whole Chinese people are warlike. During 
the last two thousand years, there have been fifty real 
rebellions or tears, making the astonishing average of 
one fighting period in every forty years, or about the 
same as the United States, and rather fewer than Great 
Britain. And yet careless observers tell the ignorant that 
China hates and avoids war. She prefers peace to war» 



326 THE GREAT WALL OP CHINA 

but when the latter is forced upon her, she awakens the 
ancient spirit to tremendous activity and success. Few 
cities can boast scenes of confusion and bloodshed equal 
to those witnessed in the "Peaceful West" Horrors 
past the power of pen and pencil to depict, have been 
enacted within these curving walls. 

Beautiful for situation, resting softly on the gentle 
slopes of the Nan Shan foothills, looking out upon four 
broad fertile valleys, Sining occupies a strategic posi- 
tion. High massive brick-faced walls, with bastions, 
towers, battlements, and four gates, strong and heavy, 
constitute the fortifications. The East Gate deserves 
particular mention, for in addition to the ordinary por- 
tal is a portcullis of a thousand catties* weight. 

If the East Gate is interesting itself, the West Gate 
furnishes a thrilling story of tragedy. Here eight lead- 
ers of a rebellion, after being coiu*t-martialed, were led 
out to execution. As they passed between the inhuman 
populace lining the two sides of the streets, they were 
subjected to the horrible experience of sword and spear 
thrusts until, mangled and bleeding, the place of execu- 
tion relieved them of their heads and their sufferings. 
But this was not alL No sooner had the hapless 
heads fallen on the pavement, than the executioners 
ripped open the bodies, tore out the hearts and ate them, 
as morsels reckoned to transfer the heroic spirit of the 
enemy to their own hearts I 

Not far from the West Gate one sees many quaint 
water-mills furnished by artificial canals and run on 
the ancient principle of horizontal lever action with a 
tremendous waste of power. They are perched on half 



To a frag in a well, heaven U only a ateve in i 



a dozen p3es, the wheel is horizontal, built of wood, and 
attached to a perpendicular shaft, at the upper end of 
which is the millstone. The water flows down a trough 
wide at the top, narrow at the bottom, striking the broad 
spokes at less than a right angle, and grinds grain. The 
tariff is two hundred cash a bag, or if money is not 
forthcoming, the miller keeps the bran* Two of these 
picturesque mills grind tobacco stalks, which are then 
pressed with the leaves and shaved. All the way to 
Tibet we came upon similar quaint flour factories often 
nestled in the most fascinating bits of scenery. The 
South River is crossed by ford or ferry except for a 
few months when temporary bridges are constructed by 
the inhabitants living on the shore. One bridge, how- 
ever, is always ready for use by the Ambam, the Imperial 
Resident, who governs the northern portion of Tibet. 

On the north hills, in the red loess earth, are many 
eaves. One of the hills was formerly occupied by 
groups of temples which have not been rebuilt since ibe 
last Mohammedan rebellion. The fact that these weak 
gods and their houses remain demolished suggests the 
decadence of the faith of Buddha. The passing of 
Buddhism is also indicated by the many temples out of 
repair. Sining is a city of temples and yamens. Here 
one is likely to find evidences of the ascent or descent of 
the idolatrous worship of monstrous images. Buddhism 
is a godless religion, but can there be a religion without 
a god? 

The north wall of the dty is full of curves. When 
being constructed, before it was well set, a heavy fall 



328 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

of snow descended, whereupon the dragon came and 
laid himself tdong the wet wall, cauising the greak 
masoniy to yield to the diape of his body. The wall m 
forty feet in height, thirty feet tiiick at tile base and 
fifteen on top. Along tiie battlement are lekewps of 
white cobblestones ready to be used in resisting an 
luisault. 

The interest of the visitor is sustained, on what&V^ 
side of the cfty he ha{^>ens to be. By tiie Nortii G«te & 
a spring of pure, cold drinking water of capacity suiB- 
cient to supply tiie city suburi)S. Strange to relate, a 
blind people's courtyard is provided by the government 
whidi supplies each sightless person living tiiere with 
half a pound of flour per day; any oilier support is 
obtained by begging. 

The granaries are busy and interesting (daces. We 
visited one where grain is stored for a year. Likfe 
Joseph in Egypt, the officials store it up against a 
famine or a rebeltion. A supply to provide for twenty 
thousand additional people who may flock to the city for 
safety, is provided. 

The schools in the city, wfaidi have adopted modem 
methods, are three in number, two being high schook. 
The teachers, unfortunately, have had but one year's 
training in Lanchow, and naturally only the most ele- 
mentary teacUng can be done. The subjects are geog- 
raphy, mathematics, geology and drills. The sum total 
attendance is two hundred. This is a small beginning, 
but indicates that the reform movement which is sweep- 
ing over this vast empire has reached the borders of 
Tibet. CNlier evidences of reform are the change in 



When the nmle is beaten the hone is seated. 

liie style of clotiiing; narrows sleeves and sfaoii^r, semi- 
foreign fashion, and small straw hats have evidently 
oome to stay. 

Then there is the newly organized police force, and 
the modernizing of the troops. For Sining is not only 
a dty of temples and yamens, but of barracks. Here 
are quartered two himdred horse and two thousand foot 
soldiers. If there are many yamens there are many 
officials, including the Amban. Many Tibetans visit 
the city, bringing in borax, rhubarb, musk, antlers, wool, 
and the beautiful TibetAn sable furs, for which they 
purchase foreign calico of bright colors, colored thread, 
beads, and Khata, whidh is the Scarf of Blessing, made 
of silk, and pale blue in color. Fish from the Koko Nor 
are sold on the street. 

Among the sights of the city is the Confucian temple. 
Within the precincts of this temple have been enacted 
scenes which will live in history. Here thousands of 
bleeding men were ministered to by three foreigners who 
were living in the city at the time of the recent rebellion. 
Their names and themselves deserve public recogni- 
tion at the hands of the imperial government. Henry 
French Ridley, his heroic wife, and James C. Hall, 
day after day for months went to the Confucian temple 
and operated on the wounded soldiers, often under the 
most disgusting conditions, but with eminent success. 
When diphtheria broke out, horror was added to horror. 
Then came smaUpox; Ridley himself was stricken 
down with illness. But for nine months the mission- 
aries labored with a courage and heroism uneclipsed in 



330 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

the annals of war, and yet they have been left without 
the Decoration of the Dragon or any proper acknowl- 
edgment on the part of the imperial power. The 
nervous strain endured by this faithful trio is beyond 
human language to describe, and their service beyond 
all praise* Over five thousand people died of disease 
during the siege. Children were thrown into the streets^ 
and were later thrown into a hole outside the West Gate^ 
The sanitary conditions beggar description. When» 
each day, the refuse in the streets thawed out, the stench, 
was almost unendurable. 

The last and most important site in the city of Sining^ 
is the China Inland Mission, with its heroic servants* 
the English missionaries. Here is the most beautiful 
chapel in Kansu, and the only chapel in China, so far 
as we know, built entirely by money contributed by ex-^ 
plorers and travelers, including the gifts of Roman 
Catholics. In this chapel may be found at almost any 
service Mongolians, Tibetans, aboriginals, Chinese and 
foreigners. The church membership is growing, and 
the whole aspect of the movement is that of success* 
The prosperity of Christian missions on the borderland 
of Tibet is a fair sample of the success attending such 
efforts throughout China. Considering the mental and 
spiritual surroundings, we hold this mission a miracle 
of modem times. 

Here is just the place for a physician skilful in sur- 
gery, proficient in medication, and true as a Christian. 
His services would carry his name into the far fastnesses 
of mysterioua Tibet, where would be told the story of 
Christian philanthropy. Even in the Panhandle of 



n^m^^nm^ 331 

Birth and death are decreed, wealth and hoooar 
are with God. 

China we heard of the brilliant surgeon, H. S. Jenkins, 
and his gifted confederate, at Sianfu, many days' jour- 
ney toward sunrise! Why are medical men selfish? In 
America are hundreds of doctors to spare. We can 
think of no better opportunity for gifted surgeons of 
culture and generous Christian spirit to serve this day 
and generation, than right here, seven thousand feet 
above the sea at Ridley's mission, situated inside the 
Great Wall on the high road leading into the mysteri- 
ous Land of the Lamas. 



CHAPTER XXIV 

The Chin Tablet: ''One of the most remarkable ReUc9 
of AnHqvity.^ 

The Great Emperor established his capital near K wan- 
chung, known to-day as Sianf u. The site had already 
been a petty capital for nearly nine centuries, but he 
transformed it into a dty of the first magnitude. It 
was the operation that Nebuchadnezzar performed on 
Babylon, Augustus on Rome — ^finding it of brick, and 
leaving it of marble — Constantine on Byzantium, or 
that which in the new world has produced Ottawa where 
only Bytown stood before, Chicago where was but an 
army post. Chin traced an outline, and erected walls 
the representative of which have stood for two millen- 
niums defying all assailants. 

When Kufu finished his great pyramid near the 
Nile, he carved an inscription; and this fashion has per^ 
sisted in all ages and places. The obelisks of Egsrpt, 
the clay cylinders of Chaldea, the Persian crosses on 
the coasts of India, all prepare us to hear that Chin, too, 
erected a monument with some record of his doings. It 
is not every one who has the restraint to say, as of Chris- 
topher Wren, "If you would see his monument, gasee 
around" St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Chin, therefore, encouraged his prime minister Li 
Ssu to compose an inscription. It recorded the ascent 
of Chin from mere kingship to the sway over the six 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Qei\ 

Henry French Ridley, hero of Sining, in Tibetan Costume 



Jade tmpolislied does not make a gem. 

kingdo^is, his stopping war and bringing peace to all 
the black-headed race, his personal visitation of his con- 
quests. It edged in a neat complimentary reference to 
the ministers who had carried out his measures, but it 
failed to take account of the weakness of Chin, desiring 
to be known as The Only First When, therefore, it 
was submitted to him for approval, he marked the 
omission, so that his observant pourtiers hastily begged 
to be allowed to amend it in this respect. 

Very few inscriptions had been carved on stone at 
that date. There is indeed some writing on the rocks at 
Kan-lan-shan, which w^s ^rst seen ip the year 1210 a.d., 
and is supposed by sopie to datp from 2200 b.c.1 But 
it names nobody, and many Chinese scholars regard it 
as really executed, at the earliest, fifty years after Chin, 
and inspired by this very undertaking. There were, how- 
ever, ten low pillars, with lettering describing a great 
hunt which had taken place about six hundred years 
before Chin, near the seaboard, so that there was some 
precedent for carving in stone. 

Yet there were no other relics of antiquity in any 
such imperishable material. The huge rock inscription 
of the Hittites or of Darius in western Asia, cannot be 
paralleled at this time in any part of Chin's empire. 
The art of writing was still in its childhood; the com- 
mon material was bamboo, the implement was a knife 
which scratched the letters. And as we know, against 
the literatiure thus painfully recorded, Chin issued an 
edict of destruction. 

He, in effect, opened a new era in the development 



334 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

of writing within his domains, when he ordered that the 
record drawn up by Li Ssu and amended by himself, 
should be carved on a stone tablet and erected on a low 
pedestal. Between scratching on bamboo, with a grain 
that tempted the graver to work across it, and carving 
on stone which yields equally to the chisel in all direc- 
tions, there is of necessity a difference. This reflects 
itself in the shape of the letters, for on stone it is far 
easier to carve in straight lines than to execute a curve. 
The peculiar script adopted for Chin's tablet is known 
to-day as the seal characters. It will be recollected that 
in a short time woven silk was adopted for the material, 
and a soft brush was used to paint on it. This rapidly 
modified the style of writing into graceful curves, while 
the seal character was reserved for graving on stones, 
whether large or small, whence the modem name. 

The monument was duly executed in this lapidary 
script, and on Mount I was erected to proclaim the 
glories of Chin. We are of opinion that two copies 
were inscribed at the same time, one of which was situ- 
ated in the capital of Chin. 

It set a new fashion, and gradually other monuments 
were clustered around it, as on the Sieges Alice of 
Berlin there grew up a perfect forest of tablets, mostly 
commemorating the glories of the rulers. It is rather 
amusing to recollect that Chin was particularly averse 
to the classics selected by Confucius, and then to find 
that the Thirteen Classics have been inscribed on a set of 
tablets erected here, while a full-length portrait of that 
sag^ has been sculptured hard by. 

Europeans often seek this eastern Westminster Ab- 




The Great Wall of China 



Photo by Dr. Geil 



This photograph of the modest but l)eautiful China Inland Mission home 
at Chinchow was taken from the roof of the church 



^»»»:?^*i*5e«-3r 335 

The myriad schemes of men are not worth one 
scheme of God. 

bey, to study there the famous Nestorian tablet, seven 
feet high by three wide, which was erected a thousand 
years after Chin, telling in Sjrriac and Chinese the story 
of a great Christian mission from Babylon, inaugurated 
658 A.D. The Chinese antiquary finds in this park 
original records of every period from the time of Chin 
till about 1600 a.d. 

Early in the tenth century, one such antiquary named 
Hsii Hsiian, a retired cavalry colonel of the guards, 
who had long made a hobby of penmanship, obtained a 
rubbing of Chin's tablet. To a westerner, at first sight, 
it is a little curious to fijid a soldier devoting himself to 
such literary pursuits. But when we consider how some 
of our ex-colonels spend their leisure, we may, perhaps, 
think it more praiseworthy to turn to letters than to 
advocate some novel fad. In China, too, until lately, 
the avenue to all rank in the army was by passing exam- 
inations in the classics, and not only the subject matter 
of these, but the form, — in the most explicit sense, the 
penmanship, — ^was a matter of great importance; so 
much so, that the Chinese minister at London himself 
painted an inscription recently for an exhibition. Hsii 
Hsiian then, in his old age, merely revived the studies of 
his youth, which he had never intermitted. Already re- 
nowned for his beautiful handwriting, he now changed 
his style, and modeled it anew on this archaic character. 
Evidently his influence may be compared to those 
modem type-founders who studied the masterpieces of 
early printers, when great scholars and calligraphists 
were enlisted to furnish models for the cutters, so that 



336 THE GREAT WALL O? C^TSA 

at the De Vinne press we, to-day, have antique forms 
revived. 

Thus Wen Pao, a pupil of the colonel, fired by zeal, 
devoted himself to this branch of learning. Having 
been twice plucked when trying for his doctor's d^ree, 
he quitted home and decided to seek knowledge in first- 
hand investigation. His master had only seen the rub- 
bing of this stone; could he find the original? For t^i 
days he roved through the thickets that overspread the 
mountain, only to feel at the end of his search that the 
revered record was lost to his generation. Imagine 
the disappointment of the scholar who had heard of a 
Moahite stone, with a valuable ancient inscription, but 
arrives too late to find it wholel What did the French 
Clermont-Ganneau do when the original had been de- 
stroyed? He fell back on his '"squeeze" and with its 
aid he reconstructed the stone, working in the fragments 
that survived. In this he merely trod in the steps of 
the devoted Wen Pao, when the Mountain of I failed to 
yield up the original tablet. 

Eighteen years elapsed after the scholar's fruitless 
search; perhaps the examiners accepted his thesis, in- 
complete as it was, and granted him his doctorate. His 
foot felt the rungs of the official ladder; he won the 
decoration of the Quiver of Red Fishskin; he was ap- 
pointed to the transport department; he gained a pre- 
fecture ; he came back at length as Minister of Religion 
— apparently with special supervision of the Christian 
churches — ^to the province of Shensi, whose capital was 
Sianfu, known at this period as Chang-an, where is 
now the Forest of Monuments. It was a dear caU of 



A ton is nerer di^giwtod with hit father's uglineMi 

Providence to resEume his reverential work, and in the 
year 994 a.d. he took his precious rubbing, and caused 
it to be engraved anew. In one trifle he passed an 
error, a variation as slight as that from a to an inverted 
V, which has given the meaning '"six" where the sense 
demands '"great." Then to the reconstructed text he 
appended the history of the original and of his repro- 
duction, and presented the replica to the university I 

This monument itself is now in its tenth century, and 
deserves study both for its own sake as showing the 
ideals of Wen Pao's age, and for its faithful preserva- 
tion of what was the second oldest Chinese inscription. 
Chin's original tablet may have been extant in the days 
of Colonel Hsii, but if the archaeologist, eager to win 
his degrees, could not find it a generation later, it is 
rather hopeless to expect it still survives above ground. 
But the Chinese fidelity in copying, which has passed 
into a proverb, assures us that we may rely on the in- 
scription of Wen Pao. 

Who, then, is equal to deciphering and translating 
it? Chinese scholars, of course, we appeal to first, but 
even in that land of classics, those who can make any- 
thing of these antique forms are few, Ev«i to recog- 
nize and pronounce them is a difficult achievement ; at the 
court of Belshaaszar the natives had to call in a learned 
foreigner before they could utter the sounds correspond- 
ing to the script upon the wall! Then to construe the 
ancient language into the vernacular of two thousand 
years later is another problem; it is not every schoolboy 
nor every Doctor of Literature who could render into 



338 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

modem English the laws of Alfred or the Dooms of 
Edward the Confessor. 

How striking it is then to hear that there are some 
few western scholars who have mastered this venerable 
character and can comprehend its ancient diction* 
Three of these have been good enough to study our 
rubbing of this monument for the purposes of this book. 
Where should we find such learning and such kindness 
combined? John Wherry, M.A., D.D., is a missionary, 
whose talents are directed to literary work in this literary 
land. Like the early Persian missionaries whose suc- 
cesses are chronicled in the Forest of Tablets, he is busy 
at Bible translation, but has found time to make a ver- 
sion of this inscription. But with that modesty that 
characterizes the truly great, he desired his work to be 
checked by other experts. To the president of a college 
he turned, and in Dr. Sheffield is another missionary 
grown gray in his arduous toils. From Dr. Sheffield he 
looked also to the ex-president of the Imperial Univer- 
sity, a grandsire of over fourscore years; and in him 
behold another Presbyterian missionary like himself^ 
Dr. Martini Here in the land where of all others liter- 
ary scholarship is esteemed, the Chinese own that in the 
front rank of their own peculiar studies stand three 
venerable missionaries f rc»n abroad. What a passport 
for them and for the message they live to utter! 

Here, then, is a part of a letter sent last April from 
Peking: 

"I inclose translations of both the seal characters and 
the modem script of the Ch'in tablet. I found some 
difficulty in making out all the seal characters, but by 










>n3^::aH- ir^ 






i#^«i •- ..-^ *H ^ 3 ^ l^;^. 



o 3 

= M 

^ C I 

I &^ 

J= X - 



A poient never knows his son's delects. 

patience my Chinese writer and myself have at last 
made sure of every one. There is an evident error in 
the cutting of one character, that is "great" for "six." 
To make absolutely sure of the fidelity to the original 
of my translation, I showed it to both Dr. Martin and 
to Dr. Sheffield. Both after careful study approved 
of it as faithful both in letter and spirit. Dr. Martin 
thinks the tablet is one of the most remarkable relics of 
antiquity. You will see that it is Ch'in Shih Huang's 
own apology for assuming imperial power. . . . 

"The originals are both delicate compositions, and it 
would be easy to destroy the spirit in translation. Dr. 
Martin's and Dr. Sheffield's approval of my translation 
extends to the language as well as the substance. . . •" 

Now we introduce the version for which these three 
distinguished scholars stand sponsors: 

T&ANBLATION OF THE Ch'iN TaBUKT, 
FomXST OF MONiriCEKTS, SlANFU 

'^Vhen our August Soyerelgn first set up his kingdoniy 
His seat was at FSng. At His succession He assumed the 
title of Prince, and planned measures to suppress disorder 
and rebellion in the States. His majestic bearing inspired 
awe to the four borders. He was martial, public-spirited^ 
straightforward, upright. His ministers of war receiving 
the royal mandate, in a brief time put an end to the great 
tyrannical and overbearing states. In His twenty-sixth year 
He conferred on His Ancestors the August Title (Emperor) 
— a brilliant illustration of filial duty. Having presented 
this offering of Grand Achievement, He conferred on the 
empire special benefits of His own. In person He made a 
tour of inspection to distant parts of His dominions. 



340 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

**Wheii He had ascended Mount I, His ministerial retinue 
with one mind turned their thoughts to the distant past 
Looking backwards they recalled the former ages when 
men first partitioned the soil and founded states, thus open- 
ing the way to the reign of strife, in which new wars arose 
daily, and blood flowed on battlements in streams. From 
the beginning in remote antiquity, succession to the throne 
had never descended beyond a few generations; and down 
to the Five Sovereigns none had been able to stay this per- 
petual change. Only from the present onward, now that 
imperial power is unified in a single line, will wars cease to 
arise. With the calamitous Chou blotted out, the black- 
haired people will live in quiet and peace. The advantages 
and benefits secured to them will long endure. 

"The brief eulogy of the reign prepared by the ministers 
was at first confined to the musical odes in which His enter- 
prises and achievements were set forth. The Emperor said, 
^Only a commemorative stone is adequate to the First Emper- 
or's administration. Now that I have adopted the Imperial 
title, unless early inscription on monumental stone cddbrate 
the far-reaching benevolence of the First Emperor, the su<>- 
cessors to the administration will not acknowledge My 
meritorious achievements and abounding virtues.' His 
prime minister (Li Ssu), His minister Ch'u Chi, and His 
minister and censor and officer Ten, braving death, begged 
permission to inscribe a stone in accordance with the decree 
just pronounced, and thus to show forth the splendors of 
this newly risen Orb of Day. Braving death the ministers so 
prayed: the rescript said, *So let it beP " 

Appendix to the Sbal Characters of the Ch'ih Tablet 

^*The tablet at Mount I, the inscription on whidi was 
written by ChSn's prime minister, Li Ssii, should, both by 
its uniqueness and its antiquity, be highly prised by all the 



The dererett wile cannot make congee without rice. 

world. The late commander of the Light Horse Guards 
Mr. Hail Hsiian, who had for nearly half a century taken 
the keenest delight in caligraphy, in which in his age he had 
no peer, in his late years obtained possession of a rubbing 
of the Mount I tablet. Thenceforth, modeling his penman- 
ship on this rubbing, he felt himself soaring to the border 
land between gods and men. On this account (he ordered 
X's) antique relics to be burned or thrown away. 

^^I, Wen Pao, schooled at the Gate of Hsii, and in a 
measure stimulated to emulate his course, in the spring of 
the fifth year of the era T*ai P*ing Hsing Kuo,* having for 
the second time failed to attain a Doctor's Degree, set out 
eastward to Ch^i and Lu. On a visit to the city of (Tsou), 
I ascended Mount I to look for the CVin tablet. It was 
nowhere to be seen. For ten full days, with painful anxiety, 
I groped in a jungle of thorns and weeds, only in the end 
to sigh that so divine a relic should be lost to the world. 

"I have now had the rubbing which I received from Hsfl 
engraved on stone for the School of the Sons of the Nation, 
at the old capital Chang-an. It may serve as an index to 
men of learning 'and culture, of the spirit of the old-time 
scholar. 

^^This record is made on the fifteenth day of 
the eighth moon of the fourth year of the era 
ChSin Hua* by Ch^ng WSn Pao, by imperial 
appointment Prefect and Minister of Rites of 
West ... in Sh@n Fu . . . land. Assistant 
Controller of Transx>ort products, decorated 
with the Red Fishskin Quiver.^ 

'A.D.9M. 



CHAPTER XXV 

In the Panhandle of China: Kanchow 

'^The lies of Liangchow are great : but : 
The lies of Kanchow are greater." 

— Old Saying. 

Loath to leave lovely Liangchow and its Eight Won- 
ders, the mule-Ktter caravan drew slowly out of the dty 
at cock-crowing and set off on tiie long journey to 
Kanchow, Suchow and the western end of the Great 
Wall. Before the setting of the first sun we had occa- 
sion to record "A day of fords"; eighty times the ani- 
mals waded through snow-water fresh from the lofty 
mountains on our left. And this though the high road 
has for centuries been traversed daily — Sundays not 
excepted — ^by long caravans of camels and divers other 
beasts of burden. 

Outside the East Gate of Yungchang one of our in- 
terpreters announced an "oil tablet.'* The interest 
awakened led us to pay a hasty visit to the oil tablet. 
What had it to say about a certain American corpora- 
tion and the illustrious founder? For we reasoned there 
can be no oil tablet without mention of those famous 
names perhaps even in prophecy, if the tablet be ancient. 
The tablet stood on a stone tortoise by the roadside, and 
passing carters dropped on its hard nose a sphere of oil 
to insure "good luck." Beyond the West Gate of Yung- 
chang two picturesque pagodas occupy geomantic sites. 

349 



II the pennies do not go, the poondt will not i 



One 18 designed to prevent sand submerging a city one 
hundred and forty b* away! Between the desert and the 
threatened city is a mountain range and the Great 
WaDI • • . 

The Great Wall passes through four states or prov- 
inces. Kansu is the most western. It is also a province 
of skeletons; numerous towns have been abandoned; the 
walls still standing present a scene of desolation not 
easily forgotten. Several times we came upon waUed 
cities, as we supposed, only to find neither buildings nor 
people inside the battlements. Doubtless certain of 
these were primarily protected camps, but many were 
thickly populated waUed towns wasted by the scourge 
of war. Over the East Gate of one, carved in stone, 
was the motto, ''Lift up your thoughts." 

Near Sin Ho, and between the ruins of the Great 
WaU and the mountains, herds of graceful antelopes 
expressed appreciation of the good grass. On our 
approach they cleared the Great WaD and made ofi^ for 
a distant ridge, when a Winchester procured delicious 
meat for our next meal. . . . The Great Wall, once 
incased in brick and stone, exhibits now only the loess 
core. Its course is in a wide and lofty valley, over 
broken hills and upon mountains; frequently follow- 
ing the line of least natural resistance. At Sin Ho a 
rustic, when asked why the people do not repair the 
Boundary WaD, replied, "We cannot repair our own 
city, how then the Great Wall? — only eighty families 
live in Sin Hoi" He also ventured the assertion that 
the mammoth Barrier was built to prevent a barbarian 



844 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

race on the north bringing their mules and donkeys in 
to eat peasl 

The Temple of the Broken Stomach was the next 
sight. Carpenters were repairing it» for a priest had 
tramped about the country awakening the faithful to 
their duty. In former times these fanatics drove nails 
into their flesh and otherwise worked on the sympathy 
of the devotees to obtain cash for the gods. Through 
rain we pushed on to the interesting city of Kanchow. 
There are four "Joes" as the word "Chows" is pro- 
nounced, Liangchow, Kanchow, Suchow and Lanchow. 
— ^all cities of some importance. AH have had to con- 
tend with the disasters of rebellion. 

Kanchow originally stood beside the Great Boundary. 
We were unable to learn why it was moved to its pres- 
ent site, unless it be for the good luck of the present 
location. Such is the local opinion, though a western 
traveler may dwell on evidence to the contrary. Here 
are mosquito-breeding, miasmatic swamps in the midst 
of the city! Here are curing hides strung along the 
streets drying in the sun and incidentally emitting odors 
of a substantial kind! Here are open street sewers 
giving out a stench which suggests the immediate pres- 
ence of the East and West Hell Temples. Do these 
conditions preserve the good luck of a metropolis? 
Many maladies oppress the people in this dusty, dirty» 
sin-cursed city. Travelers fifty U off can tell the loca- 
tion of Kanchow by the dust that usually hangs over 
the place. The Chinese take seriously a conundrum 
often heard in the streets, "What is it the more you 
wash it tibe dirtier it becomes?" Answer^ "Water 1" 



A doctor may cure disease, bat he cannot core fate 

Little water is used. The city should be moved back to 
its original site beside the Great Wall, where the fifteen 
thousand families might live to a good old age. 

Dust and dirt are found everywhere in China, and 
the hirsute customs of the people hardly form much 
safeguard against their carrying germs into mouth and 
nose. The beards are too straggly to act as sieves, 
though they may perhaps gather up many microbes. 
But the queues! It is quite impossible to cleanse these, 
and the one point of comfort is that they hang behind 
and do not introduce their inhabitants to the lungs. If 
the Chinese only shake their own hands, and never kiss 
one another, they, to this extent, impede the general 
circulation of the dust. 

The Hsien Yamen was polite and cordial and fur- 
nished us the following information: '"This is a rich 
agricultural region, — ^wheat, peas, beans, melons, are all 
raised in quantities. . . • Opium raising is decreasing, 
although this year ten thousand Chinese acres are culti- 
vated. • . . When manufactures are spoken of, Kan 
Chow is famous for woolen bags used for transporting 
goods on camels and mules, exported at the rate of ten 
thousand a year. The bags are coarse and durable. 
Licorice is also exported, but in no large quantities. 
Hemp is extensively cultivated and linseed oil is pro- 
duced. A few years ago a large trade was done in hogs' 
bristles, which were sent to the coast and shipped to 
foreign countries, but this trade, for some apparently 
unknown reason, has disappeared. Sheep and goat 
skins are dealt in and incense is numufactured in large 



346 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

quantities near the North Gate of the dty. Goog^iee is 
also exported in large quantities. 

The city is noted far and wide for its lies! We, there- 
f ore» despatched one of our attendants to visit all the 
temples and report on the religious teaching and wor- 
ship in the city. For we held that a decay in the virtue 
of truth telling is likely traceable to some lack in the 
practice of religion. He brought in the following list 
of religious houses: Temple of the Present Dynasty, 
City Guardian Temple, Dragon King Temple, Earth 
Lord Temple, Three Stars Temple, Two Bridegrooms 
Temple, Eight Candle Temple, White Garments Mon- 
astery, Three Officials Temple, Temple of the Great 
White Horse God Temple, Cow God Temple, Temple 
of Literature, Fire God Temple, Monastery of the 
Universal Door, East HeU Temple, Loyal Chaste 
Monastery, East Hell Temple, Abundant Virtue Mon- 
astery, Wind God Temple, Protect the Righteous 
Temple, and a Temple to the Goddess of Mercy! 

He also reported on the schools of the city. He 
found three important places of instruction, namely: 
Sweet Spring School, High Class Small School, and 
Exhortation to Study School; also many small low- 
grade schools. An effort is making for modem edu- 
cation but a real difficulty obtains when suitable teachers 
are sought, as two schools are actively experiencing. 

From this myrmidon and his report, we turned to the 
other and culled this tjrpical extract from his diary: 

**The men of my country, their mouths are like living 
fountains. Even those things they do not know they fool- 
ishly speak about with their whole heart. On the road we 




Q 
>» 






i 

feA 

e 

I 

CO 



I 



^ "S 



o 



Distant water cannot quench a near fire. 

passed a man: I asked him about ihe Ten Thousand li 
Long Wall. He replied, ^Chin Shih Huang built the Long 
Wall. He walked his horse, named '^Mount the Clouds.'' 
He ascended heaven and went.' (He then told me of a tree 
in heaven. I had heard many suns before about it, but this 
mouth told me better.) Heaven had one frost tree which 
was shaken. The Frost Tree Frost descended. In the sixth 
moon the green sprouts in the field for this reason by the 
Frost Tree, so it took the green sprouts and froze them to 
death. 

^*The common people because of their unbounded straits 
and bitterness, Shih Huang then used the people to build 
the Wall. Necessities for food he did not give ; he took the 
people and put them to death in the Wall with bitterness 
without number. After this, time after time there were 
words which came down from those who falsely knew 
about it.** 

Kanchow we found famous not only for lies, but also 
for legends — ^perhaps a distinction vdthout a difference. 
The legends often related to the Great Barrier, which 
looms large on the landscape, here unadorned by brick 
or stone incasing, a naked core of loess; the dry fog 
condensed, compressed, carven and conspicuous. How 
could this vast relic of the centuries not serve to pre- 
cipitate the folk-lore of the ages? Our ubiquitous 
friend, John Gwadey, Esq., entertained our inquisitive 
minds with a mixture of fact and fiction: 

"In the early days when Chin the Mighty was receiv- 
ing visitors, he always used to sit with a great sword 
bared on his lap. Once a man came to present the head 
of an enemy for which a reward had been offered; it 



348 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

was but a ruse to reach the emperor and stab him. The 
monarch was, however, too quick for the assassin, and 
with one terrible blow he severed his assailant's left leg." 
Be it remembered that in real truth there were at least 
two serious attempts to take the life of the man who 
had used up the lives of so many. As to the fable that 
Chin had wished to inter a million men within the Wall, 
John Gwadey had the original explanation that the 
purpose was to insure its endurance as long as the lives 
of the million. Hear him: 

"The Great Emperor was always prone to novelty 
and intended that the Wall should last forever. If he 
could bury a million men in it, it would endure first for a 
million years; then the million spirits^ which had attained 
their freedom would watch and guard the mighty 
Barrier against the evil spirits from the north, and 
against any earthly enemy. But, great as he was, he 
did not care to destroy so many people, as his wars had 
already slain so many. So, instead of taking a million 
separate men, he took one man with the cognomen of 
'Million,' and with suitable ceremonies immolated him 
to the gods." The scheme was ingenious, but the deities 
of that age seem to have been somewhat lax in their 
requirements, or somewhat easily hoodwinked. No 
wonder such gods are a little out of date. 

Kanchow now has but one church. In the days of 
Marco Polo it had three Christian churches, aU Nes- 
torian. He divided the population into three classes: 
Heathen (pagans), Mohammedans, Christians. The 
churches, in his phrase, were '"beautiful and great" 
That was between 1274 and 1291 A.D., at which time 



Watting for the battle before whetting yonr swotd. 

Kanchow was twenty U from its presait site, and on 
the other side of the Black River, where in the gravel 
to this day foundations are easily discernible, but these 
have not been excavated. In 1855 an imperial decree, 
one of the hospitable priests told us, was issued in the 
following language: "The Church of the Cross in Kan- 
chow, in the province of Kansu, has the body (corpse) 
of the Empress Sorhahtani, mother of Kublai Ehan. 
We pray you make sacrifice to her (body) ." The one 
church of the present, conducted by the Belgian mis- 
sion, reports eight hundred adherents among whom are 
merchants, farmers and coolies. Two priests are con- 
verting the heathen to the church. They are hardwork- 
ing and sanely aggressive. 

There is much to write about the lies of Kanchow; 
the wonderful well, the tree that took children up to 
heaven, the resurrections that have occurred in Kan- 
chow; and scores of other yarns. But a Tibetan prince 
called on us, indeed, twice came to visit; and as we are 
having more and more interest in the people who popu- 
late the Roof of the World, our space goes to him. 

The Tibetan prince, six feet some inches tall, power- 
fully built, great cheek bones, heroic but downtrodden, 
exhibited possibilities of freedom, logic and religion fit 
for the work of diplomacy, philanthropy, and war. 
How can we look at this fine specimen of physical man, 
the victim of the foreign drug, opium, and not be sorry? 
Foreigners have hardly prevailed to enter Tibet, but 
the foreigner's curse, opium, has entered. Opium is 
more subtle than the politician; the product of occidental 



350 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

commerce is superior in craftiness to him who produces 
and circulates it. 

This chieftain desired to be rid of this habit He 
reminds me of the best, the very best, of the American 
Indian chiefs. The missionaries will furnish him their 
medicine if he will come to them for it» but he lives away 
off there between two mountain ranges. He says he 
lives in Tibet, but the Chinese who are more powerful 
have pushed the boundary to suit themselves, and de- 
clare he lives in the Panhandle of China! And what 
can he do, this prince of Tibet? He asked to see and to 
purchase my automatic guns. Any price he could com- 
mand would be paid us for them. We refused to sell, 
and he was sad. Speaking of the Chinese, the chieftain 
said, ''Their hearts are not good although their words 
are. We barbarians cannot compete with them; they 
are too subtle." After a long conversation during 
which he told us of the deer in the tip of whose horn is 
found the precious ball of blood of such value as 
medicine that only millionaires and emperors can com- 
mand it, he invited us to come over ''between the moun- 
tain ranges" and be his guest. We had a desire to visit 
this mysterious valley but declined. Then, most im- 
pressively he asked, "Tell me truly, what makes foreign- 
ers so powerful?" So seriously spoken was this, and 
with such profound spirit of inquiry, that we found 
ourselves awakened to a great desire to lend him a hand. 
We felt bound to truthfully answer his question. After 
speaking of modem education, inventions, parliaments, 
schemes for rapid transit and so forth, we urged last 
and most important, the Christian religion 1 Which we 




c 

I 



§ 



o 



ii 

c 

o ^ 

II 



With fire enough yon can cook anything^ with 
money enough you can do anything. 

plainly told the Tibetan prince made the difference in 
character, and that character is the first asset of any 
people. 

Before leaving Kanchow, we had occasion to call at a 
native bank and cash a draft. The business was con- 
ducted with despatch. The head of this bank which 
"turns over/* in this city alone, a sum total of over two 
hundred thousand taels per year, is a member of a very 
wealthy and prominent family of bankers who have 
banks in various cities throughout the empire. The 
young man is himself rich and well educated, of bril- 
liant intellectual parts, a naturally progressive Chinese. 
He has admiration for foreigners. This is the result of 
his meeting a missionary of the China Inland Mission 
who was using a camera. Photography caught the 
banker's fancy ; he ordered a camera for himself. Later 
he saw the foreigners' sewing machine and sent off to 
America for one. Then he asked about the foreigner's 
books. The mission worker presented him with a Bible. 
He began to study it, and after fifteen moons of study 
the banker applied for admission to the Christian 
church. He created a sensation when in the presence 
of the wealthy members of his father's family and cul- 
tured friends he joined the Christian church. This 
occurred in Shansi under the ministry of John Falls, 
Esq. He has now come out into this important far 
western city to take over the presidency of the big bank 
and has brought his anti-opium and other Christian 
principles with him. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

The Panhandle of China. The City of Su 

The Panhandle of China is the land of rhubarb, 
whence originally came the whole stock of that edible 
on this planet. As we journeyed from Kanchow to 
Suchow, the most westerly dty of the Central Kingdom,^ 
our course lay for more than two hundred U between 
the Great Boundary and Rhubarb Mountain. Yet, be 
it known, that the Chinese value this, not as the raw 
material for rhubarb pie, but as a drug; and they actu- 
ally thought at the time of the Opium Wars that by 
ceasing to export it, they could bring the West to 
terms. 

Ten feet high do the stalks grow, and one root has 
been known to weigh fifty pounds. Up the mountain 
side, on the flats, in the marshes, this sturdy plant 
strikes deep, and adorns the earth with its white blos- 
soms. The Chinese prefer to gather the older roots, 
and of them prefer the male plants; removing the rind 
or bark, they dry the roots for export. For themselves, 
they esteem it as equal to Grooghee and Boho for 
strength and certainty. 

We were fortunate enough to find one western family 
who were primitive enough to treat it in western style 
and serve a real old-fashioned rhubarb pie, recalling the 
delights of boyhood. Nor was this the only luscious 

^ I.e.9 of the dgbteen provinces. 

S62 



^5r^wn»Ji^T» 353 

A scholar without going ontaide his door knowi 
everything under heaven. 

eatable of fhe district; melons and onions of the most 
delicious flavor and in great quantity daim favorable 
notice. 

We have been interested to notice with what rever- 
ence bread is picked up if by chance or design we 
dropped even crumbs. On not a few occasions have we 
purposely thrown away the outer skin of the little round 
steamed loaves, and every time would promptly come 
some man or child to carefully gather up the crumbs 
that none be lost. . . • The fragments were sacred, 
and we remembered the words of the Greatest Master, 
"'gather up the fragments that none be lost." We 
emptied cake bits and hard crumbs out of our hunting 
coat pockets for the sole purpose of cleaning the cloth, 
but a full-grown man, well dressed and polite, picked 
up the bits one by one! Bread seems almost as precious 
to a Chinese as printed paper, and what more can we 
say? 

Since leaving the Yellow River at the Shansi line, we 
have followed the Long Wall, at a high altitude; 
Suchow, where we now are, is at a great height. The 
city is famous for the jade articles produced; four thou- 
sand families populate the last city along the Great 
Wall and certain families claim an hereditary right to 
work in jade. We made some inquiries about jade and 
purchased certain articles creditably wrought^ but our 
chief interest still lay in the Long Wall. 

This whole region, as one would expect, is rife with 
legends about the work of Chin. And when John 
Gwadey, Esq., turned up with the tale of a wonderful 

88 



354 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

dog of Chin» we were ready to attend. The valuable 
canine seems to hare possessed, in addition to dog sense, 
some human sense, with the further adornment of sense 
not found in humans. To quote Gwadey: ''Chin, the 
First I^peror, had a wonderful dog. It was as large as 
a Suchow cowl It had a chameleon skin, but of a new 
kind. Instead of its changing color according to the 
object it was on, it suited the light or the night, by be- 
coming bkck at night and red in the daytime. The Red 
Dog was blessed with miraculous nostrils, for it could 
4nnell out bad officials. China is now badly in need of 
« supply of red dogs! If an official did not mend his 
ways after a few preliminary hint bites, the Red Dog 
simply bit him to death. The tail of Chin's dog was 
endowed. It told Chin what persons who were talking 
with him were really thinking about. A most danger- 
ous sort of instinct With his head the dog understood 
and with his tail, by a system of signals, he informed 
his master. The dog, furthermore, had long ears and 
could understand any language, and acted for Chin as 
an interpreter with his tail. When Chin died the dog 
died. By one wag of his tail he knew Chin's son would 
be no good. The eyes of the dog at times were invisiblel 
At other times they shone like two bright lamps." We 
have pictured the dog bearing down on a helpless 
official at night like an automobile. 

The traveler experiences considerable difficulty when 
he attempts to obtain information of their city from the 
citizens. This is easily accounted for. The frequent 
rebellions nearly destroyed the inhabitants. Even now 
only twenty out of a hundred are of local birth. But 



Monej covers many ainiw 

however little people know about their city, they are 
ever ready to talk about the Big Boundary. The dog 
of Chin was a good animal story and it was followed by 
the tale of the black hare. 

Chin had a dream wherein he saw two hares, one of 
which caught the sun in its arms. The other, displeased 
by this performance, strove for possession of the orb 
of day. ... A black hare appeared on the scene, sep- 
arated the combatants, and took away the sun. Chin 
summoned the wise men the next day and demanded of 
them, on pain of death, the interpretation of the vision. 
The statesmen guessed it signified that the two warring 
kingdoms of China would be subdued by the Black Tar- 
tars, and urged Chin to build the Great Wall. He built 
the Wall and issued a decree that should have perpetual 
force, that in the present and all future time any man 
taking a nap on the Wall should be buried alive in the 
construction! 

One good story provokes another, and while we were 
supping our gruel other travelers came in and contrib- 
uted their quota. Unfortunately, their imaginations 
or their memories were slow to work. "How long is the 
Great Walir "I feel it, and can*t get at it.'' "What 
do you think of Chin?'* "He was a military king." 

The same queries put to another man at lunch elicited 
the opinions that the Great Wall was endless, there 
being no east end and no west, and that Chin was a bad 
emperor. The notion of an endless Wall tickled our 
fancy, it reminded us of the Irish sailor, who, after 
hauling inboard a few hundred fathoms of line» 



356 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

scratched his poll and soliloquized, ''Some haythen 
naygur must have cut the end off I" In the multitude 
of councilors there is safety, and we tried a third diner: 
he responded, ''It is called the Ten-Thousand-Z4-L«ong 
Wall, but it is longer than that, maybe forty thousand, 
maybe a hundred thousand." A fourth had limited 
powers of arithmetic, and could only profess agnosti- 
cism: "No, it has no end, it has no feet or inches. It was 
built over ten thousand years ago. How do I know the 
height of the Great Wall, whether outside or inside?** 

On the road we had found less ignorance, but the 
accuracy of the information is not warranted. A man 
at Ta Kia Tsa knew that Chin had built it, but dated it 
only eight centuries ago. 

"How long did it take?" 

"No time at all; he rode a strange horse whidi made 
the valleys and hills equal; where his horse's hoofs trod, 
the Wall sprang up." 

"Did he not use men to build it?" 

"Yes, but I do not understand how; so the old men 
told us." 

How often "the old men told us" serves as stamp to 
give currency to obvious idiocies 1 Great is the power of 
tradition, and little its value. 

"How many hands worked on it?" 

"There were thousands of mouths working there." 

Capital! Did they work at eating or at talking? 
And is the work of a hand or a mouth more useful? 

"How did they get the Wall across the Yellow 
Biver?" 



Lamb though sweet does not suit all taste. 

'The water was parted for a hundred K, and so the 
masons did their work." 

"Has the Wall got any end to itr 

"No, it is a circle, and the Central Kingdom is sur- 
romided on all sides by the WaU." 

"What else do you know about Chin?" 

"Chin passed here building the Great Wall, but he 
has never come back; he is going on still." 

"How do you know that?" 

"There was God-breath in him," 

Evidently, though Chin's body lay mouldering in 
the grave, his soul goes building on. 

After this mass of legendary lore, it was a relief to 
get back to more solid ground, and we welcomed the 
return of the census taker who had gone out to enumer- 
ate the streets. The Drum Tower is the center of the 
city, like the city hall at Philadelphia; from it radiate 
out Great North Street, Great East Street, Great 
South Street, and Great West Street Other impor- 
tant thoroughfares are Official Residence Street, Liter- 
ary Temple Street, Horse God Street, Trinity Tower 
Street and Red Family Street. Then come a group 
of alleys: Distilled Liquor, Head Road, Second Road, 
Third Road, Fruit Food, and thus the main arterial 
system ramified to the suburbs. Do these read quaintly? 
Remember how a Londoner traverses daily many roads 
with equally significant names, signifying nothing. Do 
armorers live in St. Mary Axe, in Bucklers Bury, or in 
Cannon Street? Can you market for dinner in the 
Poultry, Camomile Street, Hounds Ditch, Com Hillt 



358 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Rolls Court, or Cook Lane? May you expect cavalry 
barracks in Eiiight Rider Street, or Gilt Spur Street? 
Do you look for a prison in Fetter Lane, a surgery in 
Doctor's Commons, or a tailor shop in Thread Needle 
Street? These naines are conmionplace to him, but ring 
strangely in the ears of a foreigner. 

We had heard about Chin's dog with a certain amount 
of reserve in our acceptance of the tale. Another dog 
story was now offered for our consumption, and it is 
duly passed on: 

Wang was a man who used an alcoholic beverage. 
After heavily drinking he fell asleep and was somidly 
slumbering in the wild countryside, when some natives 
set the long grass afire. As the encircling conflagra- 
tion closed in about the drunken Wang, it threatened 
to bum him to death. It would have consumed Wang 
but for his faithful dog. He, seeing the danger, ran 
to the river, soaked himself with water and then, shaking 
himself violently, covered his master's clothes with water 
and thereby saved his life I Our apparent but unin- 
tended ridicule must have cut short the story, for it 
seems to have no distinct connection with the Rampart 

Reflecting on the ignorance of the people here and 
the lonely lot of the Europeans who cast in their lot to 
raise and educate them, we began to feel that special 
care should be taken to supply these noble exiles with 
something to cheer and vary their life. These pioneers 
of western civilization are literally spending themselves 
in their attempt to help the Chinese; at this time of 
transition the populace is extremely impressionable, 
and a little impulse may efi^ect great things in putting 




3 

5 



Urn 

o 



^ 2 






A^^:^mixi^m^ 359 

MfipiBTmittds ave as unlike m their fftoea. 

them on the right track. The Chinese are very keen 
business people, and have a sharp eye to the main 
chance; believing that a bird in the hand is worth two 
in the bush, they want present, visible prosperity, and 
will not defer it for a promise to pay in the other worlds 
The missionaries are quite able to meet them on this 
very ground; there are precepts that will appeal to the 
oriental. 

"Active in business, fervent in spirit,*' they already; 
are; to be also "serving the Lord" is quite in line witht 
the others. Once convince a Chinese that godliness is 
profitable for the life that now is, and he will attend 
seriously to the rest of the message. 

But how the energy is drained out of the men and 
women who have expatriated themselves to do this work. 
Granted that they have sources of spiritual strength 
which are open to men everjrwhere and under all cir- 
cumstances. But how about mental vigor? Even mis- 
sionaries are not beyond Elijah, men of like passions 
with ourselves. They value the mail from abroad with 
its driblets of correspondence to show they are not for- 
gotten. Book postage is cheap, sixteen cents will carry 
on most volumes. They get plenty of devotional liter- 
ature, tracts, and reports from societies; read that kind 
yourself and then send it to your mother-in-law; send 
them something readable to cheer the jaded spirit, to 
amuse the saddened heart, to keep the horizon from con- 
tracting. Science, art, travel, music, humor, — ^what- 
ever you delight in yourself, send on and believe that 
the missionary has not ceased to be a man with all- 



360 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

round human tastes: Homines sunt, et nihil humanufn 
alienum est. 

As we drew near the end of the journey along the 
great Northern Boundary, our desire to see the last 
gate of China intensified, and we pushed on toward the 
setting sun* 



CHAPTER XXVII 

The End of the Great WaU 

Alone we passed through the West Gate of Eiayii 
Ewan, and alone we stood amid the desolation. As we 
looked toward the west we saw no human habitation to 
modify the unhappy landscape. 

Boundless and bare. 
The lone and level sands stretched far away. 

My eyes beheld only sand and pebbles and gaunt poles, 
standing up like petrified principles, holding aloft a 
line of wire carrying to distant regions messages of 
peace and perhaps of war. To the north rose moun- 
tains, closing in near by to join those in the south, 
whereon lay the whiteness of the snows of an eternal 
winter. 

The Great Wall runs from the deep sea to the desert, 
from animation to stagnation. This Western Gate of 
Empire, to see which we have traveled more than ten 
thousand miles, over land and water, through storms 
and sunshine, in health and fever, has a history, mostly 
unwritten, worthy of the pen of a Gibbon or a General 
Davis. In rapid flight through these guarded portals, 
how many have passed out into the Gobi uplands, es- 
caping from the heavy hand of vengeance! How many 
again, fugitives from justice, from disaster, from pov- 
erty, hastening with lively hopes of a better future in 

361 



362 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 




I 




Plan of 



AND 



©I^EAT MAtlL 









la *^ ■ 






i. 


s« 






0) 






IS 



5 




XtfCffel water does not mn, nor a contented men gnanbto. 

store for them toward the setting suni And in the 
opposite direction what peoples, principles and passions 
have entered I Christianity twice. Buddhism tiiree 
times, came eastward, perhaps through this same gate. 
Twice Christianity came in — and failed. A third time 
that matchless religion has made its entry from the west, 
and now is here to stay. 

On the road to Kiayiikwan we several times saw a 
mirage of entrancing beauty. The Italian caUs it 
"Fata Morgana," the Arab, "Water of the Desert," the 
Hindu "The Picture." A fairer vision than this mar- 
velously attractive sky scene these human eyes have 
never looked upon. It set us all musing. What chi- 
merical reasoning was at work when they reckoned that 
a wall, even this Great Wall, could prevent the northern 
hordes of horsemen from passing to the fertile plains 
of the south, unless well manned? Truly the morale of 
men is more important than mortar. It was not the 
Wall of China which was at fault. Man not only the 
Wall, but man the men of China! Bricks and badness 
can only for a brief time withstand the onset of virtu- 
ous and fully accoutered foes. The Chinese philosopher 

says: 

Grood men are a fence ; 

The multitude of the people are a wall ; 

Great states are screens; 

Great families are buttresses; 

The cherishing of virtue secures repose. 

As we thus stand alone and reflect, the light falls 
upon a brick-incased stone tablet. In the jubilation of 



364 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

success this important monument, the most western 
tablet in the eighteen provinces, escaped our eye. Not 
only are there large ideographs on it — ^we count four 
huge characters — ^but smaller have been carved by a 
steady hand, while many others written by passers-by, 
and still others scratched by the vagrant hand of fancy, 
cover the surface of this single stone. We at once fall 
to copying and deciphering these inscriptions while a 
dust storm obscures the surrounding desolation. 

'The Martial Barrier of all under Heaven.'' This is 
the purport of the large characters on the tablet. At 
all times and everjrwhere in China one's mind is bound 
to recall the time when this empire extended over a vast 
portion of the world. Particularly now does such a 
thought occur to us, and we wonder if again, and that 
right soon, the Chinese are destined to occupy a similar 
position. But we turn again to the stone and read Uie 
smaller inscriptions, which run as follows: 

1. "This Barrier is the ancient boundary between the flowery 

people and the barbarians (flowers and thorns). Spring 
wind and autumn zephyrs (manners and customs) desire to 
reach to the western barbarians. 

"After I have gone through and arranged peace, let the Tai 
Shan close up this pass.'' 

2. "Looking west, we see the vast road leading to the New 

Dominion. 

But only braves go through the Martial Barrier. 
Who fears not the desert of a thousand square K, 
Why should he fear the scorching heat of Heayen?^ 

8. "Without violence we must instil patriotism ; 

Without tears we must stir up the ancient people. 




The Great Wall of China Photo by Dr. Geil 

This tablet stands alone on the desert outside the west gate of Kiayiikwan, 
final fortification of China. "The Martial Barrier of all under 
Heaven" 



The cabbage grab dies in the cabbage 

Where is the Golden Pool of Ten Thousand lit 
The good luck, where is it gone to?* 

**Empty waste of Chin Hwang's heart! Vain was the labor?* 
The copying of the inscriptions over, and the stone 
having been photographed — with the aid of some sol- 
diers who had offered us their company — ^we went into 
the city. As we turned to do so and looked eastward, 
Eiajriikwan, with its embattled walls and three-storied 
towers, looked very beautiful to a wearied traveler who, 
for weeks past, had wandered over the desert. But, 
before we proceed with our narrative, let us add Black 
Dog's impressions to our own. We quote the whole 
passage from his diary: 

"Going west from Suchow seventy U, Eiayiikwanl 
One road of level land. After arriving at Kiajriikwan 
every one was speaking of the majestic, namely 'the 
Martial Pass of all below Heaven.' It was no false 
legend. Although the place of the pass was not very 
large the strictness of the laws was very awful! If a 
man issued from the pass he must at Suchow procure a 
passport, which was examined carefully, then he might 
go out at the pass. If he had no permit from the Chow, 
even if he had wings, it would be hard for him to fly 
out of the mouth of the pass. On the west of the city 
there is an official garden, called by name 'The Garden 

^A natiTc esplanation is as follows: '^flen in a pool of water there is 
a golden dish, in which is contained the luck of tlie neighborhood. Hie 
folk do not recognise the treasury but strangers are supposed to see it, and 
often they are reported as having carried it awajr, whereon the luck of the 
neighborhood disappears." 



366 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

of the Official Trees/ Inside and outside it was all tbe 
skeletons of corpses. Where the coffins were revealed, 
they had been torn open by wolves. There were truly 
many of these. There was the Long Wall coming 
straight from the west-north, a little east-south when 
departing. Going on ahead there was a river, said to 
be 'the Great North River.' The condition of the 
water of the river was very awe-inspiring, because the 
water streams from the upper plateaus where many 
having penetrated thus far unite in one. Outside the 
West Gate there is a small hill of sandy rocks. Ahead 
there is a great road traveled by the big carts. ... On 
the side of the road is a stone, on which it says: 'The 
Great Road to the West Country.' Traveling ahead 
there is the Gobi Desert. I do not know the difficulties 
of traveling this road. In the midst of the mouth of 
all men it is called T)itter.' Here in the tunnel of the 
West Gate are many verses. I read in these of the bitter 
pass,' *the bitter place,' *the bitter hard travel,' verses 
without number. I am not able to tell it all, I can only 
make plain a little of it. Every verse written was to 
show the bitterness of Gobi. ScHne spoke of the mouth 
of the pass; some spoke of the vows they had made in 
their hearts, but the height of their learning was not 
one. Men of bitter heart let flow bitter words; men of 
happy hearts sang happy songs. Truly one could see 
what a man had dcme and know men's hearts." 

In Eaajriikwan it was our fortune to occupy the 
upper room of the Increasing Righteousness Inn. Five 
inns altogether offer accommodation to the ten thou- 
sand persons who sojourn here each year. Quin, who 










& 



o 

•43 



I 



.a 

I 
■5 



1 
I 






^ 






*^ tH'^-^%' 



O ^ 

« S i 

H «> 
g 



Diligence overcomes all difficoltiei. 

has been on a visiting round to all of them, furnished 
the name of each as follows: The Increasing Righteous- 
ness Inn, the Accumulating Prosperity, the Broad Har- 
mony, the Virtue Abimdant, and Chen's Convenient 
Inn — ^truly a study in hotel names I We decided upon 
the Increasing Righteousness. While we were making 
the above notes, a verse on the wall of my room caught 
my eye, the work of a traveler who plainly shared our 
relief in escaping from the desert He wrote: 

From over the uplands of Gobi, 

From the dusty, dreary desert, 
I lift up my head and 

Behold the Towers of Kiayiikwan! 

A new man I entered the longed-for Gate; 

A very good place and no mistake; 
And I think of the travelers still outside 

And the dangers and hardships that there abide. 

Below the verse maker had written: 

"Will some princely man not find fault with my 
stupid writing but write a better rhyme than mine." As 
if in answer to the request we read the following below 
the first inscription: 

The Pass of Han! 
The moon of Chin! 

Fm recklessly thinking and guessing. 
Water never returns ; 
Sin ever bums ; 

There is no profit in transgressing. 



368 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

And beneath, in prose: 

**I have made seYeral joumejrs to the head of this Paas. 
The officials are strong, and I am a merchant withont 
wealth/' 

These writings on the inn walls are a regular feature 
of China. We noted in Kiayiikwan four others which 
seemed to me worth transcribing. The first was a pious 
inscription by "one hoping for success beyond the Great 
Barrier": 

*'I exhort the world to hear and prove my words. 
To have or not to have depends on Heaven. 
Follow the high, follow the low, follow your time; 
Whether long or whether short, it is before you. 
Respect your father's commands, foDow righteousness^ and 
dweD on your seat." 

The next two are from the walls of the guest chamber 
of the Accumulating Prosperity Inn: 

^Three brothers go forth outside the Pass, 

By hard scraping we have gathered the cash to cross the 

boundary. 
Once outside the Pass, we see dangers before us. 
Our stomachs are hungry and our lips are dry. 
When we reach the ancient city we will get a little more money. 
Our father and mother in their hearts are constantly anxious 

about us; 
But wait until next year, we shall be back again in Szechwan. 

*^At the present time I have been living twenty years away f rcMu 

home; 
I have passed through a thousand experiences ; 
I have already lived half my life. 



^^1 mtrnni^ 369 

Thrufaing the priest when he has finished praying 
for you. 

And I am now going out through the Pass. 

If I attempt to tell how dry and bitter the road will be, I shall 

never finish talking. 
I only hope I may meet a good companion and get the news 
from him.*' 

Written hy Wu Fu Hwan. 
Do Not Laugh 

'^When a man is out of a job, his head is low. 
When the Phoenix comes down from his perch. 

He is meaner than a chicken. 
When the lion loses his hair, the monkey laughs. 

When the tiger leaves the deep mountain. 
He is laughed at by the dogs." 

To this last effort in poetical expression there is added 
in prose the following : 

**The road leads westward to the seventy cities in the far 
country. The mountains and rivers of ten thousand king- 
doms return to everlasting antiquity. The majesty of this 
Pass is spoken about inside and outside of the kingdom and 
it protects heaven and earth." 

It seems to do these emigrants good to open their 
hearts on the wall of the inn! How much more sensible 
than the obscene scrawls on many a tramp's kitchen in 
England and America I 

In these hostelries of high-sounding names there is 
not much choice of accommodation, but there is a great 
variety in the nationalities and purposes of the guests. 
Many merchants come this way, Tibetans on fast horses, 
Mongols on camels from the Koko Nor, princes with 
flocks and herds going southwest along the Great South 



870 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

Road to seek pasturage, explorers, adventurers, warriors, 
Chinese immigrants, Indians, Russians, Turkomans, 
Jews, Persians, Englishmen, Frenchmen, Americans, 
fools and rascals, poets and missionaries — ^all go 
through this pass I 

Because of the munber of 'liard cases" who come this 
way, hoping to escape the vengeance of the law, sum- 
mary settlements are made here of disorderly conduct. 
This is the Far West of China. It was our fortune to 
meet the only native of Eiayiikwan. The other in- 
habitants, mostly soldiers, have come from distant parts 
of the empire. 'Distant Road Chow" (for that is the 
native's name) has fifty-seven winters on his head; but 
being a farmer he is an honorable and honored man; 
althou^ not yet old. The Chinese honor vocations or 
avocations in the following order, the best first: Schol- 
ars, farmers,^ artisans, merchants. All others remain- 
ing unmentioned are "common herd." Distant Road 
Chow related to me a tale of murder which seems inter- 
esting enough to be recorded here: 

A soldier of low morals was paying unnecessary at- 
tentions to the wife of Mr. Liang. The warrior Li was 
several times warned by the husband to keep away. 
Now Liang was an imperial courier and went to Su- 
chow on business, but returned home sooner than 
expected and found the soldier Li living there. With- 
out delay Liang took up a stout club of elm wood and 
killed both the adulterer and adulteress. The clubbing 
was so prompt that neither was given opportunity to 

^ In juD. 596 a decree was lasued that only oa scfaolan and farmers should 
official honor be conferred 




The Great Wall of China 



Photo by Dr. Q«a 



The western end of the Great Wall overlooking the hig White North River 



BftJ&RiNF 



371 



When the state ia ia turmoil, men think of their 
able general. 



resist. After this brain-beating exercise Liang slept; 
and when the morning dawned he mounted his fast 
horse, galloped to Suchow, gave himself up to the mag- 
istrate, confessed the killing, was examined, and accord- 
ing to Chinese law (which in this resembles the Jewish) , 
was set free. The official acquitted the assassin; re- 
warded him with grain; placed a red sash about his body 
to honor him, and made a proclamation announcing him 
a good Chinese I This was according to an ancient 
Chinese saying: ""A good Chinese does not commit 
adultery." 

Kiajriikwan is a place where lost ones and runaways 
are sought. A curious incident occurred during our 
residence at the pass. One of the interpreters in our 
caravan found a red paper in a chink in the wall of his 
room. On it were many characters, the translation of 
which is as follows: 

"To make known to the Princely Men at the Four Points 
of the Compass. To wit: That inside the city of Sianfu 
and on the East Tribute Street, in the inclosure of Mr. Li 
and family, for a year lived the family of Mr. Deep. On 
the fifteenth sun of the tenth moon, year twenty-seven 
Kwangsu, he left Sian and went to Lanchow, and there 
resided in the house of Mr. Sedate. Up to now no other 
word has been news of him. If the Princely Men know 
anything we kindly invite them to communicate with Mr. 
Sect. Mr. Deep's wife and children are now living at the 
North Potteries. Will the Princely Man with the golden 
heart be good and trouble himself for this? I am longing 
and hoping. When I see his letter I will knock my head on 
the ground three times and thank him.** 



372 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

From the Inn of Increasing Righteousness we sent 
out three men to copy inscriptions in the western gate 
of the dty and in the tube of the fortifications to the 
west, while we ourselves took mules and visited the real 
end of the Great Wall, which is not Kiayiikwan itself, 
but a point fifteen U southwest of it. During the jour- 
ney thither no human being crossed our path, and there 
was not a house in sight the whole way. Five antelopes 
were the principal sign of life, as they hurried out of 
our track, and lizards, magpies, and crows, of which 
there were some to be seen at the start, soon disappeared* 
There was nothing to attract the eye beyond whirlings 
spirals of sand and tufts of brown sage bush, while the 
whole landscape was earth color, save that on the lofty 
southern mountains there lay, as ever, the snow. The 
monotony would have been without relief but for the 
presence on the scene of the ruin whose end we were 
seeking — ^the ruin of the most stupendous achievement 
in Asia! 

When at last we reached the actual termination of 
the Wall, a surprise was in store for us. The construc- 
tion does not abut the southern moimtains, but stops 
short on a precipice sheer down two hundred feet, as 
perpendicular as if cut by engineers to a plimib line. 
Below flows the Big White North River. Mr. Clark 
dropped a stone and his heart beat eight times before - 
we heard the splash in the water below. The river is 
creamy white. The mandarin here declares that when 
the flow is only from springs, the water is clear, but 
that the melting of the snows colors it. The fact is that 
the tint is obtained by flowing through limestone. In 



mTtkA^J^mmnt 373 

Wben a man is oyer polite he has aomething to be|^. 

the river are fish; either dogfish or catfish, we could not 
learn which. 

The Big White North River at this point runs due 
east and west, but otherwise coils about in the most 
approved reptilian fashion, while the Wall is due north 
and south here. We could not resist being photo- 
graphed holding the *last brick" and then plunged it 
down the precipice into the river of cream. A maroon 
and white stone came with us for a paper weight. Every 
Lafayette College man will guess the reason. 

Here we stood nearly a mile above sea level, and how 
far from the sea? We did not carry a pedometer to 
measure out our daily path, especially as we sometimes 
utilized the legs of horses and mules, yet we cannot be 
wide of the mark in estimating the ruins of the Great 
Barrier, including spurs, arms and loops, as reaching 
over two thousand five hundred and fifty miles. We 
are of opinion that at the height of its usefulness the 
Great Wall had on its line at least twenty-five thousand 
towers and fifteen thousand watch towers. And even 
in the present state of decadence there probably remain 
twenty thousand towers, each capable of accommodat- 
ing one hundred armed men and ten thousand watch 
towers linked up with two thousand miles of Wall or 
Bampart; all capable of speedy fortification after mod- 
erate repair. When, too, we remember the walls en- 
circling two thousand fortified cities, we can see that 
China has enough rampart, if it were straightened out, 
to run from pole to pole as the axis on which the eartli 
might revolve. 



374 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

If, however, the question is, not how long is the Wall 
with all its convolutions, but how far apart are the two 
ends, the great forts at the Yellow Sand and at the 
Yellow Sea, then we quote our accurate observations. 
Shanhaikwan is in latitude 40"^ north, longitude 119^ 44' 
east; Eiayiikwan is in 89'' 51' north, OS"" 14' east 
If we remember that the earth is not a perfect globe, 
but an oblate spheroid flattened at the poles, the 
distance works out, by Clarke's spheroid, at 1142.809 
miles. Or if we neglect the fact that Kiayiikwan is 
nine miles nearer the equator than Shanhaikwan, and 
measure as on a regular sphere, the distance will be 
1142.209 common miles. As neither terminal tablet is 
exactly at the terminal fort, we may say in round num- 
bers that "Heaven made the Sea and the Mountains" 
is 1145 miles from "The Martial Barrier of all under 
Heaven.'* 

This stupendous structure extends from the Yellow 
Sea past the Yellow River to the Yellow Sand and 
thence on to the Big White Water. From the Yellow 
to the White, is the course of our thoughts when looking 
westward. And many considerations pass through the 
mind. Will the Yellows go to the Whites and submerge 
them? Will it be from Yellow to White; or will it be 
that the White will become Yellow and that these peo- 
ple will ultimately predominate? After the observations, 
scientific and otherwise, were finished we found our- 
selves loath to leave the ultimate point of the Great Wall. 
Most of our thoughts, as we rode toward beautiful Kia- 
yiikwan, were about the movements of nations. We 
"thought in empires." The Chinese evidently came 




The Great Wall of China' 
L. Newton Hayes, M.A. 



Photo by Dr. Geil 



III catching lebelt fint catch their king. 

originafiy through that pass and settled in the bend of 
the Yellow River. When they return toward the west 
from whence they came, where will they stop? Where 
is the real home of the yellow race? Will they ever go 
home and claim their own? 

Then we thought of the hundreds of miles of Wu Ti*s 
rampart extending west of here, but we decided to 
abide by our original purpose to deal with two Great 
Walls: that of Chin and that of the present, and then, 
too. Dr. Stein will ably report on the ruins of Wu Ti's 
construction. 

The men whom we sent to copy inscriptions on the 
outside of the West Gate and also in the tube of the Wall 
returned with many interesting verses and bits of prose. 
It was to be expected that men going west would feel 
differently from those going east, for the dread of this 
pass was greater to the criminal in former times than 
now. In the early days no man was permitted to pass 
except during certain hours on two days a week, and 
then it was required of him that before going west he 
should give his name to the civil mandarin, with some 
information about his character. Any person coming 
in through the gate was required to report himself to 
the military official. One might think that criminals 
would scale the Wall or slip through a rent in the Great 
Boundary. But any person venturing on any. such es- 
capade would pay for it with his head if caught, and 
many people seriously believe that it is impossible for 
a criminal to escape through this gateway. Truly a 



376 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

guilty oonscienoe doth make cowards of even Chinese, 
who have not so much as read Shakespeare. 

Curiously enough, there was a disturbance at mid- 
night in the grounds of the very inn where we were 
stopping. We were awakened out of a sound slumber 
by screams and shrieks that were terrifying in the ex- 
treme. At first it seemed that we must be dreaming, 
but the uproar grew louder and more awe-inspiring, 
until at length our thoughts ran to automatic rifles. 
Seizing one, we hastened into the cold, dark night, fear- 
ing that the danger was to our companions, who were 
sleeping on the far side of the courtyard and in the 
direction of the noise. The yelling and screaming were 
unearthly, fit for the lower regions. In the dim light 
we noticed that the great gate of the court was closed 
and locked. The crowd inside rushed about and were 
greatly excited. Rifle in hand, we joined the nenrous, 
trembling group, and listened to the strange tale being 
told by one of the most excited of the natives. 

Several men, it seems, were sleeping on the hong, 
with their heads on the outer edge after the Chinese 
custom, when something awakened one of them. He 
held his breath for fear, as he watched a tall, uncanny 
creature steal in through the door. This unearthly 
thing wore no queue, its hair hung down over the fore- 
head, stripes of bright yellow showed on the cheeks, and 
over it was a long blue gown lined with gray. The 
troubled imagination of the native pictured the visitor 
as of giant size, with long gaunt fingers and extended 
nails. It seems to have taken the comer of his doak, 
which evidently was leaded, and struck one after an- 



Alms done openly will be repaid secretly. 

other of the sleepers a heavy blow. It appeared to have 
a particular enmity for the man farthest in, who was 
sleeping next the wall. Repeated blows fell upon the 
head of this hapless man, who, not knowing what he 
said, shouted: "Strike me, strike me," which was pre- 
cisely what he did not want done. The fiend took him 
at his word and hit him again, until the wounded man, 
not knowing whether he was addressing a god or devil, 
shouted: "I would have done no evil; why does the devil 
come and beat me thus?" 

And so the story ran, told at the height of midnight, 
on the edge of the gloomy, silent desert at the end of the 
Great Wall, with the mountains of mysterious Tibet 
looking down upon the scene; it was all weird and un- 
canny. We slept the remainder of the night with a 
repeating cordite rifle, automatic and deadly, at our 
side. The next morning two of the men had their heads 
in bandages, and they rehearsed, with embellishments, 
the story of the devil's attack in the dead of night. 
Whatever interpretation is placed on this incident, it 
suggests that the consciences of men, because of super- 
stitious dread, become active at the Martial Pass. 

Next day, when we made the acquaintance of one of 
the guards at the gate, named "Old Hero Meng" after 
the greatest of Chinese philosophers, he corroborated 
my ideas about the abundance of superstitions in the 
neighborhood of the pass. Speaking about the mid- 
night excitement, he said: "Oh, yes, it was the devil. No 
man would make a noise like that. It was the devil, 
because four men saw the devil ; and anyhow, every man 



378 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

meets the devil at least once in ten days, either big or 
little voice." 

Old Hero Meng says that people offer sacrifices go- 
ing west, but he never knew anybody to offer sacrifices: 
when coming back. This information was supplemented 
when we inquired why there were no inscriptions on the 
East Gate. He replied: "Poor when they go out, and 
rich when they return, and don't think to write couplets 
on the East Gate#' This is the same story over again — 
religion when in want, but want no religion when in 
plenty 1 

Old Hero Meng's conversation was remarkably inter- 
esting. The following is the actual text of his answer 
to a question: "At the heels of the Great Man I reply/* 
(He always began that way, even when there was no 
reply.) He then said a second time: "At the heels of 
the Great Man I reply. Speaking talk about Moa Toa 
Chuen, if an empty man at the time the heaven wants to 
get bright, if an empty man goes toward the east, goes 
toward the east about the time the heavens want to get 
bright, and crosses the ford and goes toward the east, 
goes toward the east when the heaven wants to get 
bright, goes past the military camp, past the military 
camp, past the military camp, if he starts when the 
heaven wants to get bright and goes toward the east, 
toward the east, past the military camp, he will get there 
before the sun is even with the west." 

Old Hero Meng was not intoxicated. It was simply 
his style of speech 1 When we asked him why Kiayu- 
kwan was built at this particular place, he told us that 
Chin stood on the north mountain and shot an arrow^ 




Shweik'ou in November 




The Great Wall of China Photos by Dr. Geil 

The Magic Meteor, which deflected the Wall from its natural course 



lie who has seen little, manrels mach. 

with an iron bow. Where the arrow fell, the city was 
built. Where Chin stood, the bow was buried. The 
man who succeeds in finding the iron bow of Chin will 
also find a golden ox. The natives have never seen it, 
but explorers are said to look at it through a glass. 

At this exit from the fortifications were abundant 
inscriptions. Two of these deserve special attention, 
relating to the Kiangsi afi^air, and the Russians. First 
the Kiangsi afi^air as it appeals to the West. 

At the city of Nanchang in 1907 there were three sets 
of foreigners, Americans, British, and French. The 
last were Roman Catholic priests, and in accordance 
with the traditional policy of Rome, had claimed civil 
rank by virtue of their priesthood. Made priests by a 
process in which China had no share, they entered China 
by treaty right, and demanded, ew officio, to be recog- 
nized as equal to a certain grade of Chinese civil servant. 
And whereas a civil servant had powers only in his own 
district, these foreigners claimed recognition in every 
district they chose to enter or travel through. Natu- 
rally, this extraordinary privilege has created endless 
friction; what should we think of a Swedish traveler 
who had been made mayor of Gothenburg, claiming to 
exercise mayoral functions in any American town he 
visited? At Nanchang there arose some litigation and 
as it involved Roman Catholics, the priests took an ac- 
tive part. They at last invited the judge to their house, 
and nobody can tell exactly what happened, except that 
he never left it alive; it is highly improbable that they 
murdered him; it is quite in accordance with Chinese 



380 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

ways to suppose that he felt himself so insulted by some* 
thing that occurred, as to conmiit suicide. In any case 
the populace recognized a grave insult to their own high 
officer, and took the law into their own hands, burning 
the place and slajring the six French Catholic priests. 
Unhappily, too, the British family, which had been in 
no sort of way concerned in the matter, was assassi- 
nated, though the commandant then took prompt meas* 
iu*es to protect the other innocent foreigners. 

The central government of course had report on the 
matter, and one result was the withdrawal of the extra- 
ordinary rights accorded to the Roman Catholic dig- 
nitaries. Henceforth, they have no special status, but 
are simply aliens, under the protection of tiieir consuls 
and the ambassadors of their nation. Another result 
was an inquiry into the Chinese organizers of this lynch 
law, with the subsequent banishment of one culprit. 
He was exiled in this direction, and has left traces of 
his halt at the Western Tube. 

Banished by the Beneficent Emperor on account of the 
Kiangsi affair. . . . Stopping here a day . . • Tery sad 
and write. 

Body like a wandering bird ... am weeping . . . mis- 
erable to go out of the Gate. . . • My life is light like 
feathers on a bird. • . . Hills like fierce tigers. . . . My 
heart is open and bare ... I will comfort m3rself ... I 
have repented . • . hope my Emperor will recall me. 



I cannot write all I think . . . ten thousand It of desert 

• • . west, the devil's country . . . south the barbarians 

• • . next to our China, I think constantly of home, and 
write ibis sonnet. . . • My cart bumps over the dragon 



)KFIE«iiii:f«E|| 381 

Oenenilahip consists in stimtegy not in oonxage. 

sand • • . I am foolish • • • I am less than a snail in 
the well . • • I let my tears fall • • . fourth moon and 
no flowers • • • very sad ... I am come from the east 
full of tears, to this Barrier erected in ancient times. . . • 
Life and the goose are drowned in weak water. . • • Open 
your bosom to intelligence and be not obstinate. ... I am 
ashamed that a lowly official should offend the 
Emperor. . • • 



As deep rushing water the ink drops from my pen. • • • 
My tears are as the rising sea-tide. • • • Raise the wine 
but gather not men into cliques. • • • Parties arise who 
submit to the pen ; this is not strange ... I am a com- 
panion of the duck. . . . What is it that gathers in the 
home of the wealthy one, vain of hot blood? 

Guests from the west say . . . tiger • • . ancestor of 
the Russians . • . arise and will swallow. • . • What 
then? . . . 



Fourth Moon^ seventeenth day (1907) • • • 
Ancient Wild Duck. . 

Perhaps it was the last stanza here that inspired an* 
other to inscribe boldly 

BEWARE OF THE RUSSIANS 

This sajring, however^ is already obsolete. Russia has 
few terrors for Japanese or Chinese now. Before long 
Russia will have cause to build her own Wall, and mark 
on it for warning to her sentries 

BEWARE OF THE CHINESE 

Once the Great Barrier had three millions of soldiery 



382 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

behind it. Suppose these came once again to man tbe 
towers, with Maxims on the turrets, and siege guns be- 
hind the Wall. Who would dare attack? But suppose 
they march forward, who can defend? 

Six years ago the great Tuan Fang said to us, "'China 
needs before all else a new spirit/^ That spirit has 
come. There is a sentiment for the empire, there is a 
national spirit that will brook little more interference^ 
An enormous army is preparing, and great educational 
and other schemes are being revolved. Let us hope 
that not only a new spirit, but a good spirit will show 
itself. 

After these inscriptions others seem tame. 

While we were still at Kiayiikwan, the head man- 
darins of the fortress called upon us at the inn and 
presented their greetings, iu*ging us to accept an in- 
vitation to a banquet in our honor, to be held in the 
Civil Yamen. We accepted. As this was to be our 
last full meal at the western end of the Great Boun- 
dary, we requested oiu* hosts to give us a copy of 
the menu. The banquet was a "Sea Cucumber Feast" 
— ^by a happy coincidence. Chin was very fond of sea 
cucumber — ^and consisted of nineteen courses. Seeing 
that the region hereabouts is desert, it was surprising 
to be entertained with such luxury. The courses were 
as follows: 

1. Wine (refused with a statement of temperance 
principles) . 

2. Tonic wine (refused with more statements of 
American temperance principles, and the information 



Vill&«# 383 

Waiting till you are thifsty before digging your well 

that on January 1, 1909, thirty-five millions of people 
in the United States will come under prohibition) . 

8. Small appetizers (i.e., melon-seed, cabbage, salted 
eggs, antique eggs, odoriferous eggs, pork, shrimps, 
pickled carp, tasty chicken, celery). 

4. Sea cucumbers. 

5. Oil chicken. 

6. Bamboo sprouts. 

7. Lotus seeds. 

8. High Yin fish. 

9. Mushrooms. 

10. Raisin pudding (resembhng plum pudding). 

11. Chicklets. 

12. Sea grass. 

18. Pickled bean-cured pork. 

14. Rice and rice soup. 

15. Mutton. 

16. Egg-plant dishes. 

17. Meat dumplings. 

18. Pork. 

19. Soup. 

False teeth were discussed at the dinner-table and in 
reply to the question, "Are the Great Man's teeth all 
good?" I said, "Good up to the North Pole," which is 
a Chinese expression. These little personal inquiries 
liven conversation wonderfully in China 1 

It was in the yamen of the CivU Mandarin that the 
Sea Cucumber Feast was given in honor of the ex- 
plorer. In China it is the fact, as it should be all over 
the world, that the civil authority takes precedence over 



384 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

the military. '*As the intellectual acquisitions of a peo- 
ple increase, their love of war will diminish." This 
is not intended to suggest that, as long as there remain 
selfish, non-intellectual, excitable peoples, thinking men 
will not be in favor of being prepared for war. War is 
approved by some because it furnishes opportunities 
for personal distinction. With us, wealth provides such 
opportunities; with the Chinese a literary career. In 
savage Boreno no girl will marry a man until he has pro- 
cured a human head. In New Guinea are found old 
houses filled with human skulls. What does the extra- 
ordinary military spirit in Japan indicate? Simply this, 
that underneath the modem veneer the past is alive and 
powerful. Japan unconsciously reveals that barbarism 
provides her instincts. Will an awakening in China re- 
veal a similar spirit? No. For with the intellectual 
awakening will come a desire for intellectual pursuits. 
When the intellectual acquisitions are insufficient, the 
desire for war may be widespread and insistent. From 
the debasement of the savage to the lofty summit of the 
highest civilization is a distance so great that nations 
or individuals cannot take it at one jump. There are 
steps, and during the ascent it may easily be that there 
will be rumors of wars and shedding of human blood. 
China is capable of becoming again as warlike as she was 
in those days when her troops marched through the 
streets of Moscow and her generals set upon the throne 
of India the Mongols of the North. The time was 
when China ruled from the equator to the north pole, 
and from the Gulf of Bothnia to the Yellow Sea, the 
vastest and most powerful nation of human history. 



The Tear fears the fall and the moon its waning time^ 

And China to-day is the only nation on this planet cap** 
able of placing in the field an army of fifty millions 
of able-bodied men, and then still have thirty millions 
of men at home to cultivate the sofl. The yellow legions 
have in the past by their measured tread shaken the 
world; and if the compulsion comes, there will be or- 
ganized again yellow legions of such numbers, of such 
strength, and of such ingenuity as will piit to their 
wits' end the cabinets of Christendom. 

But the Chinese traditionally and actually are a peo- 
ple of literary pursuits, at least as far as their leaders 
are concerned; and it is reasonable to expect that the 
modernizing of China will be different froni lihat of 
Japan, and that this empire will throw the weight of 
her mighty infiuence on the side of peace. The power 
that built the Great Wall believed that it was better to 
\ lay stones than to throw them; that to lift a man, or 

I a province, or a nation is better than to impoverish, en- 

; thrall, or destroy them. 

i As to the speed of China's awakenings probably most 

f, of our readers have heard of the epitaph: "Here lies 

K the man who tried to hustle the East/' The question is 

i did the man try? If he did, he had a right to the reward 

ii of rest. But the likelihood is that the writer. of the 

It supposed epitaph, like many another, did not himself » 

g)t "lend a hand," and hence, not having done anything^ 

(js he does not deserve death. We should look on the 

)j^ author of the phrase as a man of immature observation, 

tiK for the merest schoolboy knows that it is possible to 

f hustle the East. Years ago men of great foresight, 

•ft 



386 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

looking beyond the horizon, saw the East getting ready 
to hustle. "Here lies the man who tried to hustle the 
£ast!" No man who is familiar with the history of 
China (which is not the East, but is at least an im- 
portant part of the East) could ever have been per- 
suaded to write such silly stuff. It is not the man under 
the tombstone who lies, but the live man who writes the 
epitaph. Look at Japan! Look at Korea I Look at 
Chinal The East hustles I 

It cannot be denied, of course, that the Chinese have 
been severely criticized for ''making haste slowly" in 
the adoption of certain modem western inventions. 
For instance, they are slow to build raihx)ads. But does 
not this downess exhibit their foresight and extraordi- 
nary wisdom? We peoples have vast sums of money 
invested in railway lines which are about to become out 
of date. Even now America is in the ridiculous situa- 
tion of being compelled to do its correspondence by 
letters. Inventions are at hand capable of telegraphing 
a thousand words a minute, but the present effete tele- 
graph systems buy up and bury the inventions. The 
inhabitants of the United States should now be able to 
telegraph their letters to any part of the country at 
the rate of five cents for one hundred words. Again, 
as invested capital is preventing advancement in cor- 
respondence, it is also preventing advancement in 
transportation. It will be almost impossible to intro- 
duce into America the non-collapsible, inter-wheel 
gyroscope trains running on a single wire at one hun- 
dred and twenty miles an hour. Raibroad bonds and 
stocks at pres^it are pajring a low rate of interest. 



Wine does not lelieve real sorrow. 

With such competition fhey would pay no interest at 
all, and be of no interest to llie public So we do not 
get gyroscope trains. 

Let us look further. We laugh at the Chinese for 
retaining their complicated ideographs, and prophesy 
that the nation continuing to employ such complicated 
characters will find it difficult to provide popular edu- 
cation. We point out, quite truly, that Chinese is a 
language without an alphabet, and that its unlikeness 
to any other language is a proof of the extreme isola- 
tion of the nation speaking it; and isolation such as 
this we look upon as sheer obstinate stupidity. But let 
us turn our eyes homeward, and what do we see? Do 
we not find ourselves stiU using an out-of-date and 
ridiculous alphabet? These twenty-six letters are re- 
tarding one generation after another* In the South 
Seas there is a group of islands where live the descend- 
ants of cannibals who are more progressive in this mat- 
ter than ourselves. Is it not passing strange that the 
inventive genius of the age has not been applied to pro- 
vide half the planet's population with something better 
than our twenty-six letters? Why should not we uni- 
versally use a perfected system of stenography? 

These are simply suggestions pointing to the possi- 
bility that at some near date China, untrammeled by 
vast investments in out-of-date trunk lines, telegraph 
lines, and prejudice, will become the most modem of 
all modem peoples. Our rails wiU be useless. Our 
wires are becoming useless now. The Chinese, having 
few of either, will be free to adopt, instead of both, the 



388 THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA 

latest expression of the inventive skill and genius of 
this age. 

Out of Asia came the Light which has made western 
progress possible, and we may expect that out of Asia 
will come a race making further progress possible. 

China has held back from Christianity for a long 
time. It tried the Sjrrian variety, and after long exper- 
imenting engulfed it; it made brief trial of the Fran- 
ciscan variety, and rejected it. It cautiously tested 
the Jesuit variety and expelled the foreigners. But now 
it welcomes the exponents of more primitive Christian- 
ity, and is rapidly absorbing thousands of Testaments. 
Perhaps hereto China wiU suddenly startle the West by 
awakening from her long lethargy, and rapidly assimi- 
lating what indeed is indigenous to her own continent. 
The Chinese hare started well, but has long lain 
asleep, while the European tortoise plodded on. The 
tortoise has lately succeeded in treading on the hare's 
tail and awakening her. The hare is rubbing her eyes 
and getting her bearings. Will she now start on with a 
speed marvelous in our eyes, and soon distance us with 
our stereotyped rate of progress? How many Christians 
are added to the chiu-ches every year in Europe and 
America? Does the increase compare with the increase 
in the Central Kingdom? We look with all hopefulness 
to a startling advance, to a rapid appreciation of the 
message of Christ; and our only concern is that this 
message shall be adequately presented to the people 
whose attention is now aroused, and who are on the 
alert for every guide to deeper and better knowledge. 
Heaven bless the faithful men and women who by teach- 
ing and life are commending the gospel they profess! 



INDEX 






iDormally large men, 199. 
Actual termination of the Wall, Si:9. 
Agencies of fordgners, ISO. 
Alexander of Maeedon, 194. 
Andcnt irrigating scheme^ 181. 
Ancient village oi Chen, SQ9. 
Antelopes by the score, 113. 
Appendix to the seal characters, 340. 
Are the Chinese bloody? 73. 
Arrival at Yokohama, 10. 
Arrival in Lanchow, 976. 
Ass-Headed Heir Apparent, 994. 
Attempt to find secret door, 190. 

Beacon fires, 990. 

Beautiful mountain view, 899. 

Bed rock mostly sandstone^ 119. 

Beginning of Journey, 7. 

Bevy of dancing girls, 991. 

Beyond the Barrier— Tartar forays, 

306. 
Biography of a grain of sand, 179. 
Block printing of ancient use in 

China, 175. 
Bokhara and Samarcand, 100. 
Book of the Blue Bag, 00. 
Bread precious as printed paper, 353. 
Brickwork in towers designed and 

finished first, 95. 
British family assassinated, 880. 
Borderland oi Tibet, 391. 

Camel's Hair mountain, 913. 

Canal connecting the northern capital 
with Kanldng, Hangchow, and Can- 
ton, 965. 

Cannon of hard and soft copper, 99. 

-Cap of the West," the, 13. 



Caravan entered l>ad lands, 187. 

Celestials' queer prescriptions, 149. 

Cemetery at Yung Lo, 70. 

Ch*achnen Kow, 85. 

China Inland Mission, 330. 

China needs a new spirit, 389. 

Ch iMi on Japanese-Chinese stamps, 
99. 

Chinese barber carries a pole, 956; 
they dearly love a gamble 40 1 
scholars deciphering and translat- 
ing, 337; steq>ed in charms and 
good luck, 944. 

Chin Huang Ti's travels, 139. 

Chin's ancient tomb, 98; his big 
bludgeon, 77; his book-burning, 
909; his great feast, 903; his Mound 
and Tomb, 909; his philippic 
against scholars, 904; his realm, 
196; his wives and concubines 
buried alive in the mound, 999; 
maker of the vastest empire of 
mortals, 193. 

Chin Shih Huang, 31. 

Chinwangtao, 13. 

Christian missionaries In China, 319. 

Christians' temperance organisation, 
147. 

City oi Linfung, 913. 

Civilisation and thievery adjoin, 900. 

Cliff of Self-devotion, the, 919. 

Complicated ideographs, 387. 

Confucian temple, the, 399. 

Confucius, 988-999. t-*i*-^ 

Criminals of Shanghai, 977. 

Culture slight in early years, 307. 

"Cycle of Cathay," 196. 

Csar Peter, 130. 



389 



390 



INDEX 



Death of ChrlstUmt at Flowerings 

. Obedience^ SO. 
1/ Defense of tiie Great Wall, 96; fully 
^ developed, 101. 

Design to Tisit CUndiov, »4. 

Determination to tboroaglily Inspect 
Wall, 8. 

Developing a Panama canal, S. 
h/Diffleulty of obtaining information, 
^ 8M. 

DIstarbance at midnight, 376. 

Doomsday book, a, 107. 

Dust and dirt everywhere^ 845. 

Dynasties, the, 107-190. 



'East end of Wall bdow sea level, 37. 
Eastern mansolea, 74. 
Eastern Tombs, 44w 
Eastern Y, 00. 
Eclipse of the sun, the, 88. 

Failure of Amherst embassy, 30. 
Fair side of the desert, the, 144. 
Family jars notorious, 166. 
Famous Sian, 013. 
First use of the seal, 05. 
Four great roads, 50. 
Four tablets, the, 80. 



core, 848; it separates two epochs, 
two lands, two races, 4. 
Greek Influence did not touch CUna. 
65. ^^ 

Groop of fifteen lamas, SOa 



Han emperor's tomb^ 010. 

Height of the mound, 010. 

Haunted by WaU on shipboard, a 

Herds of yak, 300. 

Hienyang^ 00. 

Hiero and ArcUmedea, 60. 

Hideous idols on the HoriioDtal 

Ridges 33. 
History in retrospect, 100. 
Horrors of the desert, 14a 
"Horse candy," 006. 
"House of the Lucky Star," 46. 
J^ow the railroad got through the 
Wall at Shanhaikwan, 35. 
Humble homes, 84. 
Hwang bo, 065. 
Hwang ho river, the, 105. 

Ignorant of the camera, 118. 
Imperial burial reserve 74. 
Imperial tombs, 030. 
Inn of Increasing Righteousness, 370. 
Inscription on monument at Ta Pa 

Yhig^ 180. 
Inscriptions on stone, 333. 
Insects plentiful, 114. 
Introduction of Buddhism, 311. 



Garrisons behind the Wall, 06. 
\Genghis investigated Cathay, 16a 
^4venghis Khan, 157. 

Golden Granary, th^ 030. 

Good stories, 355. 

Granite walls on a Devon moor, 041. 

Grasses and flowering plants on 
Mound, 010. 

Grave in the Great Wall, 078. 

Graveyard of the Mings, 74. 

Great flood fai reign of Yao, 086. 

Great northwest road, 075. 

Greatest literary marvel In world's 
history, 070. ^ ^ 

Great WaU built by an endless race^i Landscape of the loess, 095. 
098; it exhibits now only the loess I Large auditorium, 04. 



v/< 



V' 



Journey into Tibet, 317. 
Journey to Chinan, 096. 

Kanchow originally beside the Great 

Boundary, 344. 
Kupeikow ancient northern pass, 87. 

Lairs of fox or wolf, 010. 

Landhig at Far Eastern Coast, 10. 



INDEX 



391 



Large natural moimd tiie grave of 

Xhung t^ung, 0S. 

^/^^gendaiy lore, 357. 

^/Mgend of the Foontalii of Toufh, 

l». 

Letterless Mountain* S& 

Ugfat of Asia, 988. 

Ufy Pool, the, 40. 

Lone lady of Kin|^ 16A. 

Longest cemetery on earth, T9. 

Long rampart, 190. 

Loops or hiTerted bows of Cfareat 
Wall, 176. 

Lost Y, the, 48. 

Llnt^nng poltee patnd, 990. 

Lucky public inn, 18S. 

Magnificent palace, a, 198. 

Many chiefs fought for powert 909. 

MarteUo towers, 979. 

Marvelous work of man, 51. 
^/if arrekniB sight by moonli^it, 4i8. 

Martial Barrier of all, 364. 
\/lfassiTe architecture in the west, 66. 

Masterpieces of early printers, 885. 

Mateo Riod's offer, 91. 

Medieval period from the dynasty 
of Chin, 306. 

Melons and onions, 353. 

Mendus, 999. 

Men copying inscriptions, 375. 

Merchants come this way, 369. 

MiliUry efficiency of Wall, 104. 

Millions of frogs, 177. 

Modems still quarry in the ruins of 

/ Imperial City, 309. 
l/Moon legend, 178. 

Moscow the last outpost of Civili- 
sation, 159. 

Mounds of sand, 106. 

Mount of Imperial Longevity, 70. 

Movements of Nations, 374. 

Mud-made cairn a worship house, 47. 

Mule-Horse gate, 41. 

Multitudinous legends, 194. 

Mutinous tribes near Yenisei, 169. 



Natural tower, TB. 
Near the end of Journey, 86a 
New bridge at Golden Hill, 989. 
••Nfaie by threes dly, the, 954. 
''Nhieteenth Ceataiy," quoted, 971. 
No sky-^Mpers, no trama, 18a 
Nothing daunted Ghfa^ 901. 
Numbers of men buried in Great 
Wall, 304. 

Old and new side by Md^ 989. 
••Omar Khiyyte,* 160. ^ 
One church of KanthOw, the^ 3411. 
One of the sacred spots of earthy TSL 
Ordinary ChfaMman cannot wIdstH 

933. 
Outer Wall 99. c^ 

Painting on sllk--di0eard stylo fbr 

brush, 907. 
Panhandle of CMna, 94M60. 
Part of the Wall fanmortal 5a 
Pavilion of Literatnte, 88. 
Peculiar script adopted for Chin^ 

tablet, 994. 
Peking^ 44w 

Peking constructed by Yung Lo^ 963. 
Pen or brush invented by a Chinese 

seedier, 94. 
Period of Tani^-empire reunited, 

313. 
Personal inquiries liven conversation, 

383. 
Picturesque pass, a, 83. 
PUins of Mongolia, 984. 
Plateau intersected by numerous 

canyons, 108. 
PluUrch, 64. 
Present city an agglomeration of five; 

303. 

Priest clahning to be Inspired, 1^7. 
Prospect Hill, 99. 
Protecting the gates of the capital, 

103. 

Quick stream a wild tempestuous 
rush. 111. 



392 



INDEX 



"Rain of grain," M9. 

Ravines and lieiglits, 84. 

Re-embarking on Paicifi[<^ 11. 

Rhubarb as a drug, 359. 

Relation of Pinio, 5. 

Relations between Tartar and Chinese, 

300. 
Reviyal of Art, 80". 
Riyers of purest walber called ''quiclc- 

silver," 98. 
Roman Catholic missioii at iMog- 

chowfu, 950. 
Ruins reach over 9,500 miles, 373. 

Sacrificing on the tombs, 939. 
Sage brush among the sand hills, 113. 
Scenery wonderfully beautiful, 89. 
Sea of sUrs, 107. 
Secret of burning the Confucian 

classics, 137. 
Shan Yang, 139. 
Shanhaikwan and Tsunhwa, 49. 
Seven wonders, 55-^. 
Sheffield, Dr., missionary, 338. 
SUh Huang Tt, the first emperor, 19. 
Ship starting on long run, 7. 
Shui K'ow, 79. 
Sian entered, 991. 
SQver opens doors, 957. 
Sining a dty of temples, 397$ its 

granaries, 398. 
She chancellors, the, 195, 131. 
Snakes, two kinds of, 114. 
Sorcery and witchcraft, 990. 
Speed of China's awakening, 385. 
Stupendous prevailed, the, #}. 
Sues wall, 94. 
Sung dynasty, the, 314. 
"Sunset Route." 11. 
"Sweet Galflee,** Mrcst sea in the 

world, 391. 

Tablets on wall at Pdi Shih KSiw, 77. 

T'ai Shan or Sacred Mountain of 

Oiina, 95. 



Tale of gold in the Great Wall. 969. 
Tartar forays b^ond the Barrier, 

308. 
Tartars strike terror, 173. 
Temple of Human Origin, 919; of 

the Serpent's Egg^ 991. 
Temples of this famous Mecca, 95. 
Temples, shrines, and idols, 981. 
Terrible droughts, 950. 
Text-books of Confucius, 901. 
"Hie Only First," 91. 
Third dynasty, the, 980. 
Thirteen tombs, 60. 
Tliirteen Tombs or Imperial Ming 

Reservation, 43. 
"Thistie Ravine," 46. 
Tliree Jutments of Wall toward 

YeUow River, 148. 
Three Kings' temples, the, 914. 
Tibetan sable furs, 399. 
Tibetans deeply religions, 394. 
Time when China ruled from equator 

to north pole, 384. 
Toils from countless thousands, . 901. 
Tomb of Lung Ch'ing, 85. 
Town of Shanghaikwan, 34. 
Town Sebastopolised, 179. 
Trying the Chinese language^ S. 
Twelve good resolutions, 89. 
Twelve mighty images, 99. 
Two tlionsand walled cities, 145. 
Two picturesque pagodas, 349. 
Two villages of the Ch'en dan, 916. 
Tunnel and portal, 979. 
Tunnel of West Gate has many 

verses, 366. 
Tyrant of Ch*in, 14. 

Valley of Rod Peppers, 907. 
Valuable minerals abound at Great 

Barrier, 974. 
Valuable monument near Wei River, 

999. 
Vengeance wreaked on foreign city, 

966. 



INDEX 



393 



WaU and the Cross, the, 6. 

Wall meant as rampart, 287; one 
vast dragon, 351 ; more than employ- 
ment — a honndary, 935; runs from 
deep sea to desert, 361; separates 
two lands, two races, 5; takes a 
turn at Liangdiowfu, 254; under- 
taken simply to employ men? 234. 

Wall's numerous pinnacles, the, 81. 

Water-worn stone, 2W. 

Wave of architectural ideas, 64. 

Wen Pao*8 investigatian, 336. 

Western cemetery, 74. 

Western Gate the last on^ 361. 



White Ug^ithouse, seaichiigfat and 

temple to literature, 88. 
White meteor, the, 276. 
Wmiam the Norman, 195. 
Writings on the inn walls, 368. 
Wutai Shan, the, 75. 

Yellow pigmies, 115. 
Yellow River at Lancliow, the, 
Yellow Sea, the, 108. 
Younghusband expedition, the, 
Yung Ijo^s policy, 269. 
Yung Lo's sepulcher, 270. 
Ytt, the great engineer, 287. 

Zoological and botanical gardens, 54. 



283. 



iMiii 



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